Viral vectors have been frequently applied for vaccine development. It has also been the case for vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to tackle the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A multitude of different viral vectors have been mainly targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein as antigen. Intramuscular injection has been most commonly used, but also intranasal administration has been tested. Adenovirus vector-based vaccines are the most advanced with several vaccines receiving Emergency Use Authorization (EUA). The simian ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine applied as a prime-boost regimen has provided 62.1–90% vaccine efficacy in clinical trials. The Ad26.COV2.S vaccine requires only one immunization to provide protection against SARS-CoV-2. The rAd26-S/rAd5-S vaccine utilizes the Ad26 serotype for the prime immunization followed by a boost with the Ad5 serotype resulting in 91.2% vaccine efficacy. All adenovirus-based vaccines are used for mass vaccinations. Moreover, vaccine candidates based on vaccinia virus and lentivirus vectors have been subjected to clinical evaluation. Among self-replicating RNA viruses, vaccine vectors based on measles virus, rhabdoviruses, and alphaviruses have been engineered and tested in clinical trials. In addition to the intramuscular route of administration vaccine candidates based on influenza viruses and adenoviruses have been subjected to intranasal delivery showing antibody responses and protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenges in animal models. The detection of novel more transmissible and pathogenic SARS-CoV-2 variants added concerns about the vaccine efficacy and needs to be monitored. Moreover, the cause of recently documented rare cases of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) must be investigated.
Both innate and adaptive immune cells exist in the skin, predominantly in the dermis layer. Recent studies have focused on how and which circadian rhythms contribute to maintain good health. Over recent years, we have gained a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control biological clocks and circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms maintain homeostasis by providing day and night information to various physiological functions of our body. However, excessively high immune system activity can lead to a risk of developing autoimmune or allergic diseases. Recently, increasing numbers of studies with human and mouse models have been conducted to investigate the mechanisms underlying circadian regulation of the skin homeostasis. In this review, circadian regulation in the skin will be discussed from different points of view. Skin is referred as the largest organ of the body and is directly exposed to the external environment, including large changes in diurnal temperature, light, and pathogens. Immune cells as well as skin cells are the ones protecting us from these stimulants. Associations of the circadian system and these cells have been revealed in many ways, however, the specific roles of the peripheral clocks in these cells remain unknown. Circadian regulation in the skin diseases is discussed specifically in atopic dermatitis and other skin allergic symptoms as well as psoriasis.
Previously, we reported increased number of T helper 17 (Th17) cells in vitiligo. However, in our recent study, tryptase and interleukin (IL)17 double positive cells which identified by polyclonal anti-IL17 antibody with specificity for IL17A, B, D, F was observed, but these mast cells cannot be stained by monoclonal anti-IL17 antibody with specificity for IL17A. Therefore, this study was aimed to clarify the role of mast cells in induction and progression of vitiligo.
Mast cells were stained with two antibodies against IL17 and one antibody against tryptase by immunofluorescent staining. Furthermore, immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) analyses were conducted using anti-tryptase. In vitro, cultured epidermal keratinocytes were treated with agents which released by mast cells. Expression levels of mRNA were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), expression of protein levels was analyzed by western blotting.
An increased number of tryptase positive mast cells was observed at the lesional skin of upper dermis in vitiligo and rhododendrol-induced leukoderma (RDIL). These mast cells showed prominent degranulation in vitiligo. Interestingly, the melanosome forming glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) is downregulated in the lesional basal keratinocytes in vitiligo and mast cell tryptase contributes to this phenomenon. In addition, small interfering GPNMB RNA (siGPNMB RNA)-introduced keratinocytes increased melanocyte survival through stem cell factor (SCF) production in the melanocyte/keratinocyte co-culture system.
Mast cells might be two-faced in vitiligo induction, progression, and recovery through the differential function of histamine and tryptase.
Chronic inflammation is closely associated with tryptophan (TRP)-kynurenine (KYN) metabolic pathway. However, TRP-KYN pathway has not been fully elucidated in psoriasis, a systemic inflammatory disease with skin lesions and extracutaneous manifestations. Herein, we studied comprehensively serum profiles of TRP-KYN pathway metabolites in psoriatic patients (PSOs) to clarify the involvement of this pathway in the pathophysiology of psoriasis and to evaluate serum biomarkers reflecting systemic inflammation in PSOs.
