• Exploration of Immunology

    eISSN: 2768-6655
    EiC: Dominique J. Charron, MD, PhD
    Adjunct-EiC: Reem Al-Daccak, PhD
    Frequency: Bimonthly
    APC: No Article Processing Charge before 31 March, 2026
    Publishing Model: Open Access
    Peer Review Model: Single Blind
    Permanent Archive: Portico
    Indexing & Archiving: Scopus, Google Scholar, DOAJ, CAS, etc.
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    Articles
    Open Access
    Review
    Rheumatoid arthritis: a complex tale of autoimmune hypersensitivity
    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex autoimmune disorder characterized by a spectrum of hypersensitivity reactions, encompassing Type II, Type III, and Type IV responses. Firstly, RA is marked by  [...] Read more.
    Jihye Heo ... Jea-Hyun Baek
    Published: June 20, 2024 Explor Immunol. 2024;4:358–375
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2024.00146
    This article belongs to the special issue Chronic Inflammation and Autoimmunity
    View:58
    Download:7
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Original Article
    Safety and tolerability of anti-FcRn monoclonal antibody in thyroid autoimmunity
    Aim: The clinical symptoms of autoantibody (AAb)-mediated autoimmune diseases (AID) usually correlate with the AAb-titer. Immunoglobulins (Igs) of the IgG type are actively recycled by the neonat [...] Read more.
    Jan Wolf ... George J. Kahaly
    Published: June 20, 2024 Explor Immunol. 2024;4:341–357
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2024.00145
    View:60
    Download:5
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Original Article
    Flavonoids, nobiletin, heptamethoxyflavone, and genistein enhance antigen-presenting cell function in vitro
    Aim: Antigen (Ag) presentation by Ag-presenting cells (APCs) is the first step in the generation of adaptive humoral and cellular immune responses. However, there have been few studies on the eff [...] Read more.
    Yuko Tanaka ... Tohru Sakai
    Published: May 29, 2024 Explor Immunol. 2024;4:333–340
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2024.00144
    This article belongs to the special issue The Nutritional Influence on Immune Functionality
    View:167
    Download:11
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Perspective
    The immune response of nano carbon-based photic-driving vaccines to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
    As the most severe novel infectious disease in this century, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) faces tremendous challenges due to the hysteresis of drugs and vaccine development. Elucidating the p [...] Read more.
    Junming Chen ... Jianshe Yang
    Published: May 17, 2024 Explor Immunol. 2024;4:325–332
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2024.00143
    This article belongs to the special issue Immunology, Immunopathology and Genomics of SARS-COV-2
    View:219
    Download:14
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Recent advances in the study of the structure and function of the epididymis
    Testicular sperm maturation is critical for establishing male fertility. Spermatozoa undergo remodeling of sperm proteins and changes in lipid and ribonucleic acid composition during transport in th [...] Read more.
    Chuxiong Wang ... Donghui Huang
    Published: May 17, 2024 Explor Immunol. 2024;4:309–324
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2024.00142
    This article belongs to the special issue Immunobiology and Inflammation in the Male Reproductive System
    View:241
    Download:12
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Role of dendritic cells in immunologic and smoking-induced lung diseases
    Dendritic cells (DCs) are part of the specific and innate immune system and present antigens for lymphocytes but also regulate the actions of cells of the innate immune system such as eosinophilic a [...] Read more.
    Helmut Popper
    Published: April 30, 2024 Explor Immunol. 2024;4:285–308
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2024.00141
    This article belongs to the special issue Immunobiology of Dendritic Cells
    View:555
    Download:18
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    COVID-19 vaccine and immune response
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; βCoV), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), causes severe lower respiratory tract infections and acute  [...] Read more.
    Sevilay Hintistan, Hatice Demirağ
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:341–355
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00023
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:23416
    Download:46
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Exploring the possible link between the spike protein immunoglobulin G4 antibodies and cancer progression
    Repeated inoculation with messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines elicits immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibody production. Such an increase in the concentration of specific and non-specific IgG4 antibodies allow [...] Read more.
    Mikolaj Raszek ... Alberto Rubio-Casillas
    Published: April 25, 2024 Explor Immunol. 2024;4:267–284
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2024.00140
    This article belongs to the special issue Old and New Paradigms in Viral Vaccinology
    View:6513
    Download:254
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    The role of interleukin-24 in atopic dermatitis
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by skin barrier disruption, type 2 immune dysregulation, chronic pruritus, and abnormal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Tapinarof, an aryl  [...] Read more.
    Yen Hai Vu ... Gaku Tsuji
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:4–15
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00002
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:5910
    Download:210
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Immune responses induced by different vaccine platforms against coronavirus disease-19
    There have been significant developments in the design of nanostructured scaffolds for eliciting robust immune responses named vaccine. The technique is to produce strong immune responses is to mani [...] Read more.
    Eknath D. Ahire, Sanjay J. Kshirsagar
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:243–257
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00016
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:4592
    Download:131
    Open Access
    Review
    Immunology of biodegradable nanoparticles: a brief overview on a wide growing field
    Immunity is continuously evolving by evolutionary mechanisms shaped by pathogenic stimuli of different kinds. Man-made nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed in the last decades and represent a nov [...] Read more.
