• Exploration of Immunology

    eISSN: 2768-6655
    EiC: Dominique J. Charron, MD, PhD
    Adjunct-EiC: Reem Al-Daccak, PhD
    Frequency: Bimonthly
    APC: No Article Processing Charge
    Publishing Model: Open Access
    Peer Review Model: Single Blind
    Permanent Archive: Portico
    Indexing & Archiving: DOAJ, CAS, CNKI, J-Gate, Dimensions, ResearchGate, etc.
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    Articles
    Open Access
    Review
    Immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccines
    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a major public health concern causing devastating sociological, economic, and psychological damage to livelihood all over the world. The most intense [...] Read more.
    Basista Rabina Sharma, P. Veeranna Ravindra
    Published: September 21, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:648–664
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00074
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:105
    Download:7
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Chemokines and nanomaterials: interaction for useful immune-applications
    Chemokines are homeostatic or inflammatory small proteins regulating immune cell migration and are structurally characterized by cysteine disulfide bridges. Around 50 human chemokines binding almost [...] Read more.
    Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: August 31, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:637–647
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00073
    This article belongs to the special issue Nanomaterials interaction with chemokines: perspectives for applied immunology
    View:214
    Download:38
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    A non-redundant role of complement protein C1q in normal and adverse pregnancy
    Complement component 1q (C1q) is the recognition molecule of the classical pathway of the complement system that can bind to an array of closely spaced antigen-bound immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM a [...] Read more.
    Chiara Agostinis ... Roberta Bulla
    Published: August 31, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:622–636
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00072
    This article belongs to the special issue Human Reproduction: Involvement of the Immune System
    View:155
    Download:22
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Vaccine induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia: development and reactivity of anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies and immune pathogenic mechanisms
    In ultrarare cases, patients vaccinated with DNA adenovirus vector vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), develop a vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocy [...] Read more.
    Jean Amiral ... Gwenaëlle Renaud
    Published: August 31, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:604–621
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00071
    View:173
    Download:12
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Understanding sepsis-induced immunosuppression and organ dysfunctions: from immunosuppression to immunotherapy
    Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by dysregulated host immune response to infection, leading to persistent inflammation followed by immunosuppression. Sepsis represents a substantial glo [...] Read more.
    Dablu Lal Gupta ... D. N. Rao
    Published: August 29, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:589–603
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00070
    This article belongs to the special issue The‌ ‌Sepsis‌ ‌induced‌ ‌Immune‌ ‌Conundrum
    View:244
    Download:17
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Perspective
    The human microbiome and the tumor microenvironment
    The human microbiome has emerged as an intriguing field of scientific research. Its role in human physiology impacts both health and disease, contributing to the enhancement or impairment of metabol [...] Read more.
    Joseph F. Murphy
    Published: August 29, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:581–588
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00069
    This article belongs to the special issue New insights in cancer immunology: the role of microbiota from immunosurveillance to immunotherapy
    View:300
    Download:28
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    The role of interleukin-24 in atopic dermatitis
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by skin barrier disruption, type 2 immune dysregulation, chronic pruritus, and abnormal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Tapinarof, an aryl  [...] Read more.
    Yen Hai Vu ... Gaku Tsuji
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:4–15
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00002
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:3305
    Download:144
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Viral vector-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2
    Viral vectors have been frequently applied for vaccine development. It has also been the case for vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to tackle the coronavi [...] Read more.
    Kenneth Lundstrom
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:295–308
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00020
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:2475
    Download:70
    Open Access
    Editorial
    Exploration of Immunology: challenging knowledge, developing curiosity and transforming passion into discovery
    Dominique J Charron, Reem Al-Daccak
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:1–3
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00001
    View:2323
    Download:62
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Immunology of biodegradable nanoparticles: a brief overview on a wide growing field
    Immunity is continuously evolving by evolutionary mechanisms shaped by pathogenic stimuli of different kinds. Man-made nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed in the last decades and represent a nov [...] Read more.
    Anissa Pisani, Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:48–60
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00006
    View:2181
    Download:96
    Open Access
    Review
    Immune responses induced by different vaccine platforms against coronavirus disease-19
    There have been significant developments in the design of nanostructured scaffolds for eliciting robust immune responses named vaccine. The technique is to produce strong immune responses is to mani [...] Read more.
