• Special Issue Topic

    Vaccine-induced Immune Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections

    Submission Deadline: August 31, 2021

    Guest Editor

    Dr. Wangxue Chen E-Mail

    PhD, Principal Research Officer, National Research Council Canada, Human Health Therapeutics Research Center, Ottawa, Canada

    Research Keywords: Mucosal Immunology, Vaccination

    About the Special Issue

    The pandemic of COVID-19, caused by coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has created an unprecedented threat to global public health, security, and prosperity. Vaccination is highly cost-effective to prevent viral infection, stop its transmission, and develop herd immunity. With the strong global and state political leadership, active contribution of vaccine industries and research community, and significant financial investment, several COVID-19 vaccines have already been approved under special regulatory authorities and many more are in clinical trials or advanced preclinical development.

    Development of safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines requires a better understanding of the vaccine-induced immune responses and the mechanisms of immune protection. Almost all SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates currently in late stages of development are targeted at the induction of neutralizing antibodies against the spike (S) protein or its receptor binding domain (RBD) of the virus. However, the recent emerging and rapid global spread of several SARS-CoV-2 variants have possessed new challenges to the efficacy of current vaccine candidates and to the development of future COVID-19 vaccines. Increasing evidence suggests the importance of vaccines to target other viral antigens and induce specific T cell responses. In addition, identification of immune correlates of protection will be critical for bridging the regulatory approval of next wave of vaccines against the current and future SARC-CoV-2 strains.

    The aim of this Special Issue is to provide insight into our current knowledge and understanding of the immune responses induced by different COVID-19 vaccine candidates and their application in the development of new vaccines with long-lasting and broad protection against multiple SARS-CoV-2 strains and variants. More specifically, we wish to invite Original Research articles, Reviews, and Commentaries that address the following topics:

    • Humoral and cell mediated immune responses and innate memory responses;

    • Immune responses induced by different vaccine platforms;

    • Mucosal vaccination and mucosa immune responses;

    • Immune correlates of protection;

    • Immune responses to non-spike proteins and emerging variants;

    • Systems immunology and vaccinology;

    • Novel in vitro and in vivo assays and models for assessing vaccine-induced immunity and predicting vaccine efficacies.

    Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, vaccine, immune response

    Published Articles

    Open Access
    Immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccines
    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a major public health concern causing devastating sociological, economic, and psychological damage to livelihood all over the world. The most intense [...] Read more.
    Basista Rabina Sharma, P. Veeranna Ravindra
    Published: September 21, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:648–664
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00074
    Open Access
    SARS-CoV-2: overview of immune response, insights into vaccine platforms and their challenges
    The crown-like shaped viruses known as coronaviruses which were first reported in the 1960’s have caused three epidemics in the past two decades namely, coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) [...] Read more.
    Balram Ji Omar ... Manju O. Pai
    Published: May 16, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:245–263
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00049
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    High avidity of vaccine-induced immunoglobulin G against SARS-CoV-2: potential relevance for protective humoral immunity
    Avidity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is defined as its binding strength to its target antigen. As a consequence of affinity maturation of the IgG response, avidity is maturing as well. Therefore, acute [...] Read more.
    Georg Bauer
    Published: March 16, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:133–156
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00040
    Open Access
    Immune titers of protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: are we there yet?
    A few pieces of research exist about the protective titer against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (CoV-2; SARS-CoV-2) in monkeys and humans in which the protection could be sh [...] Read more.
    Yoanna Slabakova ... Tsvetelina Velikova
    Published: February 11, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:9–24
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00033
    Open Access
    New variants of SARS-CoV-2, vaccine immune response and the Brazilian reality
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a highly pathogenic β-coronavirus, is the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which gave rise to a diffi [...] Read more.
    Marileia Chaves Andrade ... Hellen Oliveira Rosa
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:432–439
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00029
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    State-of-the-art preclinical evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine candidates
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) results from the infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and primarily affects the respiratory tissue. Since first reported  [...] Read more.
    Devlina Ghosh ... Abhishek Saxena
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:440–460
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00030
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Activation of mucosal immunity and novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategy in combating COVID-19
    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerges as an expeditiously growing pandemic, in the human population caused by the highly transmissible RNA virus severe acute respiratory syndrome of coronaviru [...] Read more.
    Swapan K. Chatterjee ... Maria Nilda M. Munoz
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:374–397
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00025
    Open Access
    COVID-19 vaccine and immune response
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; βCoV), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), causes severe lower respiratory tract infections and acute  [...] Read more.
    Sevilay Hintistan, Hatice Demirağ
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:341–355
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00023
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Vaccine-induced immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 infections
    Vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is one of the most effective tools to curb the pandemic. Multiple vaccine candidates based on different platforms are available for emergency  [...] Read more.
    Mandeep Garg ... Suruchi Garg
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:356–373
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00024
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Viral vector-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2
    Viral vectors have been frequently applied for vaccine development. It has also been the case for vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to tackle the coronavi [...] Read more.
    Kenneth Lundstrom
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:295–308
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00020
    Open Access
    Immune responses induced by different vaccine platforms against coronavirus disease-19
    There have been significant developments in the design of nanostructured scaffolds for eliciting robust immune responses named vaccine. The technique is to produce strong immune responses is to mani [...] Read more.
    Eknath D. Ahire, Sanjay J. Kshirsagar
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:243–257
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00016
    Open Access
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 targeted antibodies cocktail and B cell receptor interplay: interventions to trigger vaccine development
    Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 spread globally and creates an alarming situation. Following the SARS-CoV-2 paradigm, therape [...] Read more.
    Kabeer Haneef ... Zainab Fatima
    Published: August 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:140–154
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00011
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    The protective immunity induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination: a critical appraisal
    Understanding the interactions of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) with humans is deeply grounded in immunology, from the diagnosis to pathogenesis, from the clinical pre [...] Read more.
    Eduardo Tosta
    Published: August 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:199–225
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00014
    Open Access
    Original Article
    Conserved envelope protein of nCoV2 as the possible target to design polytope vaccine
    Aim: The envelope protein of novel coronavirus 2 (nCoV2) was reported to be highly conserved compared to its spike (S) protein which was shown to undergo several alterations in their amino acid seq [...] Read more.
    Krupanidhi Sreerama
    Published: August 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:155–165
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00012
    Times Cited: 0