• Special Issue Topic

    The‌ ‌Sepsis‌ ‌induced‌ ‌Immune‌ ‌Conundrum

    Submission Deadline: December 31, 2021

    Guest Editor

    Dr. Didier‌ ‌Payen E-Mail

    Emeritus‌ ‌Professor‌ ‌at‌ ‌University‌ ‌Paris‌ ‌7‌, Paris‌, France

    Research Keywords: Sepsis, immune response, ARDS, emodynamic monitoring, cardiovascular physiology, acute kidney injury, brain injury

    About the Special Issue

    ‌Sepsis‌ ‌syndrome‌ ‌was‌ ‌born‌ ‌many‌ ‌years‌ ‌ago‌ ‌to‌ ‌link‌ ‌infection‌ ‌and‌ ‌observed‌ ‌organ‌ ‌failures.‌ ‌It‌ ‌was‌ ‌refined‌ ‌along‌ ‌time‌ ‌according‌ ‌to‌ ‌the‌ ‌comprehensive‌ involved‌ ‌mechanisms,‌ ‌the‌ ‌technological‌ ‌advances‌ ‌in‌ ‌supportive‌ ‌therapies‌ ‌&‌ ‌the‌ ‌input‌ ‌of‌ ‌translational‌ ‌biological‌ ‌research.‌ ‌Professionals‌ ‌are‌ ‌now‌ ‌facing‌ ‌new‌ ‌septic‌ ‌challenges,‌ ‌in‌ ‌patients‌ ‌with‌ ‌more‌ ‌complex‌ ‌underlying‌ ‌diseases‌ ‌or‌ ‌co-morbidity.‌ ‌This‌ ‌is‌ ‌unfortunately‌ ‌well‌ ‌illustrated‌ ‌in‌ ‌the‌ ‌present‌ ‌time‌ ‌by‌ ‌the‌ ‌pandemia‌ ‌related‌ ‌to‌ ‌SARS-Cov-2‌ ‌infection. Focused‌ ‌on‌ ‌immunology,‌ ‌this‌ ‌proposed‌ ‌issue‌ ‌will‌ ‌cover‌ ‌the‌ ‌evolution‌ ‌of‌ ‌the‌ ‌recently‌ ‌modified‌ ‌definition‌ ‌of‌ ‌sepsis,‌ ‌the‌ ‌impact‌ ‌on‌ ‌epidemiology,‌ ‌particularly‌ ‌for‌ ‌severe‌ ‌sepsis‌ ‌and‌ ‌septic‌ ‌shock,‌ ‌which‌ ‌have‌ ‌the‌ ‌worse‌ ‌outcome.‌ ‌During‌ ‌the‌ ‌last‌ ‌decades,‌ ‌the‌ ‌concepts‌ ‌have‌ ‌evolved‌ ‌from‌ ‌clinical‌ ‌symptoms‌ ‌to‌ ‌the‌ ‌characterization‌ ‌and‌ ‌kinetics‌ ‌of‌ ‌inflammatory‌ ‌components,‌ ‌which‌ ‌will‌ ‌be‌ ‌updated‌ ‌in‌ ‌this‌ ‌issue.‌‌ Since‌ ‌inflammation‌ ‌processes‌ ‌also‌ ‌relate‌ ‌to‌ ‌coagulation‌ ‌activation,‌ ‌immune‌ ‌stimulation,‌ ‌and‌ ‌cellular‌ ‌metabolism‌ ‌pathways‌ ‌changes,‌ ‌the‌ ‌complexity‌ ‌is‌ ‌ever increasing.‌ ‌Such‌ ‌aspects‌ ‌have‌ ‌to‌ ‌be‌ ‌further‌ ‌studied‌ ‌at‌ ‌the‌ ‌basic‌ ‌scientific‌ ‌level‌ ‌and‌ ‌clarified‌ ‌for‌ ‌the‌ ‌clinician‌ ‌in‌ ‌order‌ to ‌provide‌ ‌reliable‌ ‌tools‌ ‌for‌ ‌diagnosis,‌ ‌pronostic‌ ‌evaluation‌ ‌and‌ ‌treatment‌ ‌monitoring.‌ ‌The‌ ‌time-to-time‌ ‌changes‌ ‌observed‌ ‌in‌ ‌cellular‌ ‌and‌ ‌humoral‌ ‌immunity,‌ ‌with‌ ‌immune‌ ‌monitoring‌ ‌or‌ ‌characterization‌ ‌of‌ ‌septic‌ ‌patients‌ ‌are‌ ‌providing‌ ‌new‌ ‌knowledge‌ ‌in‌ ‌understanding ‌the‌ ‌stratification‌ ‌of‌  ‌sepsis‌‌.‌ ‌As‌ ‌an‌ ‌example,‌ ‌an‌ ‌induced-acute ‌immunodepression‌ ‌syndrome‌ ‌observed‌ ‌after‌ ‌initial‌ ‌stimulation‌ ‌brings‌ ‌new‌ ‌strategies‌ ‌for‌ ‌treating‌ ‌patients‌ ‌along‌ ‌the‌ ‌hospitalization.‌ The‌ ‌actual‌ ‌pandemic‌ development‌ ‌illustrates‌ ‌the‌ ‌role‌ ‌of‌ ‌the‌ ‌host‌ ‌response‌ ‌in‌ ‌the‌ ‌clinical‌ ‌presentation‌ ‌and‌ ‌outcome,‌ ‌facing‌ ‌almost‌ ‌a‌ ‌stable‌ ‌virus‌ ‌as‌ ‌an‌ ‌infective‌ ‌agent,‌ ‌for‌ ‌which‌ ‌only‌ ‌immune‌ ‌strategies‌ ‌could‌ ‌succeed‌ ‌to‌ ‌control‌ ‌the‌ ‌process,‌ ‌as‌ ‌acquired‌ ‌immunity‌ ‌after‌ ‌infection‌ ‌recovery‌ ‌or‌ ‌vaccination,‌ ‌in‌ ‌absence‌ ‌of‌ ‌efficient‌ ‌anti‌ SARS-CoV-2.‌