    Eknath D. Ahire, Sanjay J. Kshirsagar
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:243–257
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00016
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:1703
    Download:74
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Interleukin-22 and keratinocytes; pathogenic implications in skin inflammation
    Interleukin (IL)-22 is produced from immune cells such as T helper (Th)22 cells, Th17/22 cells, and group 3 innate lymphoid cells. IL-22 signals via the IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and the IL-10 rece [...] Read more.
    Masutaka Furue, Mihoko Furue
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:37–47
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00005
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:1667
    Download:75
    Open Access
    Review
    The role of interleukin-24 in atopic dermatitis
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by skin barrier disruption, type 2 immune dysregulation, chronic pruritus, and abnormal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Tapinarof, an aryl  [...] Read more.
    Yen Hai Vu ... Gaku Tsuji
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:4–15
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00002
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:3305
    Download:144
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Immunology of biodegradable nanoparticles: a brief overview on a wide growing field
    Immunity is continuously evolving by evolutionary mechanisms shaped by pathogenic stimuli of different kinds. Man-made nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed in the last decades and represent a nov [...] Read more.
    Anissa Pisani, Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:48–60
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00006
    View:2181
    Download:96
    Open Access
    Review
    Skin and immune cells crosstalk via circadian regulations
    Both innate and adaptive immune cells exist in the skin, predominantly in the dermis layer. Recent studies have focused on how and which circadian rhythms contribute to maintain good health. Over re [...] Read more.
    Kanami Orihara
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:285–294
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00019
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    Open Access
    Review
    Interleukin-22 and keratinocytes; pathogenic implications in skin inflammation
    Interleukin (IL)-22 is produced from immune cells such as T helper (Th)22 cells, Th17/22 cells, and group 3 innate lymphoid cells. IL-22 signals via the IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and the IL-10 rece [...] Read more.
    Masutaka Furue, Mihoko Furue
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:37–47
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00005
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:1667
    Download:75
    Open Access
    Review
    Immune responses induced by different vaccine platforms against coronavirus disease-19
    There have been significant developments in the design of nanostructured scaffolds for eliciting robust immune responses named vaccine. The technique is to produce strong immune responses is to mani [...] Read more.
    Eknath D. Ahire, Sanjay J. Kshirsagar
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:243–257
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00016
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:1703
    Download:74
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Viral vector-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2
    Viral vectors have been frequently applied for vaccine development. It has also been the case for vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to tackle the coronavi [...] Read more.
    Kenneth Lundstrom
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:295–308
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00020
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:2475
    Download:70
    Open Access
    Review
    The protective immunity induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination: a critical appraisal
    Understanding the interactions of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) with humans is deeply grounded in immunology, from the diagnosis to pathogenesis, from the clinical pre [...] Read more.
    Eduardo Tosta
    Published: August 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:199–225
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00014
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:1197
    Download:43
    Open Access
    Review
    Interplay between mesenchymal stromal cells and immune system: clinical applications in immune-related diseases
    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a mesodermal stem cell population, with known self-renewal and multilineage differentiation properties. In the last century, MSCs have been widely used in regene [...] Read more.
    Panagiotis Mallis ... Catherine Stavropoulos Giokas
    Published: June 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:112–139
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00010
    View:1618
    Download:44
    Open Access
    Review
    Immunology of biodegradable nanoparticles: a brief overview on a wide growing field
    Immunity is continuously evolving by evolutionary mechanisms shaped by pathogenic stimuli of different kinds. Man-made nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed in the last decades and represent a nov [...] Read more.
    Anissa Pisani, Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:48–60
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00006
    View:2181
    Download:96
    Open Access
    Review
    High avidity of vaccine-induced immunoglobulin G against SARS-CoV-2: potential relevance for protective humoral immunity
    Avidity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is defined as its binding strength to its target antigen. As a consequence of affinity maturation of the IgG response, avidity is maturing as well. Therefore, acute [...] Read more.
    Georg Bauer
    Published: March 16, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:133–156
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00040
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    Open Access
    Review
    Crosstalk between keratinocytes and immune cells in inflammatory skin diseases
    Cutaneous homeostasis is maintained by dynamic cellular communications between different cell types in the skin through interactions with various mediators, including cytokines, chemokines and antim [...] Read more.
    Xinhui Ni, Yuping Lai
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:418–431
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00028
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    Open Access
    Review
    Immune titers of protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: are we there yet?
    A few pieces of research exist about the protective titer against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (CoV-2; SARS-CoV-2) in monkeys and humans in which the protection could be sh [...] Read more.
    Yoanna Slabakova ... Tsvetelina Velikova
    Published: February 11, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:9–24
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00033
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    Special Issues