Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a mesodermal stem cell population, with known self-renewal and multilineage differentiation properties. In the last century, MSCs have been widely used in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering approaches. MSCs initially were isolated from bone marrow aspirates, but currently have been identified in a great number of tissues of the human body. Besides their utilization in regenerative medicine, MSCs possess significant immunoregulatory/immunosuppressive properties, through interaction with the cells of innate and adaptive immunity. MSCs can exert their immunomodulatory properties with either cell-cell contact or via paracrine secretion of molecules, such as cytokines, growth factors and chemokines. Of particular importance, the MSCs’ immunomodulatory properties are explored as promising therapeutic strategies in immune-related disorders, such as autoimmune diseases, graft versus host disease, cancer. MSCs may also have an additional impact on coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), by attenuating the severe symptoms of this disorder. Nowadays, a great number of clinical trials, of MSC-mediated therapies are evaluated for their therapeutic potential. In this review, the current knowledge on cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in MSC-mediated immunomodulation were highlighted. Also, the most important aspects, regarding their potential application in immune-related diseases, will be highlighted. The broad application of MSCs has emerged their role as key immunomodulatory players, therefore their utilization in many disease situations is full of possibilities for future clinical treatment.
Skin is the largest organ of the body having multifunctional activities. It has a dynamic cellular network with unique immunologic properties to maintain defensive actions, photoprotection, immune response, inflammation, tolerogenic capacity, wound healing, etc. The immune cells of the skin exhibit distinct properties. They can synthesize active vitamin D [1,24(OH)2D3] and express vitamin D receptors. Any difficulties in the cutaneous immune system cause skin diseases (psoriasis, vitiligo, atopic dermatitis, skin carcinoma, and others). Vitamin D is an essential factor, exhibits immunomodulatory effects by regulating dendritic cells’ maturation, lymphocytes’ functions, and cytokine production. More specifically, vitamin D acts as an immune balancing agent, inhibits the exaggeration of immunostimulation. This vitamin suppresses T-helper 1 and T-helper 17 cell formation decreases inflammatory cytokines release and promotes the maturation of regulatory T cells and interleukin 10 secretion. The deficiency of this vitamin promotes the occurrence of immunoreactive disorders. Administration of vitamin D or its analogs is the therapeutic choice for the treatment of several skin diseases.
Arginase-1 (Arg1) and the inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) compete for the common substrate L-arginine, semi-essential amino acid, and central intestinal metabolite. Both enzymes exhibit various, sometimes opposing effects on immune responses, tissue regeneration, or microbial growth and replication. In sub-mucosal tissues of patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), similar as in experimental colitis, the expression and activity of both enzymes, Arg1 and NOS2 are more prominent than in respective controls. Accordingly, the metabolism of L-arginine is altered in IBD patients. Thus, L-arginine represents a promising medical target for clinical intervention in these devastating diseases. Previous studies primarily focused on the host side of L-arginine metabolism. Initial reports using Arg1 inhibitors generated conflicting results in murine colitis models. Subsequently, only the generation of conditional Arg1 knockout mice allowed reliable functional analyses of Arg1 and the L-arginine metabolism in the immune system. Utilizing cell-specific conditional Arg1 knockouts, we have recently reported that Arg1, surprisingly, hampered the resolution of experimental colitis due to the restriction of the intraluminal availability of L-arginine. Reduced levels of L-arginine restrained the compositional diversity of the intestinal microbiota and subsequently the mutual metabolism between the microbiota and the host. Thus, the intraluminal microbiota represents a potential therapeutic target for L-arginine metabolism aside from host-dependent L-arginine consumption.
As the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 is a new virus, the current knowledge on the immunopathogenesis of this newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 is beginning to unravel with intensive ongoing global research efforts. Although a plethora of new studies have been published in a short space of time describing how the virus causes disease and incurs insults on the host immune system and the underlying immunopathogenic mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Thus, the discussion in this review is based on the most current knowledge on the immunopathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 that has emerged in the past 12 months. The main objective is to shed light on the most current concepts in immunopathological aspects of the lung, bloodstream, and brain caused by the SARS-CoV-2, which has led to the current pandemic resulting in > 100 million infections and > 2 million deaths, and ongoing.
Immunity is continuously evolving by evolutionary mechanisms shaped by pathogenic stimuli of different kinds. Man-made nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed in the last decades and represent a novel challenge for our immune system, especially when applied to medical science. Toxicological studies of such nanoparticles (NPs) revealed that size, shape, and surface chemistry are key parameters to understand their noxious effects on cellular mechanisms. Less is known on the immune reactions to NMs since prolonged exposure data are not so detailed as the results for acute administration. The importance of immunity to biocompatible NPs is underlined by their increasing use as drug or gene delivery carriers in common pharmaceutical preparations and vaccines. In the latter case, the immunomodulatory properties of NMs allow their use also as efficient adjuvants to enhance the innate immune response. In the current manuscript, the authors discuss the main concepts in this fast-growing field by restricting our view to NMs with consolidated application in biomedicine.
