Fragment crystallizable (Fc) glycans modulate Fc conformations and functions, and glycan may also regulate antigen recognition. In the antibody drug development, glycosylation patterns affect antibody drug characteristics and quality control. In order to provide a global feature of N-glycan interactions in response to antigen and Fc receptor bindings, the interactions among Fc N-glycans and N-glycans’ interaction with Fc CH2 and CH3 domains have been studied.
Molecular dynamics simulations were used to generate conformation ensembles of free antibody, antibody-antigen complex, antibody-human Fc-gamma-receptor-I (hFcγRI) and antibody-antigen-hFcγRI, the hydrogen bonds and radial distance distribution involving N-glycans carbohydrate chains have been analyzed.
Two important interaction patterns have been observed. The first is the strong but non-specific interactions between two carbohydrate chains in free antibody. Secondly, it has been found that N-glycans carbohydrate chains can directly interact with CH3 domain in free antibody, and that the distance distribution between carbohydrate chains and CH3 domain clearly differentiate the free antibody, antibody-antigen complex, antibody-hFcγRI complex, and final antibody-antigen-hFcγRI complex.
N-glycans partially acts as allosteric sensor and respond to antigen and hFcγRI binding.
The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019, a global pandemic. There is hence an urgent need for effective approaches to understand the mechanism of viral interaction with immune cells that lead to viral elimination and subsequent long-term immunity. The first, immediate response to the viral infection involves mobilization of native immunity and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I mechanisms to kill infected cells and eliminate the virus. The second line of defense involves the activation of HLA class II system for the production of antibodies against the virus which will add to the elimination of the virus and prevent future infections. In a previous study, investigated the relations between SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S protein) and HLA class II alleles were investigaed; here report on the relations of the S protein and the open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab) of SARS-CoV-2 to HLA class I alleles.
An in silico sliding window approach was used to determine exhaustively the binding affinities of linear epitopes of 10 amino acid length (10-mers) to each of 61 common (global frequency ≥ 0.01) HLA class I molecules (17, 24 and 20 from gene loci A, B and C, respectively). A total of 8,354 epitopes were analyzed; 1,263 from the S protein and 7,091 from ORF1ab.
HLA-A genes were the most effective at binding SARS-CoV-2 epitopes for both spike and ORF1ab proteins. Good binding affinities were found for all three genes and were distributed throughout the length of the S protein and ORF1ab polyprotein sequence.
Common HLA class I molecules, as a population, are very well suited to binding with high affinity to SARS-CoV-2 spike and ORF1ab proteins and hence should be effective in aiding the early elimination of the virus.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by skin barrier disruption, type 2 immune dysregulation, chronic pruritus, and abnormal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Tapinarof, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulator, has been demonstrated to attenuate the development of AD in clinical studies. Recently, we found that tapinarof upregulated the expression of filaggrin and loricrin, which are essential proteins in skin barrier functions. Paradoxically, tapinarof induced interleukin (IL)-24 secretion by normal human keratinocytes. IL-24 is produced by T helper 2 lymphocytes and keratinocytes following stimulation by type 2 cytokines, and IL-24 is upregulated in the skin of patients with AD. Furthermore, IL-24 contributes to skin barrier disruption and hyperplasia in AD, and it may exacerbate skin inflammatory responses, itch, and S. aureus infection. In this review, we summarized the current findings regarding the detrimental role of IL-24 in AD, thereby suggesting that co-treatment of tapinarof with therapeutics that block IL-24 signaling may represent a promising strategy for managing AD.
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