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    Review
    Janus face of sepsis: a viewpoint
    Treatment of sepsis currently relies on eliminating the causal pathogen and supportive care, whereas almost no approaches to interfere with the defining event of a “dysregulated host response” are available. This review points to the striking correlation of two phenotypes of sepsis etiopathology with the concept of bipartite response patterns of higher organisms to microbial attacks. According to this concept, the phenotypes of sepsis can be interpreted as either resistance or tolerance responses to infection that got out of hand. This concept might allow focusing sepsis research and related patient studies on key conundrums of current sepsis research: how do resistance responses result in immunopathology and how can tolerance lead to systemic immunosuppression or even immunoparalysis? The heuristic vigor of these questions might inspire experimental efforts and clinical studies and ultimately advance the therapeutic armamentarium for sepsis care....
    Michael Bauer, Reinhard Wetzker
    Published: May 24, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00051
    Viewed:52
    Downloaded:4
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    Review
    Therapeutic and prophylactic applications of self-replicating RNA viruses
    Self-replicating RNA viruses have been commonly used for preventive and therapeutic interventions in the fields of infectious diseases and cancers. Both RNA viruses with single-stranded RNA genomes ...
    Kenneth Lundstrom
    Published: May 18, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00050
    Viewed:105
    Downloaded:7
    Open Access
    Review
    SARS-CoV-2: overview of immune response, insights into vaccine platforms and their challenges
    The crown-like shaped viruses known as coronaviruses which were first reported in the 1960’s have caused three epidemics in the past two decades namely, coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in the latter half of December in Wuhan, a city of China, with people affected by deadly pneumonia with unknown etiology. Since then, the world has experienced two phases of virus spread with different symptoms and disease severity. This review embarks on the journey to investigate candidate molecules of this virus which can and are being investigated for various vaccine formulations and to discuss immunity developed against this virus....
    Balram Ji Omar ... Manju O. Pai
    Published: May 16, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00049
    Viewed:191
    Downloaded:9
    Open Access
    Review
    Mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and its role in Alzheimer’s disease
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a common neurological disease in the elderly, and the major manifestations are cognitive dysfunction, neuronal loss, and neuropathic lesions in the brain. In ...
    Xiaohan Gao ... Xueling Dai
    Published: May 07, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00048
    Viewed:129
    Downloaded:12
    Open Access
    Perspective
    Anti-cancer γδ T lymphocytes: contradictory past and promising future
    Recent anti-cancer strategies are based on the stimulation of anti-tumor immune reaction, exploiting distinct lymphocyte subsets. Among them, γδ T cells represent optimal anti-cancer candidates, especially in those tissues where they are highly localized, such as the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract. One important challenge has been the identification of stimulating drugs able to induce and maintain γδ T cell-mediated anti-cancer immune response. Amino-bisphosphonates (N-BPs) have been largely employed in anti-cancer clinical trials due to their ability to upregulate the accumulation of pyrophosphates that promote the activation of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. This activation depends on the butyrophilin A family, which is crucial in contributing to Vγ9Vδ2 T cells stimulation but is not equally expressed in all cancer tissues. Thus, the clinical outcome of such treatments is still a challenge. In this viewpoint, a critical picture of γδ T cells as effective anti-cancer effectors is designed, with a specific focus on the best immune-stimulating therapeutic schemes involving this lymphocyte subset and the tools available to measure their efficacy and presence in tumor tissues. Some pre-clinical models, useful to measure γδ T cell anti-cancer potential and their response to stimulating drugs, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, or bispecific antibodies are described. Computerized imaging and digital pathology are also proposed as a help in the identification of co-stimulatory molecules and localization of γδ T cell effectors. Finally, two types of novel drug preparation are proposed: nanoparticles loaded with N-BPs and pro-drug formulations that enhance the effectiveness of γδ T lymphocyte stimulation....
    Alessandro Poggi, Maria Raffaella Zocchi
    Published: April 28, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00047
    Viewed:221
    Downloaded:18
    Open Access
    Review
    A proposed new paradigm for an anti-AIDS tolerogenic vaccine
    Until now, despite 30 years of intensive work, the RV144 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine trial initiated in 2003 remains so far the most protective vaccine prototype of all those tested (...
    Christine Jacomet
    Published: April 24, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00046
    Viewed:196
    Downloaded:14
    Open Access
    Original Article
    Thymosin alpha 1 therapy alleviates organ dysfunction of sepsis patients: a retrospective cohort study
    Aim: Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) is a promising treatment for the improvement of sepsis patients. Until now, its function in reducing acute organ damage of sepsis patients is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether Tα1 can alleviate organ dysfunction in sepsis patients....
