• Exploration of Immunology

    eISSN: 2768-6655
    EiC: Dominique J. Charron, MD, PhD
    Adjunct-EiC: Reem Al-Daccak, PhD
    Frequency: Bimonthly
    APC: No Article Processing Charge before 31 March, 2026
    Publishing Model: Open Access
    Peer Review Model: Single Blind
    Permanent Archive: Portico
    Indexing & Archiving: Scopus, Google Scholar, DOAJ, CAS, etc.
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    Articles
    Open Access
    Review
    Periodontitis and lipopolysaccharides: How far have we understood?
    Periodontitis is a ubiquitous chronic inflammatory worldwide disease. The multiplicity of gram-negative microbiomes and their endotoxins, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), play a crucial role in it [...] Read more.
    Spoorthi Ravi Banavar ... Suan Phaik Khoo
    Published: February 29, 2024 Explor Immunol. 2024;4:129–151
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2024.00133
    This article belongs to the special issue Immunoregulatory Function of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Tissue Repair and Regeneration
    View:51
    Download:9
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Original Article
    Myelitis associated with COVID-19: clinical, radiological, and laboratory characteristics
    Aim: The current study aimed to describe various types of myelitis associated with a novel coronavirus infection [coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)] as well as to analyze cytokine profiles and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameter [...] Read more.
    Aleksandra Kozlova ... Maria Zakharova
    Published: February 29, 2024 Explor Immunol. 2024;4:115–128
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2024.00132
    This article belongs to the special issue Chronic Inflammation and Autoimmunity
    View:76
    Download:7
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Mini Review
    Immune cell dynamics in male reproductive health: orchestrating immune privilege and inflammatory responses
    Epididymitis or epididymo-orchitis is a common urological condition in males characterized by scrotal pain, swelling, and potential urinary symptoms. Although antibiotics can eliminate the causative [...] Read more.
    Yiming Zhang ... Ming Wang
    Published: February 28, 2024 Explor Immunol. 2024;4:106–114
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2024.00131
    This article belongs to the special issue Immunobiology and Inflammation in the Male Reproductive System
    View:81
    Download:5
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Nutritional effects on mucosal integrity and immune function
    The intestinal mucosal barrier plays a critical role in maintaining the integrity of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and protecting the body from harmful toxins and pathogens. Nutrition additionally [...] Read more.
    Lindsey B. Cundra ... David A. Johnson
    Published: February 28, 2024 Explor Immunol. 2024;4:90–105
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2024.00130
    This article belongs to the special issue Mucosal Immune Cells - Border Protection or Entrance Gate?
    View:79
    Download:3
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Decoding the impact of autoinflammatory/autoimmune diseases on inner ear harmony and hearing loss
    Autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases affecting the inner ear can cause symptoms such as hearing loss, imbalance, vertigo, and tinnitus, presenting demanding and often underdiagnosed conditions.  [...] Read more.
    Michail Athanasopoulos ... Ioannis Athanasopoulos
    Published: February 22, 2024 Explor Immunol. 2024;4:73–89
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2024.00129
    This article belongs to the special issue Cell Biology and Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases
    View:138
    Download:10
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    The mammary gland is intolerant to bacterial intrusion
    Mammals depend on the secretion of milk to rear their offspring, which exposes the organ in charge of the function, the mammary gland (MG), to bacterial threat. The essential driving force that cond [...] Read more.
    Pascal Rainard
    Published: February 06, 2024 Explor Immunol. 2024;4:59–72
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2024.00128
    View:180
    Download:18
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    COVID-19 vaccine and immune response
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; βCoV), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), causes severe lower respiratory tract infections and acute  [...] Read more.
    Sevilay Hintistan, Hatice Demirağ
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:341–355
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00023
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:14225
    Download:45
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    The role of interleukin-24 in atopic dermatitis
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by skin barrier disruption, type 2 immune dysregulation, chronic pruritus, and abnormal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Tapinarof, an aryl  [...] Read more.
    Yen Hai Vu ... Gaku Tsuji
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:4–15
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00002
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:5342
    Download:196
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Immune responses induced by different vaccine platforms against coronavirus disease-19
    There have been significant developments in the design of nanostructured scaffolds for eliciting robust immune responses named vaccine. The technique is to produce strong immune responses is to mani [...] Read more.
    Eknath D. Ahire, Sanjay J. Kshirsagar
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:243–257
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00016
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:3821
    Download:123
    Open Access
    Review
    Immunology of biodegradable nanoparticles: a brief overview on a wide growing field
    Immunity is continuously evolving by evolutionary mechanisms shaped by pathogenic stimuli of different kinds. Man-made nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed in the last decades and represent a nov [...] Read more.
    Anissa Pisani, Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:48–60
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00006
    View:3746
    Download:220
    Open Access
    Review
    Viral vector-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2
    Viral vectors have been frequently applied for vaccine development. It has also been the case for vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to tackle the coronavi [...] Read more.
