• Exploration of Immunology

    eISSN: 2768-6655
    EiC: Dominique J. Charron, MD, PhD, Hospital Saint Louis
    Adjunct-EiC: Reem Al-Daccak, PhD, Hospital Saint Louis
    Frequency: Bimonthly
    APC: No Article Processing Charge
    Publishing Model: Open Access
    Peer Review Model: Single Blind
    Permanent Archive: Portico
    Indexing & Archiving: Dimensions, DOAJ, CAS, J-Gate, ResearchGate, etc
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    Articles
    Open Access
    Review
    Janus face of sepsis: a viewpoint
    Treatment of sepsis currently relies on eliminating the causal pathogen and supportive care, whereas almost no approaches to interfere with the defining event of a “dysregulated host response” are available. This review points [...] Read more.
    Michael Bauer, Reinhard Wetzker
    Published: May 24, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:293–302
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00051
    This article belongs to the special issue The‌ ‌Sepsis‌ ‌induced‌ ‌Immune‌ ‌Conundrum
    View:52
    Download:4
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Therapeutic and prophylactic applications of self-replicating RNA viruses
    Self-replicating RNA viruses have been commonly used for preventive and therapeutic interventions in the fields of infectious diseases and cancers. Both RNA viruses with single-stranded RNA genomes  [...] Read more.
    Kenneth Lundstrom
    Published: May 18, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:264–292
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00050
    This article belongs to the special issue Old and New Paradigms in Viral Vaccinology
    View:105
    Download:7
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    SARS-CoV-2: overview of immune response, insights into vaccine platforms and their challenges
    The crown-like shaped viruses known as coronaviruses which were first reported in the 1960’s have caused three epidemics in the past two decades namely, coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) [...] Read more.
    Balram Ji Omar ... Manju O. Pai
    Published: May 16, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:245–263
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00049
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:191
    Download:9
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and its role in Alzheimer’s disease
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a common neurological disease in the elderly, and the major manifestations are cognitive dysfunction, neuronal loss, and neuropathic lesions in the brain. In  [...] Read more.
    Xiaohan Gao ... Xueling Dai
    Published: May 07, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:229–244
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00048
    View:134
    Download:12
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Perspective
    Anti-cancer γδ T lymphocytes: contradictory past and promising future
    Recent anti-cancer strategies are based on the stimulation of anti-tumor immune reaction, exploiting distinct lymphocyte subsets. Among them, γδ T cells represent optimal anti-cancer candidates, especially in those tissues where [...] Read more.
    Alessandro Poggi, Maria Raffaella Zocchi
    Published: April 28, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:220–228
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00047
    This article belongs to the special issue Interplay of γδ T cells and Tumor Cells
    View:221
    Download:18
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    A proposed new paradigm for an anti-AIDS tolerogenic vaccine
    Until now, despite 30 years of intensive work, the RV144 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine trial initiated in 2003 remains so far the most protective vaccine prototype of all those tested ( [...] Read more.
    Christine Jacomet
    Published: April 24, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:211–219
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00046
    This article belongs to the special issue Old and New Paradigms in Viral Vaccinology
    View:196
    Download:14
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    The role of interleukin-24 in atopic dermatitis
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by skin barrier disruption, type 2 immune dysregulation, chronic pruritus, and abnormal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Tapinarof, an aryl  [...] Read more.
    Yen Hai Vu ... Gaku Tsuji
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:4–15
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00002
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:2782
    Download:125
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Editorial
    Exploration of Immunology: challenging knowledge, developing curiosity and transforming passion into discovery
    Dominique J Charron, Reem Al-Daccak
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:1–3
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00001
    View:2048
    Download:62
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Viral vector-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2
    Viral vectors have been frequently applied for vaccine development. It has also been the case for vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to tackle the coronavi [...] Read more.
    Kenneth Lundstrom
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:295–308
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00020
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:2036
    Download:66
    Open Access
    Review
    Immunology of biodegradable nanoparticles: a brief overview on a wide growing field
    Immunity is continuously evolving by evolutionary mechanisms shaped by pathogenic stimuli of different kinds. Man-made nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed in the last decades and represent a nov [...] Read more.
    Anissa Pisani, Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:48–60
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00006
    View:1795
    Download:73
    Open Access
    Original Article
    In silico investigation of binding affinities between human leukocyte antigen class I molecules and SARS-CoV-2 virus spike and ORF1ab proteins
    Aim: The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019, a global pandemic. There is hence an urgent need for effective approaches to [...] Read more.