Interleukin (IL)-22 is produced from immune cells such as T helper (Th)22 cells, Th17/22 cells, and group 3 innate lymphoid cells. IL-22 signals via the IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and the IL-10 receptor 2 (IL-10R2). As the IL-22R1/IL-10R2 heterodimer is preferentially expressed on border tissue between the host and the environment, IL-22 is believed to be involved in border defense. Epidermal keratinocytes are the first-line skin barrier and express IL-22R1/IL-10R2. IL-22 increases keratinocyte proliferation but inhibits differentiation. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a chemical sensor and an essential transcription factor for IL-22 production. In addition, AHR also upregulates the production of barrier-related proteins such as filaggrin in keratinocytes, suggesting a pivotal role for the AHR-IL-22 axis in regulating the physiological skin barrier. Although IL-22 signatures are elevated in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, their pathogenic and/or protective implications are not fully understood.
Fragment crystallizable (Fc) glycans modulate Fc conformations and functions, and glycan may also regulate antigen recognition. In the antibody drug development, glycosylation patterns affect antibody drug characteristics and quality control. In order to provide a global feature of N-glycan interactions in response to antigen and Fc receptor bindings, the interactions among Fc N-glycans and N-glycans’ interaction with Fc CH2 and CH3 domains have been studied.
Molecular dynamics simulations were used to generate conformation ensembles of free antibody, antibody-antigen complex, antibody-human Fc-gamma-receptor-I (hFcγRI) and antibody-antigen-hFcγRI, the hydrogen bonds and radial distance distribution involving N-glycans carbohydrate chains have been analyzed.
Two important interaction patterns have been observed. The first is the strong but non-specific interactions between two carbohydrate chains in free antibody. Secondly, it has been found that N-glycans carbohydrate chains can directly interact with CH3 domain in free antibody, and that the distance distribution between carbohydrate chains and CH3 domain clearly differentiate the free antibody, antibody-antigen complex, antibody-hFcγRI complex, and final antibody-antigen-hFcγRI complex.
N-glycans partially acts as allosteric sensor and respond to antigen and hFcγRI binding.
The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019, a global pandemic. There is hence an urgent need for effective approaches to understand the mechanism of viral interaction with immune cells that lead to viral elimination and subsequent long-term immunity. The first, immediate response to the viral infection involves mobilization of native immunity and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I mechanisms to kill infected cells and eliminate the virus. The second line of defense involves the activation of HLA class II system for the production of antibodies against the virus which will add to the elimination of the virus and prevent future infections. In a previous study, investigated the relations between SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S protein) and HLA class II alleles were investigaed; here report on the relations of the S protein and the open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab) of SARS-CoV-2 to HLA class I alleles.
An in silico sliding window approach was used to determine exhaustively the binding affinities of linear epitopes of 10 amino acid length (10-mers) to each of 61 common (global frequency ≥ 0.01) HLA class I molecules (17, 24 and 20 from gene loci A, B and C, respectively). A total of 8,354 epitopes were analyzed; 1,263 from the S protein and 7,091 from ORF1ab.
HLA-A genes were the most effective at binding SARS-CoV-2 epitopes for both spike and ORF1ab proteins. Good binding affinities were found for all three genes and were distributed throughout the length of the S protein and ORF1ab polyprotein sequence.
Common HLA class I molecules, as a population, are very well suited to binding with high affinity to SARS-CoV-2 spike and ORF1ab proteins and hence should be effective in aiding the early elimination of the virus.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by skin barrier disruption, type 2 immune dysregulation, chronic pruritus, and abnormal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Tapinarof, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulator, has been demonstrated to attenuate the development of AD in clinical studies. Recently, we found that tapinarof upregulated the expression of filaggrin and loricrin, which are essential proteins in skin barrier functions. Paradoxically, tapinarof induced interleukin (IL)-24 secretion by normal human keratinocytes. IL-24 is produced by T helper 2 lymphocytes and keratinocytes following stimulation by type 2 cytokines, and IL-24 is upregulated in the skin of patients with AD. Furthermore, IL-24 contributes to skin barrier disruption and hyperplasia in AD, and it may exacerbate skin inflammatory responses, itch, and S. aureus infection. In this review, we summarized the current findings regarding the detrimental role of IL-24 in AD, thereby suggesting that co-treatment of tapinarof with therapeutics that block IL-24 signaling may represent a promising strategy for managing AD.