• Author Instructions

    Before Submission

    Before submitting your articles to Exploration of Medicine, authors should be fully aware of the following contents.

    Aims and Scope

    The journal publishes articles that provide substantial and novel insights into medicine. Submissions concerning the molecular and cell biological research of all human diseases are also welcomed. Please make sure that your works are within the scope of the journal. More information is available at Aims and Scope.

    Open Access

    Exploration of Medicine is an open access journal, which means all articles published by the journal are freely and permanently accessible online immediately upon publication. Anyone can use, share and distribute the articles without any charge under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY) license. Read more about Open Access.

    Copyright and License to Publish


    Authors retain the copyright of their works since articles of the journal are published under the CC BY license. The license allows maximum dissemination and re-use of open access materials. Under this license users are free to share (copy, distribute and transmit) and remix (adapt) a contribution for any purpose, even commercially, provided the users appropriately acknowledge the original authors and the source.

    License to Publish

    Authors are required to sign a License to Publish agreement before formal publication. By signing the agreement, the author grants Open Exploration the right to publish the article and associated supplementary materials in Exploration of Medicine under the CC BY license. Permission for use of copyrighted materials (Figures or Tables) from other sources in the work, including re-published, adapted, modified, or partial tables from the internet, must be obtained. It is authors’ responsibility to acquire such permission, to follow any citation instruction requested by third-party rights holders, and to cover any supplementary charges. For more details, please refer to License to Publish.

    Peer Review

    The journal adopts a single-blind peer review model. All manuscripts accepted by the journal (except for some Editorials released by the Editors) have undergone a rigorous and thorough review. Read more about the peer review process at Editorial Process and peer review criteria at Peer Review Guidelines.

    Publication Ethics 

    To ensure a high quality publication, the journal resolutely resists academic misconduct. All submissions will undergo a duplicate check to avoid plagiarism or duplicate publication. The following lists some misconduct which should be strictly avoided. The unethical behavior might be found at any time of publication like initial check, peer review or even after publication. The journal will handle the misconduct strictly based on COPE flowchart whenever.

    Duplicate Submission

    Authors should not submit the same manuscript or the same manuscripts of different language to more than one journal. This would be a waste of publishing resource because two or more journals may operate peer review or production, or even publish the same article. 


    Authors should not use others’ published or unpublished content as their original ideas in their manuscripts without any citation or permission.


    Unlike plagiarism, self-plagiarism is defined as the authors’ use of their published articles or part of them in their another publications without proper citation intentionally or unintentionally.

    Data Fabrication and Falsification

    Data fabrication means the researcher made up data without actually doing the research. Data falsification means the researcher did the experiment, but then changed some data or omitted some conflicting data or distorted some data to deceptively and selectively report their findings. Both of these practices make people distrust scientists. 

    Article Processing Charge

    To attract high quality submissions and relieve the financial burden for researchers, there is no article processing charge (APC) currently, since the APC for the journal is wholly financed by Open Exploration. Authors or their institutions don't need to pay any fees during the submission and publication.

    Cover Letter

    A cover letter is welcomed to be submitted accompanying each manuscript. We suggest authors include the following contents in a cover letter:

    ★ the title and type of the manuscript; 

    ★ the background of the study, the question the author sought out to answer and why;

    ★ the main findings of the research and why they are significant;

    ★ why the manuscript fits the Aims and Scope of the journal, and why it would be attractive to readers;

    ★ mention of the submission to a special issue if it is.

    Types and Templates of Manuscripts

    The journal publishes Original Article, Review, Meta-Analysis, Systematic Review, Case Report, Commentary, Editorial, and Letter to the Editor.

    Read more details about manuscript types and the specific requirements of each type in the following table.

    Article Type



    Main Text

    Word Count (main text)

    Table Number

    Figure Number

    Reference Number

    Original Article



    Structured abstract including Aims, Methods, Results, Conclusions.

    ≤ 300 words


    Structured main text including Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion.








    Unstructured abstract.

    ≤ 300 words


    Structured main text with unfixed section titles. An “Introduction” section at the beginning, several sections with unfixed titles in the middle part, and a “Conclusions” section in the end would be much better.








    Structured abstract including Aims, Methods, Results, Conclusions.

    ≤ 300 words


    Structured main text including Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion.





    Systematic Review



    Structured abstract including Aims, Methods, Results, Conclusions.

    ≤ 300 words


    Structured main text including Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion.





    Case Report



    Unstructured abstract.

    ≤ 300 words


    Structured main text including Introduction, Case Report, Discussion.








    Unstructured abstract (optional).