    Kenneth Lundstrom
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:295–308
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00020
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:3551
    Download:91
    Open Access
    Review
    Interplay between mesenchymal stromal cells and immune system: clinical applications in immune-related diseases
    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a mesodermal stem cell population, with known self-renewal and multilineage differentiation properties. In the last century, MSCs have been widely used in regene [...] Read more.
    Panagiotis Mallis ... Catherine Stavropoulos Giokas
    Published: June 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:112–139
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00010
    View:3536
    Download:78
    Open Access
    Review
    Immunology of biodegradable nanoparticles: a brief overview on a wide growing field
    Immunity is continuously evolving by evolutionary mechanisms shaped by pathogenic stimuli of different kinds. Man-made nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed in the last decades and represent a nov [...] Read more.
    Anissa Pisani, Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:48–60
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00006
    View:3746
    Download:220
    Open Access
    Review
    The role of interleukin-24 in atopic dermatitis
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by skin barrier disruption, type 2 immune dysregulation, chronic pruritus, and abnormal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Tapinarof, an aryl  [...] Read more.
    Yen Hai Vu ... Gaku Tsuji
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:4–15
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00002
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:5342
    Download:196
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Chemokines and nanomaterials: interaction for useful immune-applications
    Chemokines are homeostatic or inflammatory small proteins regulating immune cell migration and are structurally characterized by cysteine disulfide bridges. Around 50 human chemokines binding almost [...] Read more.
    Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: August 31, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:637–647
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00073
    This article belongs to the special issue Nanomaterials interaction with chemokines: perspectives for applied immunology
    View:1517
    Download:175
    Open Access
    Review
    Crosstalk between keratinocytes and immune cells in inflammatory skin diseases
    Cutaneous homeostasis is maintained by dynamic cellular communications between different cell types in the skin through interactions with various mediators, including cytokines, chemokines and antim [...] Read more.
    Xinhui Ni, Yuping Lai
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:418–431
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00028
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:2128
    Download:141
    Open Access
    Review
    Immune responses induced by different vaccine platforms against coronavirus disease-19
    There have been significant developments in the design of nanostructured scaffolds for eliciting robust immune responses named vaccine. The technique is to produce strong immune responses is to mani [...] Read more.
    Eknath D. Ahire, Sanjay J. Kshirsagar
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:243–257
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00016
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:3821
    Download:123
    Open Access
    Review
    Interleukin-22 and keratinocytes; pathogenic implications in skin inflammation
    Interleukin (IL)-22 is produced from immune cells such as T helper (Th)22 cells, Th17/22 cells, and group 3 innate lymphoid cells. IL-22 signals via the IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and the IL-10 rece [...] Read more.
    Masutaka Furue, Mihoko Furue
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:37–47
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00005
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:2871
    Download:122
    Open Access
    Review
    Allogeneic gamma delta T cells as adoptive cellular therapy for hematologic malignancies
    Cancer immunotherapy, especially T-cell driven targeting, has significantly evolved and improved over the past decade, paving the way to treat previously refractory cancers. Hematologic malignancies [...] Read more.
    Navdeep Jhita, Sunil S. Raikar
    Published: June 07, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:334–350
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00054
    This article belongs to the special issue Interplay of γδ T cells and Tumor Cells
    Open Access
    Review
    Crosstalk between keratinocytes and immune cells in inflammatory skin diseases
    Cutaneous homeostasis is maintained by dynamic cellular communications between different cell types in the skin through interactions with various mediators, including cytokines, chemokines and antim [...] Read more.
    Xinhui Ni, Yuping Lai
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:418–431
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00028
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:2128
    Download:141
    Open Access
    Review
    High avidity of vaccine-induced immunoglobulin G against SARS-CoV-2: potential relevance for protective humoral immunity
    Avidity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is defined as its binding strength to its target antigen. As a consequence of affinity maturation of the IgG response, avidity is maturing as well. Therefore, acute [...] Read more.
    Georg Bauer
    Published: March 16, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:133–156
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00040
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:2114
    Download:61
    Open Access
    Review
    Immunology of biodegradable nanoparticles: a brief overview on a wide growing field
    Immunity is continuously evolving by evolutionary mechanisms shaped by pathogenic stimuli of different kinds. Man-made nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed in the last decades and represent a nov [...] Read more.
    Anissa Pisani, Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:48–60
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00006
    View:3746
    Download:220
    Open Access
    Review
    Interplay between mesenchymal stromal cells and immune system: clinical applications in immune-related diseases
    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a mesodermal stem cell population, with known self-renewal and multilineage differentiation properties. In the last century, MSCs have been widely used in regene [...] Read more.
    Panagiotis Mallis ... Catherine Stavropoulos Giokas
    Published: June 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:112–139
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00010
    View:3536
    Download:78
    Open Access
    Review
    The protective immunity induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination: a critical appraisal
    Understanding the interactions of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) with humans is deeply grounded in immunology, from the diagnosis to pathogenesis, from the clinical pre [...] Read more.
    Eduardo Tosta
    Published: August 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:199–225
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00014
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:2438
    Download:57
    Special Issues