    Fei Pei ... on behalf of the China Critical Care Immunotherapy Research Group
    Published: April 22, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00045
    Viewed:200
    Downloaded:20
    Open Access
    Original Article
    Single-cell differentiation trajectories define early stages of a human cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
    Aim: The aim of this article is to characterize in detail the γδ T lymphocytes from an adult patient with primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma of γδ s...
    Juan-Pablo Cerapio ... Jean-Jacques Fournie
    Published: April 15, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00044
    Viewed:241
    Downloaded:16
    Open Access
    Review
    Paradigms in HIV vaccine research
    Although a large number of preventative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine trials have been carried out during the last 30 years, it is remarkable that an effective HIV vaccine has not yet b...
    Marc H.V. Van Regenmortel
    Published: March 17, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00043
    Viewed:246
    Downloaded:21
    Open Access
    Review
    Augmenting human gamma delta lymphocytes for cancer therapy with chimeric antigen receptors
    Gamma delta lymphocytes (γδ T) sit at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. They have the capacity to recognize cancer cells by interaction of their surface receptors with an array of cancer cell surface target antigens. Interactions include the binding of γδ T cell receptors, the ligands for which are diverse and do not involve classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Moreover, a variety of natural killer-like and fragment crystallizable gamma (Fcγ) receptors confer additional cancer reactivity. Given this innate capacity to recognize and kill cancer cells, there appears less rationale for redirecting specific to cancer cell surface antigens through chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) expression. Several groups have however reported research findings that expression of CARs in γδ T cells can confer additional specificity or functionality. Though limited in number, these studies collectively identify the potential of CAR-T engineering to augment and fine tune anti-cancer responses. Together with the lack of graft versus host disease induced by allogeneic γδ T cells, these insights should encourage researchers to explore additional γδ T-CAR refinements for the development of off-the-shelf anti-cancer cell therapies. ...
    Gabrielle M. Ferry, John Anderson
    Published: March 17, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00042
    Viewed:333
    Downloaded:30
    Open Access
    Review
    High avidity of vaccine-induced immunoglobulin G against SARS-CoV-2: potential relevance for protective humoral immunity
    Avidity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is defined as its binding strength to its target antigen. As a consequence of affinity maturation of the IgG response, avidity is maturing as well. Therefore, acute...
    Georg Bauer
    Published: March 16, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00040
    Viewed:283
    Downloaded:22
    Open Access
    Review
    The role of γδ T cells in the context of allogeneic stem cell transplantation
    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is currently the only curative approach for a variety of malignant and non-malignant diseases. In the early transplant era, the intent of this treatment was to a...
    Rupert Handgretinger ... Manon Queudeville
    Published: March 16, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00041
    Viewed:309
    Downloaded:28
    Open Access
    Review
    Novel insights based on the plasticity of γδ T cells in the tumor microenvironment
    γδ T cells express unique T cell receptor (TCR) γ and TCR δ chains, with structural and functional heterogeneity. Taking advantage of the diverse γδ TCR repertoire or other ligand-receptor interactions, γδ T cells can recognize a broad spectrum of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-independent manner,...
    Yue Wang ... Wei He
    Published: February 24, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00039
    Viewed:444
    Downloaded:48
    Open Access
    Review
    γδ T cell costimulatory ligands in antitumor immunity
    Antitumor immunity relies on the ability of T cells to recognize and kill tumor targets. γδ T cells are a specialized subset of T cells that predominantly localizes to non-ly...
    Joseph M. McGraw, Deborah A. Witherden
    Published: February 24, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00038
    Viewed:340
    Downloaded:43
    Open Access
    Review
    Tumor-associated protein ligands recognized by human γδ T cell receptor and their implications in cancer therapy
    In recent years, immunologists have been working to utilize the functional mechanism of the immune system to research new tumor treatment methods and achieved a major breakthrough in 2013, which was...
    Chang Liu ... Wei He
    Published: February 22, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00037
    Viewed:432
    Downloaded:27
    Open Access
    Review
    The microbiota is a potential mediator of the crosstalk between γδ T cells and tumors
    γδ T cells are one of the immune cell types that express antigen receptors. γδ T cells are able to recognize pathogens or cancer cells independently o...
    Huidi Wang ... Jia Yin
    Published: February 18, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00036
    Viewed:320
    Downloaded:17
    Open Access
    Perspective
    Endometriosis and autoimmunity
    Endometriosis is an inflammatory oestrogen-dependent chronic disease and is mainly expressed by pain and increased infertility. Several studies showed an increased prevalence of autoimmune systemic ...
