• Special Issue Topic

    Human Reproduction: Involvement of the Immune System

    Submission Deadline: October 31, 2021

    Guest Editors

    Dr. Gérard Chaouat E-Mail

    Emeritus of Hospital Saint Louis, Paris, France

    Research Keywords: T cell, reproductive Immunology, placental suppression, NK cell

    Dr. Satish Kumar Gupta E-Mail

    ICMR Emeritus Scientist; Former J. C. Bose National Fellow; Former Deputy Director, National Institute of Immunology, Indian Council of Medical Research, Ramalingaswami Bhawan Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110 029, India

    Research Keywords: Reproductive Immunology/Biology, cell Biology, vaccine, immunodiagnosis

    Dr. Nathalie Lédée E-Mail

    Director of Medical Assisted Reproductive Services, Pierre Rouques Hospital, Paris, France

    Research Keywords: Embryo implantation, oocytes, ICSI, implantation assisted reproductive techniques, embryo transfer

    About the Special Issue

    Prof. Gérard Chaouat, a leading figure in the field of immunology, was passed away on April 23, 2021 during editing this special issue. The subsequent work of this issue was managed by Dr. Satish Kumar Gupta & Dr. Nathalie Lédée.
    We sincerely thank Prof. Chaouat for his efforts and strong support to our journal and this special issue. We will continue to keep this special issue on our journal website in honor of Prof. Gérard Chaouat.

    From the Medawar paradox of "non rejection of the foetal allograft" by Sir Peter Medawar and early work of Freund on gamete autoimmunity, Immunology of Reproduction has massively evolved, with its failures (human anti HcG contraceptive vaccines) to present management of uterine cytokines allowing in Assisted Reproductive technology women with repeated implantation failures to obtain a greater success of pregnancy when they are properly treated than normal classical intercourse in healthy  women. Among the conceptual revolutions is the fact that Natural Killer cells, viewed in the 80s as a  threat to the foe to placental unit, which indeed can behave in pathological situations. As far as uterine NK cells are concerned, they are NECESSARY for successful pregnancy and secreting angiogenic factors. This issue will explore physiology and pathology of Human Reproduction, including pre-eclampsia which now is demonstrated to be a paternal specific immune deregulation of the "recognition" of the foe to placental unit. After a general introduction on the key steps of evolution of our concepts, totally unexpected in the 80s, we will examine each topic step by step.

    We believe such a survey, which we will request to be as accessible as possible to foreigners to the field, will fascinate immunologists and remind them that surprisingly, as human primates, without the circuits we will describe, …. they would not be there, and that in this respect immunology now appears physiologically as important as endocrinology in reproduction.