    ≤ 250 words

    3-8 (optional)


    ≤ 1000 words

    ≤ 3

    ≤ 3

    ≤ 30



    None required.

    None required.


    ≤ 1000 words

    ≤ 3

    ≤ 3

    ≤ 30

    Letter to the Editor


    Unstructured abstract (optional).

    ≤ 250 words

    3-8 (optional)


    ≤ 1000 words

    ≤ 3

    ≤ 3

    ≤ 30

    Structure of Manuscripts

    The structure varies according to the type of manuscript. Look up the requirements in Types and Templates of Manuscripts and make sure your manuscript is correctly structured.


    The title should be no more than 20 words, no more than 150 characters in total, including spaces.

    The title should be specific and relevant, and provide an overall view of the paper’s significance rather than the detailed contents of the paper.  

    The title should avoid use of jargon, uncommon abbreviations, and punctuation. 

    Author and Affiliations

    Authors’ forename and surname should be listed. The initials of middle names can be added. 

    The complete address information should be listed as the following format: Dept/Program/Center, Institution, City, State, Post Code, Country; E-mail Address. 

    One author should be designated as the corresponding author.

    Authors are strongly encouraged to provide their ORCID if any, especially the corresponding author.

    Dual first authorship is allowed. Authors should indicate dual first with a superscript “”, like “Forename Surname1, Forename Surname2”.

    Please check authors’ names carefully, as any change to authorship is not allowed after manuscript acceptance.

    Check out more information about Authorship at Editorial Policies.

    Abstract and Keywords


    This section usually describes the main objective(s) of the study, explains how the study was done, and the contributions of the article.

    The abstract should follow specific requirements of word count and structure. Please refer to Types and Templates of Manuscripts.

    Acronyms and abbreviations must be defined the first time they appear in the abstract. Abbreviations will only be used if the abbreviated term appears three or more times in the abstract (except commonly-used ones).

    The abstract should not include any citation or footnote.

    The registration number of clinical trials should be listed at the end of the abstract if any.


    Three to eight keywords should be provided. But certain types of manuscripts do have other options. Find it out in Types and Templates of Manuscripts.

    Keywords should be closely related to the topic of the paper, but not too broad or too specific to the field.

    Non-standard abbreviations should be kept to a minimum.

    Main Body

    The main text of manuscripts may consist of distinct sections from each other according to their categories. For instance, Original Article should develop the body part with four parts: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion. For Review, the main text may be comprised of several sections with unfixed section titles. Templates in the Types and Templates of Manuscripts will guide authors to structure their works appropriately.


    Good introductions explain these points clearly and cohesively: relevant background that puts the study into context (a brief review of key literature); purpose of the work and its significance.

    Materials and Methods

    Materials and Methods should be sufficiently detailed so that readers and reviewers can understand precisely and that researchers can fully replicate the study. This section should include:

    ★ aim, design and setting of the study;

    ★ characteristics of participants or description of materials;

    ★ clear description of all processes, interventions and comparisons;

    ★ type of statistical analysis used, including a power calculation if appropriate.

    Please make sure you are aware that

    ★ statistical terms, abbreviations, and all symbols used should be defined clearly.

    ★ generic drug names should generally be used. 

    ★ when proprietary brands are used in research, include the brand names in parentheses.

    ★ all clinical trials must be registered in a public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrollment and the registration number must be listed at the end of the abstract.

    ★ protocol documents for clinical trials, observational studies, and other non-laboratory investigations may be uploaded as supplementary materials. 

    More detailed information about clinical trials, please refer to Editorial Policies.


    Results should be presented in a logical order to state the main findings of the study. 

    Results of statistical analysis should be included either as text or as tables or figures if appropriate. 

    Do not duplicate data among figures, tables, and text. Authors should emphasize and summarize only the most important observations. 

    Data on all primary and secondary outcomes identified in the section Materials and Methods should also be provided.

    Extra or supplementary materials and technical details can be placed in supplementary documents.


    This section should cover the key findings of the work.

    Discussion should point out the potential short-comings and limitations on their interpretations.

    Future research directions may also be mentioned.


    In general, terms should not be abbreviated unless they are used repeatedly and the abbreviation is helpful to the reader. Using of abbreviations should meet the following requirements.

    ★ Commonly-used abbreviations, such as DNA, RNA, ATP, etc., can be used directly without definition. 

    ★ Non-standard abbreviations are not allowed unless they appear at least three times in the text, and they should be defined at first use in manuscripts with their abbreviations in parentheses.

    ★ Non-standard abbreviations in titles, abstracts and keywords should be avoided.

