• Exploration of Immunology

    eISSN: 2768-6655
    EiC: Dominique J. Charron, MD, PhD
    Adjunct-EiC: Reem Al-Daccak, PhD
    Frequency: Bimonthly
    APC: No Article Processing Charge
    Publishing Model: Open Access
    Peer Review Model: Single Blind
    Permanent Archive: Portico
    Indexing & Archiving: DOAJ, CAS, CNKI, J-Gate, Dimensions, ResearchGate, etc.
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    Articles
    Open Access
    Review
    Incursions by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 on the host anti-viral immunity during mild, moderate, and severe coronavirus disease 2019 disease
    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the human host can lead to various clinical manifestations, from symptomless carriers to mild to moderate to severe/critical illness. Therefore, the cli [...] Read more.
    Nitin Saksena ... Thyago H. Cardoso
    Published: December 29, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:794–811
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00084
    This article belongs to the special issue Immunology, Immunopathology and Genomics of SARS-COV-2
    View:234
    Download:19
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Original Article
    The synergistic effects of the constant region and variable heavy chain families of multimeric immunoglobulin M on its interaction with Fc-mu receptor and antigen
    Aim: As the primary response antibody with increasing use as a therapeutic immunoglobulin (Ig) format, IgM is also the largest antibody structure among the five major human isotypes. Spontaneousl [...] Read more.
    Wei-Li Ling, Samuel Ken-En Gan
    Published: December 29, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:783–793
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00083
    View:162
    Download:19
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 modulates T-cell functions
    Immune responses are orchestrated by controlling the initiation, magnitude, and duration of various signaling pathways. Adaptor proteins act as positive or negative regulators by targeting critical  [...] Read more.
    Tadashi Matsuda ... Kenji Oritani
    Published: December 27, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:771–782
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00082
    This article belongs to the special issue The Role of Adaptor Proteins in Lymphoid Cell Signaling
    View:190
    Download:15
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Role of tyrosine kinase 2 signals during progression of psoriasis
    Psoriasis is a skin disease characterized by scaly erythema, parakeratosis, and epidermal hyperplasia. Application of imiquimod (IMQ), a ligand for Toll-like receptor 7, produces a mouse model for psoriasis. IMQ application induce [...] Read more.
    Ryuta Muromoto ... Tadashi Matsuda
    Published: December 27, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:760–770
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00081
    This article belongs to the special issue Cytokines and Skin Diseases
    View:170
    Download:14
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Original Article
    Distributing human leukocyte antigen (HLA) database in histocompatibility: a shift in HLA data governance
    Aim: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) population genetics has been a historical field centralizing data resource. HLA genetics databases typically facilitate access to frequencies of allele, haploty [...] Read more.
    Sirine Sayadi ... Pierre-Antoine Gourraud
    Published: November 01, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:749–759
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00080
    This article belongs to the special issue Bioinformatics, Big Data, AI: Exploring Immunology
    View:333
    Download:37
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Fight fire with fire: the need for a vaccine based on intrinsic disorder and structural flexibility
    The absence of advancement in finding efficient vaccines for several human viruses, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) de [...] Read more.
    Vladimir N. Uversky
    Published: October 31, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:731–748
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00079
    This article belongs to the special issue Old and New Paradigms in Viral Vaccinology
    View:429
    Download:45
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    The role of interleukin-24 in atopic dermatitis
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by skin barrier disruption, type 2 immune dysregulation, chronic pruritus, and abnormal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Tapinarof, an aryl  [...] Read more.
    Yen Hai Vu ... Gaku Tsuji
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:4–15
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00002
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:3790
    Download:158
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Viral vector-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2
    Viral vectors have been frequently applied for vaccine development. It has also been the case for vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to tackle the coronavi [...] Read more.
    Kenneth Lundstrom
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:295–308
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00020
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:2761
    Download:78
    Open Access
    Review
    Immunology of biodegradable nanoparticles: a brief overview on a wide growing field
    Immunity is continuously evolving by evolutionary mechanisms shaped by pathogenic stimuli of different kinds. Man-made nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed in the last decades and represent a nov [...] Read more.
    Anissa Pisani, Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:48–60
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00006
    View:2544
    Download:138
    Open Access
    Editorial
    Exploration of Immunology: challenging knowledge, developing curiosity and transforming passion into discovery
    Dominique J Charron, Reem Al-Daccak
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:1–3
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00001
    View:2460
    Download:62
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Immune responses induced by different vaccine platforms against coronavirus disease-19
    There have been significant developments in the design of nanostructured scaffolds for eliciting robust immune responses named vaccine. The technique is to produce strong immune responses is to mani [...] Read more.
    Eknath D. Ahire, Sanjay J. Kshirsagar
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:243–257
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00016
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:2293
    Download:93
    Open Access
    Review
    Interplay between mesenchymal stromal cells and immune system: clinical applications in immune-related diseases
    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a mesodermal stem cell population, with known self-renewal and multilineage differentiation properties. In the last century, MSCs have been widely used in regene [...] Read more.
