• Special Issue Topic

    Determinants of Exceptional Longevity

    Submission Deadline: December 31, 2023

    Guest Editor

    Dr. Calogero Caruso E-Mail

    Laboratory of Immunopathology and Immunosenescence, Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

    About the Special Issue

    The ageing process is driven by a lifelong accumulation of molecular damage, resulting in gradual increase in the fraction of cells carrying defects. After sufficient time has passed, the increasing levels of these defects interfere with both the performance and functional reserves of tissues and organs, resulting in a breakdown of self-organizing system and a reduced ability to adapt to the environment. That can cause age-related frailty, disability, and disease. Maintenance mechanisms slow, indeed, the rate of damage accumulation. Genetics, epigenetics, sex and gender, socio-economic and educational status, chance and life circumstances, nutrition and physical activity, stress management and social support, pathogen load and immune response, all contribute to modulate positively or negatively the maintenance mechanisms.  Different combinations of these factors create the possibility to avoid age-related pathologies and become centenarian, i.e., these factors are determinants of extreme longevity.   

    Centenarians show relatively good health, being able to perform their routine daily life and to escape or delay age-related diseases. This Special Issue aims to understand, through a “positive biology” approach, how to prevent, reduce, or delay frailty and disability amongst the older. Indeed, rather than making diseases the central focus of study, “positive biology” seeks to understand the causes of positive phenotypes and explain the biological mechanisms of health. Therefore,studies on different aspects of centenarians are welcome. Original research papers and reviews are equally welcome and may involve in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Keywords: genetics, environment, epigenetics, immunity, inflammation, lifestyle

    Published Articles

    Open Access
    The low expression of matrix metalloproteinases: a key to longevity?
    Over the past few decades, it has become clear that an excessive activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can accelerate the progression and fatal outcomes of several serious age-related disease [...] Read more.
    Katrin Sak
    Published: April 08, 2024 Explor Med. 2024;5:158–166
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2024.00213
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    From positive psychology to positive biology: laughter and longevity
    Gelotology (the study of laughter) has it seems mainly evaded the attention of longevity scientists, positive biologists, and geroscientists. However, the potential of laughter to result in immediat [...] Read more.
    Freda Gonot-Schoupinsky
    Published: December 29, 2023 Explor Med. 2023;4:1109–1115
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00198
    Open Access
    Roles of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 and mitophagy in progeroid syndromes as well as physiological ageing
    Progeroid syndromes are characterized by clinical signs of premature ageing, which may contain several diseases such as Werner syndrome, Bloom syndrome, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, Hutchinson-Gilford [...] Read more.
    Naoko Suga ... Satoru Matsuda
    Published: October 31, 2023 Explor Med. 2023;4:822–838
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00180
    Open Access
    Determinants of human longevity: input of environment, nutrition, physical activity, eustress, heredity, health care, motivation, and mental state
    The paper aims to review the possibilities of a complex transdisciplinary approach to forming health and longevity. Determinants of productive longevity (DPL) and health culture are reviewed; defini [...] Read more.
    Renad I. Zhdanov ... Alexey S. Sozinov
    Published: October 30, 2023 Explor Med. 2023;4:755–771
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00176
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Original Article
    Body mass, blood pressure, and cognitive functioning among octogenarians and centenarians
    Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the association among body mass, blood pressure (BP), and cognitive functioning for octogenarians and centenarians. Methods: A total of 300 par [...] Read more.
    Peter Martin ... Leonard W. Poon
    Published: September 15, 2023 Explor Med. 2023;4:625–636
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00165
    Times Cited: 0
    Open Access
    Oxidative stress and inflammation: the root causes of aging
    Oxygen free radicals [reactive oxygen species (ROS)] and nitrogen free radicals [reactive nitrogen species (RNS)] are generated by mitochondria during adenosine triphosphate synthesis, and catalytic [...] Read more.
    Prasert Sobhon ... Sawaek Weerakiet
    Published: April 17, 2023 Explor Med. 2023;4:127–156
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00129