    Keywords: Immunity reproduction gametes, tolerance placenta, immunopathology

    Published Articles

    Open Access
    Natural killer cell-mediated immunopathology in recurrent pregnancy losses
    Natural killer (NK) cells have a dual role in human reproduction for maternal-fetal tolerance and protection from infection. During the ovarian cycle and pregnancy, peripheral NK (pNK) and uterine N [...] Read more.
    Thanh Luu ... Joanne Kwak-Kim
    Published: October 30, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:693–722
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00077
    Open Access
    Do endometrial immune changes with age prior to menopause compromise fertility in women?
    Menopause signals the end of the reproductive period in women. However, fertility and fecundity decrease with increasing age prior to menopause demonstrating that changes in the premenopausal female [...] Read more.
    Mickey V. Patel ... Charles R. Wira
    Published: October 29, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:677–692
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00076
    Open Access
    A non-redundant role of complement protein C1q in normal and adverse pregnancy
    Complement component 1q (C1q) is the recognition molecule of the classical pathway of the complement system that can bind to an array of closely spaced antigen-bound immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM a [...] Read more.
    Chiara Agostinis ... Roberta Bulla
    Published: August 31, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:622–636
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00072
    Open Access
    Uterine natural killer cells and successful pregnancy: from mouse experiments to human physiology
    Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, a specific type of natural killer (NK) cells, are important cells at the foeto-maternal interface in humans as well as in mice. uNK cells are part of the innate l [...] Read more.
    Marijke M. Faas
    Published: August 25, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:518–539
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00065
    Open Access
    Contribution of immunology to build precision medicine in reproduction: present and future
    Infertility affects millions of people of reproductive age. The failure of a blastocyst to implant is a leading cause of psychological distress. It became increasingly evident that an effective immu [...] Read more.
    Alaa Kazhalawi ... Nathalie Lédée
    Published: August 26, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:558–571
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00067
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Pathogenesis of the obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome: the key role of beta 2 glycoprotein I
    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined by recurrent pregnancy morbidity and/or vascular thrombosis associated with the persistent presence of antibodies against anionic phospholipid-binding prot [...] Read more.
    Pier Luigi Meroni ... Francesco Tedesco
    Published: August 19, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:510–517
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00064
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Endometriosis through an immunological lens: a pathophysiology based in immune dysregulation
    Endometriosis (EMS) is an inflammatory, gynaecologic disease characterized by the growth of endometrial tissues outside the uterus. With no satisfactory therapies or non-invasive diagnostics availab [...] Read more.
    Alison McCallion ... Chandrakant Tayade
    Published: July 26, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:454–483
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00062
    Open Access
    Cytokines and pregnancy complications: modulation for prevention and treatment
    “There is many a slip twist the cup and the lip” is a proverb that dates back to the 3rd century. This proverb comes to mind while writing a review on pregnancy loss; so many complications can occur between fertilization and d [...] Read more.
    Raj Raghupathy
    Published: June 27, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:414–427
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00059
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Polycystic ovary syndrome and immune deregulation: what do hormones want to say?
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most frequently observed endocrinopathies among women of reproductive age that redound to subfertility. The specific etiology of this heterogenic syndr [...] Read more.
    Betcy Susan Johnson, Malini Laloraya
    Published: June 27, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:393–413
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00058
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Inviting regulatory T cells to pregnant endometrium: friends or foes in adverse pregnancy outcomes?
    Among decidual immune cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been unanimously recognized as central contributors to tolerance and maintenance of healthy pregnancy. Numerical and functional downregul [...] Read more.
    Shibin Cheng ... Surendra Sharma
    Published: June 13, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:363–382
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00056
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    The influence of reproductive hormones on systemic lupus erythematosus
    Humans are afflicted by a wide spectrum of autoimmune disorders, ranging from those affecting just one or a few organs to those associated with more systemic effects. In most instances, the etiology [...] Read more.
    Ruchi Sachdeva, Rahul Pal
    Published: June 07, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:351–362
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00055
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Endometriosis and autoimmunity
    Endometriosis is an inflammatory oestrogen-dependent chronic disease and is mainly expressed by pain and increased infertility. Several studies showed an increased prevalence of autoimmune systemic  [...] Read more.
    Noémie Abisror ... Arsene Mekinian
    Published: February 16, 2022 Explor Immunol. 2022;2:25–31
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2022.00034
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Pregnancy depends on a delicate balance of immune activation and regulation
    It is well recognized that immune tolerance is important to prevent semiallografted fetuses from rejection by maternal immunocompetent cells; however, immune activation also plays an important role  [...] Read more.
    Shigeru Saito ... Sayaka Tsuda
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:461–478
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00031
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Progesterone induced blocking factor in health and disease
    The foetus expressing paternal antigens ought to be “rejected” by the maternal immune system. However, the immunological relationship of the mother and the foetus does not follow the rules of transplantation immunology. Matern [...] Read more.
    Julia Szekeres-Bartho
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:406–417
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00027
    Open Access
    A unique vaccine for birth control and treatment of advanced stage cancers secreting ectopically human chorionic gonadotropin
    This article is a tribute and homage to Gerard Chaouat who invited me to contribute this article. My years in France have remained very memorable to me. Reviewed briefly is the vaccine that was made [...] Read more.
    Gursaran P. Talwar ... Krishna M. Ella
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:398–405
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00026
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Preeclampsia—an immune disease? An epidemiologic narrative
    The maternal syndrome preeclampsia is triggered by syncytiotrophoblast (STB) stress; the heterogeneity of the syndrome is caused by the different pathways leading to this STB stress. Inflammation pl [...] Read more.
    Gustaaf Albert Dekker, Pierre Yves Robillard
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:325–340
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00022
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Immunoregulation in the testis and its implication in fertility and infections
    The testis is designated as one of the immune previleged sites in the body and harbours a unique immunoregulatory environment, which is important for preventing an immune response against sperm anti [...] Read more.
    Kushaan Khambata ... Satish K. Gupta
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. 2021;1:309–324
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/ei.2021.00021
    Times Cited: 0