    Noémie Abisror ... Arsene Mekinian
    Published: February 16, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00034
    Viewed:260
    Downloaded:16
    Open Access
    Review
    γδT cells: alternative treasure in antitumor immunity
    In recent decades, abundant methods for targeted tumor cell immunotherapy have been developed. It was recently discovered that excellent curative effects observed in hematological tumors cannot be achieved in solid tumors, as serious side effects will occur....
    Xiangjin Zhang ... Wei He
    Published: February 17, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00035
    Viewed:364
    Downloaded:23
    Open Access
    Perspective
    Fertility and COVID-19 vaccination
    One of the most troubling developments of 2021 has been the number of fertile-age women who have been led to believe that mRNA vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)] can cause infertility via cross-reactivity of immune response. Specifically, cross-reactivity of developed antibodies to syncytin-1, a protein found in human cell fusion, placentation and recently identified in the envelope gene of a human endogenous defective retrovirus, HERV-W (see “Syncytin is a captive retroviral envelope protein involved in human placental morphogenesis”. Nature.2000;403:785–9. doi: 10.1038/35001608). The mechanism, evidence, and evaluation of the claim is presented concluding in a rejection due to lack of evidence....
    Iosif M. Gershteyn
    Published: February 11, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00032
    Viewed:420
    Downloaded:22
    Open Access
    Review
    Immune titers of protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: are we there yet?
    A few pieces of research exist about the protective titer against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (CoV-2; SARS-CoV-2) in monkeys and humans in which the protection could be sh...
    Yoanna Slabakova ... Tsvetelina Velikova
    Published: February 11, 2022 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2022.00033
    Viewed:516
    Downloaded:13
    Open Access
    Review
    Crosstalk between keratinocytes and immune cells in inflammatory skin diseases
    Cutaneous homeostasis is maintained by dynamic cellular communications between different cell types in the skin through interactions with various mediators, including cytokines, chemokines and antim...
    Xinhui Ni, Yuping Lai
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00028
    Viewed:463
    Downloaded:51
    Open Access
    Review
    New variants of SARS-CoV-2, vaccine immune response and the Brazilian reality
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a highly pathogenic β-coronavirus, is the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which gave rise to a diffi...
    Marileia Chaves Andrade ... Hellen Oliveira Rosa
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00029
    Viewed:309
    Downloaded:35
    Open Access
    Review
    State-of-the-art preclinical evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine candidates
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) results from the infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and primarily affects the respiratory tissue. Since first reported ...
    Devlina Ghosh ... Abhishek Saxena
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00030
    Viewed:435
    Downloaded:46
    Open Access
    Review
    Pregnancy depends on a delicate balance of immune activation and regulation
    It is well recognized that immune tolerance is important to prevent semiallografted fetuses from rejection by maternal immunocompetent cells; however, immune activation also plays an important role ...
    Shigeru Saito ... Sayaka Tsuda
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00031
    Viewed:344
    Downloaded:17
    Open Access
    Review
    Progesterone induced blocking factor in health and disease
    The foetus expressing paternal antigens ought to be “rejected” by the maternal immune system. However, the immunological relationship of the mother and the foetus does not follow the rules of transplantation immunology. Maternal immune functions are re-adjusted during pregnancy, to create a tolerant environment for the developing foetus. Progesterone and its downstream mediator; the progesterone induced blocking factor (PIBF) are important in this process. The mRNA transcribed from the PIBF1 gene contains 18 exons, and codes for a 90 kDa protein. The 90 kDa form is associated with the centrosome and plays a role in cell cycle regulation, while smaller isoforms produced by alternative spicing are secreted, and bind to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored PIBF receptor. Upon ligation, the former forms a heterodimer with the alpha chain of the interleukin-4 (IL-4) receptor and activates the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (Jak/STAT) pathway, via which, PIBF induces increased production of T helper2 (Th2) cytokines. PIBF regulates natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity, by inhibiting perforin release from the cytoplasmic granules of NK cells. During normal human pregnancy, the serum concentrations of PIBF increase with gestational age, and lower than normal serum levels predict spontaneous pregnancy termination. Depletion of PIBF during the peri-implantation period in mice, results in lower implantation and increased resorption rates, together with increased decidual and peripheral NK activity, downregulation of the genes implicated in T cell activation in CD4+ cells, and Th1 differentiation of the T cells. PIBF is expressed in rapidly proliferating immature cells as well as several tumours, and regulates invasion. The PIBF gene has been identified in the chromosomal region 13q21-q22—which is a common site for somatic deletions in a variety of malignant tumours. These data suggest that PIBF might be involved in tumorigenesis...