    ★ Non-standard abbreviations in tables and figures should be explained in the footnote or caption accordingly.

    This section should list and define all non-standard abbreviations. 

    For example, FBS: fetal bovine serum   HGF: hepatocyte growth factor.


    Acknowledgments (Optional)

    Acknowledge anyone who is not an author, but contributed to the paper, including the one who provided intellectual assistance, technical help (writing services), or special equipment or materials. This section is not included if authors do not have anyone to acknowledge.

    Author Contributions

    Authors are required to specify concisely the contribution of each co-author. For example, the design of the work, or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data, or the creation of new software used in the work, or have drafted the work or substantively revised it. Use initials of Forename and Surname when mentioning an author in this section. If the initials are the same, spell the different forename or surname. For example, John A. Smith: JA Smith, John A. Smart: JA Smart; John A. Smith: John AS, James A. Smith: James AS.

    For a manuscript with multiple authors, see an example here:

    “AB, CDE and FG contributed conception and design of the study; AB organized the database; CDE performed the statistical analysis; FG wrote the first draft of the manuscript; HIJ, KL, AB, CDE and FG wrote sections of the manuscript. All authors contributed to manuscript revision, read and approved the submitted version.”.

    For a manuscript with only one author, please write “The author contributed solely to the work.”.

    Conflicts of Interest

    Authors need to declare whether or not the submitted work was carried out in the presence of any personal, professional or financial relationships which could potentially be construed as a conflict of interest. If authors are unsure whether conflicts of interest exist, please refer to Conflicts of Interest in Editorial Policies.

    If there are no conflicts of interest, authors should state “The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.”.

    Ethical Approval

    Manuscripts involving human research must be approved by the specific ethics committee or comply with the Declaration of Helsinki. Authors should state that the article has obtained the consent from the participants and detail the information of ethics committee, including the name and the reference number if any.

    Manuscripts involving animals research must be approved by an animal care and use committee. Authors should state that the article has been approved by certain committee and detail its information.

    If a manuscript does not involve such issues, please state “Not applicable.” in this section.

    More information is available at Editorial Policies

    Consent to Participate

    The informed consent to participate in the study should be obtained from the participants, or their parents or legal guardians for children under 16. Such documents do not require a submission, but they must be available if requested. Authors should state “The informed consent to participate in the study was obtained from all participants.”. 

    If a manuscript does not involve such issue, please state “Not applicable.” in this section.

    Consent to Publication

    Authors must obtain the consent for publication from the participants in cases where manuscripts involve the privacy issues, like showing the individual details (images or videos). Such documents do not require a submission, but they must be available if requested. Authors should state “The informed consent to publication was obtained from relevant participants.”. 

    If a manuscript does not involve such issue, please state “Not applicable.” in this section.

    Availability of Data and Materials

    Authors are encouraged to detail the information about: where the data supporting their findings can be found; where applicable; hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analyzed or generated during the study.

    Examples for how to write this statement:

    ★ Datasets are in a publicly accessible repository:

    The datasets [GENERATED/ANALYZED] for this study can be found in the [NAME OF REPOSITORY] [LINK].

    ★ Datasets are available on request:

    The raw data supporting the conclusions of this manuscript will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation, to any qualified researcher.

    ★ All relevant data is contained within the manuscript:

    All datasets [GENERATED/ANALYZED] for this study are included in the manuscript and the supplementary files.

    ★ The datasets request access:

    The datasets for this manuscript are not publicly available because: [VALID REASON]. Requests for accessing the datasets should be directed to [NAME, EMAIL].

    ★ Data has been obtained from a third party:

    The data analyzed in this study was obtained from [SOURCE]. Requests for access to these datasets should be directed to [NAME, EMAIL].

    ★ No datasets were generated for this study:

    Not applicable.

    It is not always possible to share research data publicly, for instance when individual privacy could be compromised. Authors who cannot share their data should state that the data will not be shared and explain why. 


    All sources of funding should be declared by naming financially supporting bodies followed by any associated grant numbers in square brackets. Authors must describe the role of the study sponsor(s) in the study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of the data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the paper for publication, if any.

    If a manuscript does not involve any funding, please state “Not applicable.” in this section.


    A declaration “© The Author(s) YEAR.” will be added to each article.


    General Requirements

    References should be listed in the order in which they appear in the text. The reference number should be in square brackets in the text.

    Abbreviations of journals should be provided on the basis of Index Medicus.

    List the first six authors, followed by et al.

    Do not include references in the abstract.

    Make sure the parts of the manuscript are in the correct order before ordering the citations.

    The endnote style of the journal can be downloaded at here.