    Spyros A. Charonis ... Apostolos P. Georgopoulos
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:16–26
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00003
    View:1453
    Download:43
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Interleukin-22 and keratinocytes; pathogenic implications in skin inflammation
    Interleukin (IL)-22 is produced from immune cells such as T helper (Th)22 cells, Th17/22 cells, and group 3 innate lymphoid cells. IL-22 signals via the IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and the IL-10 rece [...] Read more.
    Masutaka Furue, Mihoko Furue
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:37–47
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00005
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:1403
    Download:59
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    The role of interleukin-24 in atopic dermatitis
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by skin barrier disruption, type 2 immune dysregulation, chronic pruritus, and abnormal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Tapinarof, an aryl  [...] Read more.
    Yen Hai Vu ... Gaku Tsuji
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:4–15
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00002
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:2782
    Download:125
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Immunology of biodegradable nanoparticles: a brief overview on a wide growing field
    Immunity is continuously evolving by evolutionary mechanisms shaped by pathogenic stimuli of different kinds. Man-made nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed in the last decades and represent a nov [...] Read more.
    Anissa Pisani, Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:48–60
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00006
    View:1795
    Download:73
    Open Access
    Review
    Skin and immune cells crosstalk via circadian regulations
    Both innate and adaptive immune cells exist in the skin, predominantly in the dermis layer. Recent studies have focused on how and which circadian rhythms contribute to maintain good health. Over re [...] Read more.
    Kanami Orihara
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:285–294
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00019
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    Open Access
    Review
    Viral vector-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2
    Viral vectors have been frequently applied for vaccine development. It has also been the case for vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to tackle the coronavi [...] Read more.
    Kenneth Lundstrom
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:295–308
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00020
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:2036
    Download:66
    Open Access
    Review
    Immunopathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2: evolving knowledge and its current status
    As the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 is a new virus, the current knowledge on the immunopathogenesis of this newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 is beginning to unravel with intens [...] Read more.
    Nitin Saksena ... Monica Miranda-Saksena
    Published: June 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:61–79
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00007
    View:1293
    Download:63
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Editorial
    Exploration of Immunology: challenging knowledge, developing curiosity and transforming passion into discovery
    Dominique J Charron, Reem Al-Daccak
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:1–3
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00001
    View:2048
    Download:62
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Interplay between mesenchymal stromal cells and immune system: clinical applications in immune-related diseases
    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a mesodermal stem cell population, with known self-renewal and multilineage differentiation properties. In the last century, MSCs have been widely used in regene [...] Read more.
    Panagiotis Mallis ... Catherine Stavropoulos Giokas
    Published: June 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:112–139
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00010
    View:1233
    Download:37
    Open Access
    Review
    Immunology of biodegradable nanoparticles: a brief overview on a wide growing field
    Immunity is continuously evolving by evolutionary mechanisms shaped by pathogenic stimuli of different kinds. Man-made nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed in the last decades and represent a nov [...] Read more.
    Anissa Pisani, Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:48–60
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00006
    View:1795
    Download:73
    Open Access
    Review
    The protective immunity induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination: a critical appraisal
    Understanding the interactions of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) with humans is deeply grounded in immunology, from the diagnosis to pathogenesis, from the clinical pre [...] Read more.
    Eduardo Tosta
    Published: August 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:199–225
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00014
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    Open Access
    Review
    Skin and immune cells crosstalk via circadian regulations
    Both innate and adaptive immune cells exist in the skin, predominantly in the dermis layer. Recent studies have focused on how and which circadian rhythms contribute to maintain good health. Over re [...] Read more.
    Kanami Orihara
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:285–294
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00019
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    Open Access
    Review
    Viral vector-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2
    Viral vectors have been frequently applied for vaccine development. It has also been the case for vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to tackle the coronavi [...] Read more.
    Kenneth Lundstrom
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:295–308
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00020
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:2036
    Download:66
    Open Access
    Review
    Crosstalk between keratinocytes and immune cells in inflammatory skin diseases
    Cutaneous homeostasis is maintained by dynamic cellular communications between different cell types in the skin through interactions with various mediators, including cytokines, chemokines and antim [...] Read more.
    Xinhui Ni, Yuping Lai
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:418–431
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00028
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    Special Issues