    Julia Szekeres-Bartho
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00027
    Viewed:343
    Downloaded:29
    Open Access
    Review
    Activation of mucosal immunity and novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategy in combating COVID-19
    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerges as an expeditiously growing pandemic, in the human population caused by the highly transmissible RNA virus severe acute respiratory syndrome of coronaviru...
    Swapan K. Chatterjee ... Maria Nilda M. Munoz
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00025
    Viewed:773
    Downloaded:52
    Open Access
    Review
    A unique vaccine for birth control and treatment of advanced stage cancers secreting ectopically human chorionic gonadotropin
    This article is a tribute and homage to Gerard Chaouat who invited me to contribute this article. My years in France have remained very memorable to me. Reviewed briefly is the vaccine that was made...
    Gursaran P. Talwar ... Krishna M. Ella
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00026
    Viewed:385
    Downloaded:20
    Open Access
    Review
    COVID-19 vaccine and immune response
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; βCoV), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), causes severe lower respiratory tract infections and acute ...
    Sevilay Hintistan, Hatice Demirağ
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00023
    Viewed:441
    Downloaded:31
    Open Access
    Review
    Preeclampsia—an immune disease? An epidemiologic narrative
    The maternal syndrome preeclampsia is triggered by syncytiotrophoblast (STB) stress; the heterogeneity of the syndrome is caused by the different pathways leading to this STB stress. Inflammation pl...
    Gustaaf Albert Dekker, Pierre Yves Robillard
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00022
    Viewed:389
    Downloaded:20
    Open Access
    Review
    Immunoregulation in the testis and its implication in fertility and infections
    The testis is designated as one of the immune previleged sites in the body and harbours a unique immunoregulatory environment, which is important for preventing an immune response against sperm anti...
    Kushaan Khambata ... Satish K. Gupta
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00021
    Viewed:654
    Downloaded:29
    Open Access
    Review
    Vaccine-induced immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 infections
    Vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is one of the most effective tools to curb the pandemic. Multiple vaccine candidates based on different platforms are available for emergency ...
    Mandeep Garg ... Suruchi Garg
    Published: December 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00024
    Viewed:476
    Downloaded:23
    Open Access
    Review
    Viral vector-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2
    Viral vectors have been frequently applied for vaccine development. It has also been the case for vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to tackle the coronavi...
    Kenneth Lundstrom
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00020
    Viewed:2036
    Downloaded:66
    Open Access
    Review
    Skin and immune cells crosstalk via circadian regulations
    Both innate and adaptive immune cells exist in the skin, predominantly in the dermis layer. Recent studies have focused on how and which circadian rhythms contribute to maintain good health. Over re...
    Kanami Orihara
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00019
    Viewed:522
    Downloaded:69
    Open Access
    Original Article
    The two faces of mast cells in vitiligo pathogenesis
    Aim: Previously, we reported increased number of T helper 17 (Th17) cells in vitiligo. However, in our recent study, tryptase and interleukin (IL)17 double positive cells which identified by polycl...
    Ichiro Katayama ... Mari Wataya-Kaneda
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00018
    Viewed:496
    Downloaded:52
    Open Access
    Original Article
    Serum profiles of tryptophan-kynurenine pathway metabolites in psoriasis
    Aim: Chronic inflammation is closely associated with tryptophan (TRP)-kynurenine (KYN) metabolic pathway. However, TRP-KYN pathway has not been fully elucidated in psoriasis, a systemic inflammator...
    Mariko Seishima ... Kuniaki Saito
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00017
    Viewed:471
    Downloaded:36
    Open Access
    Review
    Immune responses induced by different vaccine platforms against coronavirus disease-19
    There have been significant developments in the design of nanostructured scaffolds for eliciting robust immune responses named vaccine. The technique is to produce strong immune responses is to mani...
    Eknath D. Ahire, Sanjay J. Kshirsagar
    Published: October 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00016
    Viewed:1245
    Downloaded:60
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    Review
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 targeted antibodies cocktail and B cell receptor interplay: interventions to trigger vaccine development
    Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 spread globally and creates an alarming situation. Following the SARS-CoV-2 paradigm, therape...
    Kabeer Haneef ... Zainab Fatima
    Published: August 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00011
    Viewed:815
    Downloaded:55
    Open Access
    Review
    Immunosuppressive microenvironment in oral cancer: implications for cancer immunotherapy
    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a relatively widespread cancer with high mortality rates. Many patients with locally advanced disease are treated with combinations of surgery, radia...