    Formatting References

    The journal adopts the references outlined by U.S. National Library of Medicine. Examples are shown below. For other types, please refer to U.S. National Library of Medicine.



    Journal published articles

    Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935:40-6.

    Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7.

    Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. Sykdomsangst blant medisin- og jusstudenter. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002;122:785-7. Norwegian.

    Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.


    Tian D, Araki H, Stahl E, Bergelson J, Kreitman M. Signature of balancing selection in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Forthcoming 2002.


    Alvarez R. Near optimal neural network estimator for spectral x-ray photon counting data with pileup. arXiv:1702.01006v1 [Preprint]. 2017 [cited 2017 Feb 9]: [11 p.]. Available from: https://arxiv.org/abs/1702.01006


    Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.

    Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.

    Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent pregnancy. 2nd ed. Wieczorek RR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services; 2001.

    Chapter in a book

    Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. pp. 93-113.

    Conference paper

    Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza’s computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. pp. 182-91.

    Supplementary Materials (Optional)

    Accompanying the manuscripts, the additional data and information can be uploaded as supplementary materials. These contents can be accessed by certain links instead of direct presentation in the text. Authors should make sure that:

    ★ all files must be submitted separately and named clearly (e.g., Supplementary Figure 1, Supplementary Table 1, Supplementary Video 1);

    ★ the file formats are acceptable as follows: data sheet (word, excel, csv, cdx, fasta, pdf or zip files), presentation (powerpoint, pdf or zip files), image (cdx, eps, jpeg, pdf, png or tiff), table (word, excel, csv), audio (mp3, wav or wma) or video (avi, flv, mov, mp4 or wmv);

    ★ all information of the materials must be clearly displayed;

    ★ supplementary figures and tables should comply with the requirements of figures and tables in the main text;

    ★ the video and audio should meet the requirements in Multimedia Files;

    ★ supplementary materials should be cited in the main text in numeric order (e.g., Supplementary Figure 1, Supplementary Figure 2, Supplementary Table 1, Supplementary Table 2).

    Format of Manuscripts

    File Format

    Prepare manuscripts in DOC or DOCX files which should not be locked or protected. 

    The original figure files must be individually submitted accompanying submission in the same order as they appear in the manuscript. 


    Manuscripts must be written in English. Make sure the English language is comprehensible to readers. If English is not your first language, please ask native speakers for help to proofread your article.


    Acceptable figure file formats are bmp, gif, jpg, png, tif, eps.

    All information in the figure must be clearly presented; the resolution should be 300-600 dpi; the text must be legible in English (font size 8-10, if any).

    Charts made in Word, Excel, or Powerpoint must be editable, like column chart, line chart, pie chart, bar chart, etc.

    Internal scale (magnification) should be explained and the staining method in photomicrographs should be identified.

    Labels, numbers, letters, arrows, and symbols used in the figure must be clearly displayed and explained in the caption.

    Non-standard abbreviations should be explained in the caption.


    Tables should be in Word format. Picture format is unacceptable.

    All information in the table must be clearly presented. 

    The table should be placed after the paragraph where it first appears in numeric order (e.g., Table 1, Table 2); the table caption should be placed above the table.

    Labels, numbers, letters, arrows, and symbols used in the table must be clearly displayed and explained in the footnote.

    Non-standard abbreviations should be explained in the footnote.

    Descriptive information should be explained in the footnote.

    Multimedia Files (Optional)

    The journal supports multimedia files which meet the following requirements:

    Multimedia File




    mp3, wav, wma

    mp4 (preferred), mov, avi, rm, wmv


    < 3 min

    < 3 min



    Any language with English subtitles (English preferred)


    < 300 MB

    < 300 MB


    High quality, clearly played

    High quality, clearly played (language and subtitles)


    Generally, the following contents should be italic:

    ★ vs., in vivo, in vitro

    ★ t test, F test, U test; 

    ★ related coefficient as r;

    ★ sample number as n

    ★ probability as P

    ★ names of genes; 

    ★ names of bacteria; 

    ★ biology species in Latin.


    Use words for numbers appearing at the beginning of sentences.

    Use words for numbers one to nine, e.g., five patients.

    Use numerals for numbers ten or above, e.g., 16 years old; insert a comma to separate thousands groups, e.g., 123,456,789.


    Equations should be editable. Picture format is unacceptable.

    Use the Microsoft Equation Editor or the MathType for equations.


    Use International System of Units (SI). All other units should be converted to SI Units whenever possible.

    Add space between the number and the unit, like 78 kg.

    Submission Link

    Submit your manuscript via https://mc03.manuscriptcentral.com/emed.