The concentrations of main TRP metabolites, TRP, KYN, 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK), kynurenic acid (KYNA), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3HAA), and anthranilic acid (AA), were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography in the sera from 65 PSOs and 35 healthy controls (HCs). The levels of these metabolites and the ratios of metabolites were compared between these subjects. The correlations between these values and the psoriasis area severity index (PASI) scores were analyzed. Skin samples from PSOs and HCs were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for kynureninase, catabolic enzyme from KYN or 3HK to downstream. Cytokine concentrations were comprehensively measured in the same samples and the correlations between the cytokine levels and TRP-KYN pathway metabolite levels were examined.
Serum TRP, KYN, and KYNA concentrations were lower and the 3HAA concentrations were higher in PSOs than in HCs. The ratios of 3HK/KYN, 3HAA/3HK, and 3HK/AA were higher in PSOs than in HCs. The AA levels and the ratio of AA/KYN were weakly positively correlated, and TRP, KYNA, and 3HK levels and the ratios of KYNA/KYN and 3HAA/AA were weakly negatively correlated with the PASI scores. The AA, KYN, and KYNA levels were positively correlated with the interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) concentrations. Kynureninase expression was enhanced in the epidermis, both involved and uninvolved skin.
Serum profiles of TRP-KYN pathway metabolites differed between PSOs and HCs. TRP-KYN pathway-associated processes, including kynureninase activation, may be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, and thus serve as targets for psoriasis therapy.
There have been significant developments in the design of nanostructured scaffolds for eliciting robust immune responses named vaccine. The technique is to produce strong immune responses is to manipulate the appearance of a pathogen. Subsequently pathogens such as viruses and bacteria often demonstrate of multiple copies of ligands on their surfaces, the immune system is predominantly sensitive towards multivalent presentations of antigens. Consequently, when designing a vaccine, it is beneficial to garnish a nanostructured surface with multiple copies of an antigen so it can effectively act as an immune booster. Different methods are there for the development of the vaccine, from them most of the techniques are well developed and reported and some of in the developing state. This review focuses primarily on cellular and non-cellular vaccines, the whole cells or cellular proteins either as the source of antigens or the platform in which to deliver the antigens. Purpose of this review, understand and discussion on the various vaccine platforms which will contribute noteworthy information to vaccine research and development (R and D).
There are various types of skin immune responses including inflammatory skin diseases and skin malignancy. Macrophages and fibroblasts are skin resident cells that had been overlooked in terms of immunological research targets. In this review, cross talk among macrophages, fibroblasts, and migratory immune cells in skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD), contact hypersensitivity, psoriasis, systemic sclerosis, melanoma, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is described. Macrophages are important in AD by antigen-presenting phagocytosis, production of inflammatory cytokines, removal of apoptotic cells, and mediating clusters between dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells. They are also increased in lesional skin of psoriasis, especially in stable plaques, and an increased ratio of M1/M2 macrophages and tumor necrosis factor-α production by macrophages are essential for development of psoriasis. The progression of skin malignancy is mediated by macrophages through promotion of tumor survival pathways via expression of cytokines and growth factors, interaction with regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and suppression of function of tumor-infiltrating T cells by immunosuppressive cytokines and programmed death-ligand (PD-L)1. Fibroblasts play important roles in development and maintenance of AD lesions through expression of CC chemokine ligand (CCL)17, CCL11, CCL26, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL)12, CCL19, and periostin, interacting with T helper (Th)2 cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells, DCs, and keratinocytes. They also play important roles in psoriasis, expressing interleukin (IL)-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor, production of fibronectin, and changes in the proteomic profiles. Fibroblasts have a critical role in the progression skin malignancy via expression of cytokines, suppression natural killer (NK) functions, and establishment of Th2-dominant microenvironment. Thus, cross talk among macrophages, fibroblasts, and migratory immune cells including T cells, DCs, and NK cells in skin diseases is important and those skin-resident cells are attracting therapeutic targets in the near future.