    Shalini K. Sureshbabu ... Shubhada V. Chiplunkar
    Published: August 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00013
    Viewed:875
    Downloaded:57
    Open Access
    Review
    The protective immunity induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination: a critical appraisal
    Understanding the interactions of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) with humans is deeply grounded in immunology, from the diagnosis to pathogenesis, from the clinical pre...
    Eduardo Tosta
    Published: August 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00014
    Viewed:881
    Downloaded:34
    Open Access
    Original Article
    Conserved envelope protein of nCoV2 as the possible target to design polytope vaccine
    Aim: The envelope protein of novel coronavirus 2 (nCoV2) was reported to be highly conserved compared to its spike (S) protein which was shown to undergo several alterations in their amino acid seq...
    Krupanidhi Sreerama
    Published: August 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00012
    Viewed:651
    Downloaded:17
    Open Access
    Review
    Macrophages and fibroblasts underpin skin immune responses
    There are various types of skin immune responses including inflammatory skin diseases and skin malignancy. Macrophages and fibroblasts are skin resident cells that had been overlooked in terms of im...
    Makoto Sugaya
    Published: August 31, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00015
    Viewed:816
    Downloaded:44
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    Review
    Immunopathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2: evolving knowledge and its current status
    As the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 is a new virus, the current knowledge on the immunopathogenesis of this newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 is beginning to unravel with intens...
    Nitin Saksena ... Monica Miranda-Saksena
    Published: June 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00007
    Viewed:1293
    Downloaded:63
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    Review
    L-arginine as a novel target for clinical intervention in inflammatory bowel disease
    Arginase-1 (Arg1) and the inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) compete for the common substrate L-arginine, semi-essential amino acid, and central intestinal metabolite. Both enzymes exhibit var...
    Björn Nüse, Jochen Mattner
    Published: June 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00008
    Viewed:990
    Downloaded:59
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    Review
    Vitamin D and immunomodulation in the skin: a useful affirmative nexus
    Skin is the largest organ of the body having multifunctional activities. It has a dynamic cellular network with unique immunologic properties to maintain defensive actions, photoprotection, immune r...
    Saptadip Samanta
    Published: June 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00009
    Viewed:1348
    Downloaded:54
    Open Access
    Review
    Interplay between mesenchymal stromal cells and immune system: clinical applications in immune-related diseases
    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a mesodermal stem cell population, with known self-renewal and multilineage differentiation properties. In the last century, MSCs have been widely used in regene...
    Panagiotis Mallis ... Catherine Stavropoulos Giokas
    Published: June 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00010
    Viewed:1232
    Downloaded:37
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    Review
    Immunology of biodegradable nanoparticles: a brief overview on a wide growing field
    Immunity is continuously evolving by evolutionary mechanisms shaped by pathogenic stimuli of different kinds. Man-made nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed in the last decades and represent a nov...
    Anissa Pisani, Giuseppe Bardi
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00006
    Viewed:1795
    Downloaded:73
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    Review
    Interleukin-22 and keratinocytes; pathogenic implications in skin inflammation
    Interleukin (IL)-22 is produced from immune cells such as T helper (Th)22 cells, Th17/22 cells, and group 3 innate lymphoid cells. IL-22 signals via the IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and the IL-10 rece...
    Masutaka Furue, Mihoko Furue
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00005
    Viewed:1403
    Downloaded:59
    Open Access
    Original Article
    Correlation of N-glycan dynamics and interaction network with allosteric antigen binding and Fc receptor recognition
    Aim: Fragment crystallizable (Fc) glycans modulate Fc conformations and functions, and glycan may also regulate antigen recognition. In the antibody drug development, glycosylation patterns affect a...
    Buyong Ma
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00004
    Viewed:795
    Downloaded:22
    Open Access
    Original Article
    In silico investigation of binding affinities between human leukocyte antigen class I molecules and SARS-CoV-2 virus spike and ORF1ab proteins
    Aim: The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019, a global pandemic. There is hence an urgent need for effective approaches to...
    Spyros A. Charonis ... Apostolos P. Georgopoulos
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00003
    Viewed:1453
    Downloaded:43
    Open Access
    Review
    The role of interleukin-24 in atopic dermatitis
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by skin barrier disruption, type 2 immune dysregulation, chronic pruritus, and abnormal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Tapinarof, an aryl ...
    Yen Hai Vu ... Gaku Tsuji
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00002
    Viewed:2782
    Downloaded:125
    Open Access
    Editorial
    Exploration of Immunology: challenging knowledge, developing curiosity and transforming passion into discovery
    Dominique J Charron, Reem Al-Daccak
    Published: April 30, 2021 Explor Immunol. DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00001
    Viewed:2048
    Downloaded:62