    ‌The‌ ‌explosive‌ ‌research‌ ‌activity‌ ‌during‌ ‌the‌ ‌COVID-19‌ ‌had‌ ‌improved‌ ‌mechanistic‌ ‌knowledge‌ ‌on‌ ‌inflammation‌ ‌related‌ ‌to‌ ‌the‌ SARS-CoV-2,‌ ‌which‌ ‌will‌ ‌be‌ ‌discussed‌ ‌in‌ ‌the‌ ‌context‌ ‌of ‌sepsis‌‌.‌ ‌Therapeutic‌ ‌targets‌ ‌to‌ ‌modulate‌ ‌acute‌ ‌inflammation‌ ‌related‌ ‌to‌ ‌the‌ ‌infection‌ ‌have‌ ‌been‌ ‌identified‌ ‌with‌ ‌ongoing‌ ‌trials‌ ‌on‌ ‌agents‌ ‌that‌ ‌modified‌ ‌the‌ ‌immune‌ ‌response,‌ ‌as‌ ‌corticosteroids‌ ‌or‌ ‌"boosters" of‌ ‌immunity.‌ ‌This‌ ‌approach‌ ‌will‌ ‌allow‌ ‌to‌ ‌adapt‌ ‌the‌ ‌treatment‌ ‌according‌ ‌to‌ ‌the‌ ‌immune‌ ‌status‌ ‌of‌ ‌each‌ ‌patient.‌ ‌Consequently,‌ ‌it‌ ‌becomes‌ ‌essential‌ ‌to‌ ‌develop‌ innovative‌immune‌ ‌and‌ ‌inflammation‌ ‌biomarker‌s ‌to‌ ‌be‌ ‌monitored‌ ‌as‌ it ‌will‌ ‌be‌ ‌discussed‌ ‌in‌ ‌this‌ ‌special‌ ‌issue.‌ ‌Such‌ a ‌precision‌ ‌medicine‌ ‌approach‌ ‌particularly‌ ‌focused‌ ‌on‌ ‌the‌ ‌immune‌ ‌and‌ ‌inflammatory‌ ‌components‌ ‌will‌ ‌be‌ ‌of‌ ‌great‌ ‌benefit‌ ‌for‌ ‌management‌ ‌of‌ ‌sepsis‌ ‌in‌ ‌the‌ ‌future.‌

    We eagerly expect submitted contributions.‌

    Let's‌ ‌enjoy‌ ‌the‌ ‌completion‌ ‌of‌ ‌such‌ ‌exciting‌ ‌and‌ ‌ambitious‌ ‌project.

    Keywords: Sepsis‌ ‌syndrome‌, SARS-COV-2, immune response, inflammation‌

    Published Articles

    Open Access
    The progression of sepsis from physiologic systemic inflammatory response to immune dysregulation due to life-threatening infections
    Sepsis was defined in 1991 by the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria which consisted mostly of physiologic responses to infection or inflammation (fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, [...] Read more.
    Nicholas Daering, Majdi N. Al-Hasan
    Published: October 25, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:665–676
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00075
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Understanding sepsis-induced immunosuppression and organ dysfunctions: from immunosuppression to immunotherapy
    Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by dysregulated host immune response to infection, leading to persistent inflammation followed by immunosuppression. Sepsis represents a substantial glo [...] Read more.
    Dablu Lal Gupta ... D. N. Rao
    Published: August 29, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:589–603
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00070
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Small molecules targeting endolysosomal acidification and signaling in sepsis and severe SARS-CoV-2 infection/COVID-19
    Sepsis and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and its severe form coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), represent the major medical challenges of the modern era.  [...] Read more.
    Markus Blaess ... Hans-Peter Deigner
    Published: August 11, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:484–509
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00063
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    In COVID-19, antigen size lower or larger than 70 kDa modulates the sepsis and memory B cells
    This review pretends to shed light on the immune processes occurring in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from a perspective based on the antigens size, lower or larger than 70 kDa. This cutof [...] Read more.
    Francisco Javier Martín Oncina
    Published: July 17, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:442–453
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00061
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Janus face of sepsis: a viewpoint
    Treatment of sepsis currently relies on eliminating the causal pathogen and supportive care, whereas almost no approaches to interfere with the defining event of a “dysregulated host response” are available. This review points [...] Read more.
    Michael Bauer, Reinhard Wetzker
    Published: May 24, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:293–302
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00051
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Original Article
    Thymosin alpha 1 therapy alleviates organ dysfunction of sepsis patients: a retrospective cohort study
    Aim: Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) is a promising treatment for the improvement of sepsis patients. Until now, its function in reducing acute organ damage of sepsis patients is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine wheth [...] Read more.
    Fei Pei ... on behalf of the China Critical Care Immunotherapy Research Group
    Published: April 22, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:200–210
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00045