Understanding the interactions of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) with humans is deeply grounded in immunology, from the diagnosis to pathogenesis, from the clinical presentations to the epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. However, the difficulty of capturing the complex and changeable array of immunological concepts and incorporating them into the strategies of control of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic poses significant hindrances to establish optimal public health policies. The contribution of immunology to the control of the pandemic is to shed light on the features and mechanisms of the protective immunity elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccines. Do they induce effective protective immunity? How? For how long? What is the effect of vaccination on individuals who were previously infected? To appropriately answer these questions, it is necessary to get rid of the outdated notion of a naïve, static, and closed immune system, which leads to misconceptions about susceptibility, specificity, immunological memory, and protective immunity. The present essay discusses these issues based on current immunological concepts.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a relatively widespread cancer with high mortality rates. Many patients with locally advanced disease are treated with combinations of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, while others are considered incurable and develop recurrent/metastatic (R/M) disease. Despite these treatment modalities, the 5-year survival rate of HNSCC has remained at 50% due to limited treatment options in patients with recurrent disease. Immunotherapy has been shown to induce durable responses in R/M patients, but only a minority of patients currently respond. A major hurdle in tumor immunotherapy is identifying the non-responders and markers to predict resistance in patients who at first responded to the therapy. In HNSCC patients, the tumor microenvironment (TME) assumes a vital role to either diminish or augment immune responses. There is an urgent need for extensive studies to be undertaken to better understand how tumor cells escape immune surveillance and resist immune attack. In this review, the impact of TME on the efficiency of immunotherapy, addressing the factors that mediate therapy resistance are highlighted. The composition of the TME encompassing the immunosuppressive cells including myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC), regulatory T cells (Treg), mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF), and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and intrinsic factors like hypoxia, reactive oxygen species (ROS), extracellular matrix (ECM), angiogenesis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), how this debilitates immunosurveillance, and also discuss existing and potential strategies aimed at targeting these cellular and molecular TME components are reviewed. Understanding the interactions between the TME and immunotherapy is not only important in dissevering the mechanisms of action of immunosuppression but also offers scope for developing newer strategies to improve the competence of current immunotherapies.
The envelope protein of novel coronavirus 2 (nCoV2) was reported to be highly conserved compared to its spike (S) protein which was shown to undergo several alterations in their amino acid sequences in the span of one year (2020–2021). Therefore, it is aimed to consider highly conserved structural protein of nCov2 namely envelope (E) protein to design the polytope for the formulation of the vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19).
Online in silico tools were employed to decipher the conservancy and antigenicity of E-protein of nCoV2. They are: to evaluate the molecular affinities among the chosen representatives of alpha and beta coronaviruses, the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) X 10.1.1 was used. Immune Epitope Database (IEDB)-NetMHCpan (ver. 4.1) tool was used to predict the epitopes of E protein binding to the frequently distributed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I alleles. ProtParam, VaxJen, ToxinPred and AllerTop online tools were used to assess the physicochemical features, antigenicity, non-toxin and non-allergen aspects of constructed polytope. Secondary structure analysis and homology modelling validation of polytope were done using Phyre2 online tool. Discontinuous and linear epitopes of the designed polytope were predicted through IEDB Ellipro tool. Population coverage of epitopes of the polytope was performed using IEDB online tool with the frequent distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) I alleles in the South Indian Asian population.
The phylogeny of envelope proteins of chosen representatives of Coronaviridae confirmed its conservancy and possible origin of nCoV2 from alpha coronaviruses through vampire CoV2. The designed polytope of E-protein was with 53 amino acid residues. The same was developed by linking with cysteine and serine (CS) residues in between epitopes.
The antigenicity, non-allergen, non-toxin, homology modelling, discontinuous and linear epitopes of the designed polytope authenticate to explore the envelope protein for prophylactic measures. The epitopes of polytope were found to restrict to MHC I alleles occurring frequently among South Indian Asians.
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 spread globally and creates an alarming situation. Following the SARS-CoV-2 paradigm, therapeutic efficacy is achieved via repurposing several antiviral, antibacterial, and antimalarial drugs. Innate and adaptive immune cells work close to combat infection through the intricate production of antibodies (Abs) and inflammatory cytokines. As an essential component of the immune system, Abs play an important role in eliminating viruses and maintaining homeostasis. B lymphocytes (B cells) are effector cells, stringent to produce neutralizing Abs to combat infection. After recognizing SARS-CoV-2 antigens by a surface receptor called B cell receptors (BCRs) on the plasma membrane, the BCRs transmembrane signal transduction and immune activation results in Ab production and development of immune memory. Thus, it ensures that plasma B cells can quickly start an intricate immune response to generate efficient protective Abs to clear the pathogen. Nevertheless, considering therapeutic challenges in the context of the new coronavirus pandemic, this review addresses the molecular mechanism of the immune activation and function of novel SARS-CoV-2 specific B cells in the production of SARS-CoV-2 specific Abs. Additionally, these studies highlighted the Ab-mediated pathogenesis, the intriguing role of nano-scale signaling subunits, non-structural proteins during COVID-19 infection, and structural insights of SARS-CoV-2 specific Abs.