    Anissa Pisani, Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:48–60
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00006
    View:4197
    Download:241
    Open Access
    Review
    Interplay between mesenchymal stromal cells and immune system: clinical applications in immune-related diseases
    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a mesodermal stem cell population, with known self-renewal and multilineage differentiation properties. In the last century, MSCs have been widely used in regene [...] Read more.
    Panagiotis Mallis ... Catherine Stavropoulos Giokas
    Published: June 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:112–139
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00010
    View:4033
    Download:82
    Open Access
    Review
    Exploring the possible link between the spike protein immunoglobulin G4 antibodies and cancer progression
    Repeated inoculation with messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines elicits immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibody production. Such an increase in the concentration of specific and non-specific IgG4 antibodies allow [...] Read more.
    Mikolaj Raszek ... Alberto Rubio-Casillas
    Published: April 25, 2024 Explor Immunol. 2024;4:267–284
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2024.00140
    This article belongs to the special issue Old and New Paradigms in Viral Vaccinology
    View:6513
    Download:254
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Immunology of biodegradable nanoparticles: a brief overview on a wide growing field
    Immunity is continuously evolving by evolutionary mechanisms shaped by pathogenic stimuli of different kinds. Man-made nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed in the last decades and represent a nov [...] Read more.
    Anissa Pisani, Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:48–60
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00006
    View:4197
    Download:241
    Open Access
    Review
    The role of interleukin-24 in atopic dermatitis
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by skin barrier disruption, type 2 immune dysregulation, chronic pruritus, and abnormal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Tapinarof, an aryl  [...] Read more.
    Yen Hai Vu ... Gaku Tsuji
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:4–15
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00002
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:5910
    Download:210
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Chemokines and nanomaterials: interaction for useful immune-applications
    Chemokines are homeostatic or inflammatory small proteins regulating immune cell migration and are structurally characterized by cysteine disulfide bridges. Around 50 human chemokines binding almost [...] Read more.
    Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: August 31, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:637–647
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00073
    This article belongs to the special issue Nanomaterials interaction with chemokines: perspectives for applied immunology
    View:2339
    Download:196
    Open Access
    Review
    Crosstalk between keratinocytes and immune cells in inflammatory skin diseases
    Cutaneous homeostasis is maintained by dynamic cellular communications between different cell types in the skin through interactions with various mediators, including cytokines, chemokines and antim [...] Read more.
    Xinhui Ni, Yuping Lai
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:418–431
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00028
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:2777
    Download:155
    Open Access
    Review
    Interleukin-22 and keratinocytes; pathogenic implications in skin inflammation
    Interleukin (IL)-22 is produced from immune cells such as T helper (Th)22 cells, Th17/22 cells, and group 3 innate lymphoid cells. IL-22 signals via the IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and the IL-10 rece [...] Read more.
    Masutaka Furue, Mihoko Furue
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:37–47
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00005
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:3424
    Download:136
    Open Access
    Review
    Allogeneic gamma delta T cells as adoptive cellular therapy for hematologic malignancies
    Cancer immunotherapy, especially T-cell driven targeting, has significantly evolved and improved over the past decade, paving the way to treat previously refractory cancers. Hematologic malignancies [...] Read more.
    Navdeep Jhita, Sunil S. Raikar
    Published: June 07, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:334–350
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00054
    This article belongs to the special issue Interplay of γδ T cells and Tumor Cells
    View:3399
    Download:108
    Open Access
    Review
    Crosstalk between keratinocytes and immune cells in inflammatory skin diseases
    Cutaneous homeostasis is maintained by dynamic cellular communications between different cell types in the skin through interactions with various mediators, including cytokines, chemokines and antim [...] Read more.
    Xinhui Ni, Yuping Lai
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:418–431
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00028
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:2777
    Download:155
    Open Access
    Review
    High avidity of vaccine-induced immunoglobulin G against SARS-CoV-2: potential relevance for protective humoral immunity
    Avidity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is defined as its binding strength to its target antigen. As a consequence of affinity maturation of the IgG response, avidity is maturing as well. Therefore, acute [...] Read more.
    Georg Bauer
    Published: March 16, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:133–156
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00040
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:2574
    Download:70
    Open Access
    Review
    Immunology of biodegradable nanoparticles: a brief overview on a wide growing field
    Immunity is continuously evolving by evolutionary mechanisms shaped by pathogenic stimuli of different kinds. Man-made nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed in the last decades and represent a nov [...] Read more.
    Anissa Pisani, Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:48–60
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00006
    View:4197
    Download:241
    Open Access
    Review
    Interplay between mesenchymal stromal cells and immune system: clinical applications in immune-related diseases
    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a mesodermal stem cell population, with known self-renewal and multilineage differentiation properties. In the last century, MSCs have been widely used in regene [...] Read more.
    Panagiotis Mallis ... Catherine Stavropoulos Giokas
    Published: June 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:112–139
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00010
    View:4033
    Download:82
    Open Access
    Review
    The protective immunity induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination: a critical appraisal
    Understanding the interactions of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) with humans is deeply grounded in immunology, from the diagnosis to pathogenesis, from the clinical pre [...] Read more.
    Eduardo Tosta
    Published: August 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:199–225
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00014
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:2912
    Download:58
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