    Panagiotis Mallis ... Catherine Stavropoulos Giokas
    Published: June 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:112–139
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00010
    View:2026
    Download:61
    Open Access
    Review
    The role of interleukin-24 in atopic dermatitis
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by skin barrier disruption, type 2 immune dysregulation, chronic pruritus, and abnormal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Tapinarof, an aryl  [...] Read more.
    Yen Hai Vu ... Gaku Tsuji
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:4–15
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00002
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:3790
    Download:158
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Immunology of biodegradable nanoparticles: a brief overview on a wide growing field
    Immunity is continuously evolving by evolutionary mechanisms shaped by pathogenic stimuli of different kinds. Man-made nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed in the last decades and represent a nov [...] Read more.
    Anissa Pisani, Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:48–60
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00006
    View:2544
    Download:138
    Open Access
    Review
    Skin and immune cells crosstalk via circadian regulations
    Both innate and adaptive immune cells exist in the skin, predominantly in the dermis layer. Recent studies have focused on how and which circadian rhythms contribute to maintain good health. Over re [...] Read more.
    Kanami Orihara
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:285–294
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00019
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:1235
    Download:100
    Open Access
    Review
    Immune responses induced by different vaccine platforms against coronavirus disease-19
    There have been significant developments in the design of nanostructured scaffolds for eliciting robust immune responses named vaccine. The technique is to produce strong immune responses is to mani [...] Read more.
    Eknath D. Ahire, Sanjay J. Kshirsagar
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:243–257
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00016
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:2293
    Download:93
    Open Access
    Review
    Chemokines and nanomaterials: interaction for useful immune-applications
    Chemokines are homeostatic or inflammatory small proteins regulating immune cell migration and are structurally characterized by cysteine disulfide bridges. Around 50 human chemokines binding almost [...] Read more.
    Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: August 31, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:637–647
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00073
    This article belongs to the special issue Nanomaterials interaction with chemokines: perspectives for applied immunology
    View:508
    Download:91
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Review
    Interleukin-22 and keratinocytes; pathogenic implications in skin inflammation
    Interleukin (IL)-22 is produced from immune cells such as T helper (Th)22 cells, Th17/22 cells, and group 3 innate lymphoid cells. IL-22 signals via the IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and the IL-10 rece [...] Read more.
    Masutaka Furue, Mihoko Furue
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:37–47
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00005
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:1912
    Download:86
    Open Access
    Review
    Immunology of biodegradable nanoparticles: a brief overview on a wide growing field
    Immunity is continuously evolving by evolutionary mechanisms shaped by pathogenic stimuli of different kinds. Man-made nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed in the last decades and represent a nov [...] Read more.
    Anissa Pisani, Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:48–60
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00006
    View:2544
    Download:138
    Open Access
    Review
    The protective immunity induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination: a critical appraisal
    Understanding the interactions of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) with humans is deeply grounded in immunology, from the diagnosis to pathogenesis, from the clinical pre [...] Read more.
    Eduardo Tosta
    Published: August 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:199–225
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00014
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    View:1500
    Download:49
    Open Access
    Review
    High avidity of vaccine-induced immunoglobulin G against SARS-CoV-2: potential relevance for protective humoral immunity
    Avidity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is defined as its binding strength to its target antigen. As a consequence of affinity maturation of the IgG response, avidity is maturing as well. Therefore, acute [...] Read more.
    Georg Bauer
    Published: March 16, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:133–156
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00040
    This article belongs to the special issue Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections
    Open Access
    Review
    Interplay between mesenchymal stromal cells and immune system: clinical applications in immune-related diseases
    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a mesodermal stem cell population, with known self-renewal and multilineage differentiation properties. In the last century, MSCs have been widely used in regene [...] Read more.
    Panagiotis Mallis ... Catherine Stavropoulos Giokas
    Published: June 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:112–139
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00010
    View:2026
    Download:61
    Open Access
    Review
    Crosstalk between keratinocytes and immune cells in inflammatory skin diseases
    Cutaneous homeostasis is maintained by dynamic cellular communications between different cell types in the skin through interactions with various mediators, including cytokines, chemokines and antim [...] Read more.
    Xinhui Ni, Yuping Lai
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:418–431
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00028
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    Open Access
    Review
    Interleukin-22 and keratinocytes; pathogenic implications in skin inflammation
    Interleukin (IL)-22 is produced from immune cells such as T helper (Th)22 cells, Th17/22 cells, and group 3 innate lymphoid cells. IL-22 signals via the IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and the IL-10 rece [...] Read more.
    Masutaka Furue, Mihoko Furue
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:37–47
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00005
    This article belongs to the special issue Cross Talk Among Skin Cells and Immune Cells
    View:1912
    Download:86
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