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a mesodermal stem cell population, with known self-renewal and multilineage differentiation properties. In the last century, MSCs have been widely used in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering approaches. MSCs initially were isolated from bone marrow aspirates, but currently have been identified in a great number of tissues of the human body. Besides their utilization in regenerative medicine, MSCs possess significant immunoregulatory/immunosuppressive properties, through interaction with the cells of innate and adaptive immunity. MSCs can exert their immunomodulatory properties with either cell-cell contact or via paracrine secretion of molecules, such as cytokines, growth factors and chemokines. Of particular importance, the MSCs’ immunomodulatory properties are explored as promising therapeutic strategies in immune-related disorders, such as autoimmune diseases, graft versus host disease, cancer. MSCs may also have an additional impact on coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), by attenuating the severe symptoms of this disorder. Nowadays, a great number of clinical trials, of MSC-mediated therapies are evaluated for their therapeutic potential. In this review, the current knowledge on cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in MSC-mediated immunomodulation were highlighted. Also, the most important aspects, regarding their potential application in immune-related diseases, will be highlighted. The broad application of MSCs has emerged their role as key immunomodulatory players, therefore their utilization in many disease situations is full of possibilities for future clinical treatment.
Skin is the largest organ of the body having multifunctional activities. It has a dynamic cellular network with unique immunologic properties to maintain defensive actions, photoprotection, immune response, inflammation, tolerogenic capacity, wound healing, etc. The immune cells of the skin exhibit distinct properties. They can synthesize active vitamin D [1,24(OH)2D3] and express vitamin D receptors. Any difficulties in the cutaneous immune system cause skin diseases (psoriasis, vitiligo, atopic dermatitis, skin carcinoma, and others). Vitamin D is an essential factor, exhibits immunomodulatory effects by regulating dendritic cells’ maturation, lymphocytes’ functions, and cytokine production. More specifically, vitamin D acts as an immune balancing agent, inhibits the exaggeration of immunostimulation. This vitamin suppresses T-helper 1 and T-helper 17 cell formation decreases inflammatory cytokines release and promotes the maturation of regulatory T cells and interleukin 10 secretion. The deficiency of this vitamin promotes the occurrence of immunoreactive disorders. Administration of vitamin D or its analogs is the therapeutic choice for the treatment of several skin diseases.
Arginase-1 (Arg1) and the inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) compete for the common substrate L-arginine, semi-essential amino acid, and central intestinal metabolite. Both enzymes exhibit various, sometimes opposing effects on immune responses, tissue regeneration, or microbial growth and replication. In sub-mucosal tissues of patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), similar as in experimental colitis, the expression and activity of both enzymes, Arg1 and NOS2 are more prominent than in respective controls. Accordingly, the metabolism of L-arginine is altered in IBD patients. Thus, L-arginine represents a promising medical target for clinical intervention in these devastating diseases. Previous studies primarily focused on the host side of L-arginine metabolism. Initial reports using Arg1 inhibitors generated conflicting results in murine colitis models. Subsequently, only the generation of conditional Arg1 knockout mice allowed reliable functional analyses of Arg1 and the L-arginine metabolism in the immune system. Utilizing cell-specific conditional Arg1 knockouts, we have recently reported that Arg1, surprisingly, hampered the resolution of experimental colitis due to the restriction of the intraluminal availability of L-arginine. Reduced levels of L-arginine restrained the compositional diversity of the intestinal microbiota and subsequently the mutual metabolism between the microbiota and the host. Thus, the intraluminal microbiota represents a potential therapeutic target for L-arginine metabolism aside from host-dependent L-arginine consumption.
As the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 is a new virus, the current knowledge on the immunopathogenesis of this newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 is beginning to unravel with intensive ongoing global research efforts. Although a plethora of new studies have been published in a short space of time describing how the virus causes disease and incurs insults on the host immune system and the underlying immunopathogenic mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Thus, the discussion in this review is based on the most current knowledge on the immunopathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 that has emerged in the past 12 months. The main objective is to shed light on the most current concepts in immunopathological aspects of the lung, bloodstream, and brain caused by the SARS-CoV-2, which has led to the current pandemic resulting in > 100 million infections and > 2 million deaths, and ongoing.
Immunity is continuously evolving by evolutionary mechanisms shaped by pathogenic stimuli of different kinds. Man-made nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed in the last decades and represent a novel challenge for our immune system, especially when applied to medical science. Toxicological studies of such nanoparticles (NPs) revealed that size, shape, and surface chemistry are key parameters to understand their noxious effects on cellular mechanisms. Less is known on the immune reactions to NMs since prolonged exposure data are not so detailed as the results for acute administration. The importance of immunity to biocompatible NPs is underlined by their increasing use as drug or gene delivery carriers in common pharmaceutical preparations and vaccines. In the latter case, the immunomodulatory properties of NMs allow their use also as efficient adjuvants to enhance the innate immune response. In the current manuscript, the authors discuss the main concepts in this fast-growing field by restricting our view to NMs with consolidated application in biomedicine.
Interleukin (IL)-22 is produced from immune cells such as T helper (Th)22 cells, Th17/22 cells, and group 3 innate lymphoid cells. IL-22 signals via the IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and the IL-10 receptor 2 (IL-10R2). As the IL-22R1/IL-10R2 heterodimer is preferentially expressed on border tissue between the host and the environment, IL-22 is believed to be involved in border defense. Epidermal keratinocytes are the first-line skin barrier and express IL-22R1/IL-10R2. IL-22 increases keratinocyte proliferation but inhibits differentiation. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a chemical sensor and an essential transcription factor for IL-22 production. In addition, AHR also upregulates the production of barrier-related proteins such as filaggrin in keratinocytes, suggesting a pivotal role for the AHR-IL-22 axis in regulating the physiological skin barrier. Although IL-22 signatures are elevated in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, their pathogenic and/or protective implications are not fully understood.
Fragment crystallizable (Fc) glycans modulate Fc conformations and functions, and glycan may also regulate antigen recognition. In the antibody drug development, glycosylation patterns affect antibody drug characteristics and quality control. In order to provide a global feature of N-glycan interactions in response to antigen and Fc receptor bindings, the interactions among Fc N-glycans and N-glycans’ interaction with Fc CH2 and CH3 domains have been studied.
Molecular dynamics simulations were used to generate conformation ensembles of free antibody, antibody-antigen complex, antibody-human Fc-gamma-receptor-I (hFcγRI) and antibody-antigen-hFcγRI, the hydrogen bonds and radial distance distribution involving N-glycans carbohydrate chains have been analyzed.
Two important interaction patterns have been observed. The first is the strong but non-specific interactions between two carbohydrate chains in free antibody. Secondly, it has been found that N-glycans carbohydrate chains can directly interact with CH3 domain in free antibody, and that the distance distribution between carbohydrate chains and CH3 domain clearly differentiate the free antibody, antibody-antigen complex, antibody-hFcγRI complex, and final antibody-antigen-hFcγRI complex.
N-glycans partially acts as allosteric sensor and respond to antigen and hFcγRI binding.
The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019, a global pandemic. There is hence an urgent need for effective approaches to understand the mechanism of viral interaction with immune cells that lead to viral elimination and subsequent long-term immunity. The first, immediate response to the viral infection involves mobilization of native immunity and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I mechanisms to kill infected cells and eliminate the virus. The second line of defense involves the activation of HLA class II system for the production of antibodies against the virus which will add to the elimination of the virus and prevent future infections. In a previous study, investigated the relations between SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S protein) and HLA class II alleles were investigaed; here report on the relations of the S protein and the open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab) of SARS-CoV-2 to HLA class I alleles.
An in silico sliding window approach was used to determine exhaustively the binding affinities of linear epitopes of 10 amino acid length (10-mers) to each of 61 common (global frequency ≥ 0.01) HLA class I molecules (17, 24 and 20 from gene loci A, B and C, respectively). A total of 8,354 epitopes were analyzed; 1,263 from the S protein and 7,091 from ORF1ab.
HLA-A genes were the most effective at binding SARS-CoV-2 epitopes for both spike and ORF1ab proteins. Good binding affinities were found for all three genes and were distributed throughout the length of the S protein and ORF1ab polyprotein sequence.
Common HLA class I molecules, as a population, are very well suited to binding with high affinity to SARS-CoV-2 spike and ORF1ab proteins and hence should be effective in aiding the early elimination of the virus.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by skin barrier disruption, type 2 immune dysregulation, chronic pruritus, and abnormal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Tapinarof, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulator, has been demonstrated to attenuate the development of AD in clinical studies. Recently, we found that tapinarof upregulated the expression of filaggrin and loricrin, which are essential proteins in skin barrier functions. Paradoxically, tapinarof induced interleukin (IL)-24 secretion by normal human keratinocytes. IL-24 is produced by T helper 2 lymphocytes and keratinocytes following stimulation by type 2 cytokines, and IL-24 is upregulated in the skin of patients with AD. Furthermore, IL-24 contributes to skin barrier disruption and hyperplasia in AD, and it may exacerbate skin inflammatory responses, itch, and S. aureus infection. In this review, we summarized the current findings regarding the detrimental role of IL-24 in AD, thereby suggesting that co-treatment of tapinarof with therapeutics that block IL-24 signaling may represent a promising strategy for managing AD.