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    Open Access
    Case Report
    Dry needling with electrical stimulation for the treatment of a pediatric patient with spastic cerebral palsy: a case report
    The patient was a 6-year-old child with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy (CP) categorized with the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) as a level IV and a Modified Modified Ashwort...
    Temrah Okonski, Jan Dommerholt
    Published: November 16, 2022 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2022.00031
    Open Access
    Overview of biomarkers in myasthenia gravis
    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare auto-immune neuromuscular junction (NMJ) disorder which is caused by formation of autoantibodies and destruction of NMJ components. The MG diagnosis is based on the ...
    Fatemeh Afrashteh, Rayan Rajabi
    Published: October 31, 2022 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2022.00029
    Open Access
    Blockage of thrombospondin 4 secreted by spinal astrocytes may be a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of neuropathic pain
    Neuropathic pain (NP), which is difficult to treat, remains a heavy burden for both individuals and society. The efficacy of current treatments is insufficient. The pathophysiology of NP is still no...
    Neslihan Düzenli ... Aytül Önal
    Published: October 31, 2022 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2022.00030
    Open Access
    Toll-like receptor 4 in the interface between neuroimmune response and behavioral alterations caused by stress
    Different stressors can elicit neuroinflammatory responses modulated by innate immunity receptors, such as the family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The TLR4, a pattern recognition receptor (PRR), i...
    Fábio José Coelho Souza-Junior ... Sabrina Francesca Lisboa
    Published: October 31, 2022 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2022.00028
    Open Access
    Case Report
    Paraclinoid unruptured giant aneurysm with therapeutic success
    The global prevalence of intracranial aneurysms (IA) ranges from 5–10%, with a demographic variation. Large and giant aneurysms typically involve cavernous and paraclinoid se...
    Gonçalo Januário
    Published: August 30, 2022 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2022.00027
    Open Access
    Delayed cerebral ischemia and therapeutic approaches after subarachnoid hemorrhage
    Delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage is one of the most important causes of mortality and poor functional outcome in patients. Initially, the etiology and treatment of delayed cer...
    Fettah Eren ... Sueda Ecem Yilmaz
    Published: August 22, 2022 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2022.00026
    Open Access
    Autism: genetics, environmental stressors, maternal immune activation, and the male bias in autism
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a class of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) characterized by deficits in three domains: impairments in social interactions, language, and communication, and increased stereotyped restrictive/repetitive behaviors and interests. The exact etiology of ASD remains unknown. ...
    Sarah Otaru, David A. Lawrence
    Published: August 11, 2022 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2022.00025
    Open Access
    Economics of dry needling and botulinum toxin type A for treatment of post-stroke spasticity: a review
    Stroke is one of the most common causes of disability and exerts a high burden of direct and indirect costs. Stroke may cause spasticity, which limits patients’ abilities and affects the...
    Daniel Fernández ... Eva María Gómez-Trullén
    Published: June 30, 2022 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2022.00024
    Open Access
    Can meditation-based approaches improve the cleansing power of the glymphatic system?
    The glymphatic system, first described in 2012, is a brain-wide perivascular network that plays an important role in promoting interstitial metabolic waste removal from the brain. Glymphatic pathway...
    Peter Wostyn, Piet Goddaer
    Published: June 20, 2022 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2022.00022
    Open Access
    The glymphatic system and subarachnoid hemorrhage: disruption and recovery
    The glymphatic system, or glial-lymphatic system, is a waste clearance system composed of perivascular channels formed by astrocytes that mediate the clearance of proteins and metabolites from the b...
    Stephan Quintin ... Brandon Lucke-Wold
    Published: June 21, 2022 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2022.00023
    Open Access
    Original Article
    Combined effects of dry needling and exercises therapy on muscle spasticity and motor function in chronic stroke: a pretest-posttest pilot study
    Aim: Spasticity is one of the most common symptoms in post-stroke patients. Dry needling (DN) is a relatively new method for the management of muscle spasticity. A multimodal treatment may be mor...
    Seyedeh Saeideh Babazadeh-Zavieh ... Korosh Mansoori
    Published: June 20, 2022 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2022.00021
    Open Access
    The role of physical activity against chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: a narrative review
    Several studies investigated the side effect of adjuvant cancer treatments, and different types of preventive techniques or treatments have been assessed. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy ...
    Daniele Diotti ... Lucio Marinelli
    Published: April 28, 2022 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2022.00020
    Open Access
    Gut microbiota could modulate the effects of neuro-immune responses and memory traces via the gut-brain-immune axis in schizophrenia
    Altered immunity may have destructive consequences for the integrated central nervous system. This immune response often affects progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and/or psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. In particular, schizophrenia pathogenesis may be mediated by multiple neuro-immune interaction pathways. Gut microbiota might affect the brain and/or immune function. Significant machineries of immunity are commonly affected by the commensal gut microbiota. Therefore, schizophrenia may be connected with the gut-immune system. In addition, the brain and immune systems cooperate on multiple levels. The brain could save several pieces of information about specific inflammation in a body. This immunological memory named “engrams”, also called memory traces, could restore the initial disease state, which may help to explain key features of schizophrenia. Based on this concept, therapeutic strategies for schizophrenia could be the modification of the gut microbiota. Probiotics and/or fecal microbiota transplantation are now emerging as the most promising treatments for the modification. More consideration of the roles of gut microbiota will conduct the further development of immune-based therapeutics for the prevention and/or treatments of psychiatric disorders....
    Haruka Sawamura ... Satoru Matsuda
    Published: April 24, 2022 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2022.00019
    Open Access
    Subarachnoid hemorrhage: management considerations for COVID-19
    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has deleterious outcomes for patients, and during the hospital stay, patients are susceptible to vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVI...
    Eric J. Panther, Brandon Lucke-Wold
    Published: March 02, 2022 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2022.00018
    Open Access
    Systematic Review
    Various facets of excitotoxicity
    Aim: Excitotoxicity results from unusually increased activation of excitatory amino acid receptors leading to neuronal death. Since glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the centra...
    Talita Glaser ... Henning Ulrich
    Published: February 23, 2022 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2022.00017
    Open Access
    Dry needling in stroke
    Stroke causes acute neurological deficit which is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Neurorehabilitation is an important dimension in the management of post-stroke deficits. Spasticity, ...
    Nirmal Surya, Guhan Ramamurthy
    Published: February 17, 2022 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2022.00016
    Open Access
    Balancing cholesterol in the brain: from synthesis to disposal
    The cholesterol is a vital component of cell membranes and myelin sheaths, and a precursor for essential molecules such as steroid hormones. In humans, cholesterol is partially obtained through the ...
    Lydia Qian ... Andrew J. Brown
    Published: January 05, 2022 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2022.00015
    Open Access
    Blocking cholesterol storage to treat Alzheimer’s disease
    Cholesterol serves as an essential lipid molecule in various membrane organelles of mammalian cells. The metabolites of cholesterol also play important functions. Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltr...
    Ta Yuan Chang ... James G. Gow
    Published: December 30, 2021 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2021.00014
    Open Access
    Targeting cytochrome P450 46A1 and brain cholesterol 24-hydroxylation to treat neurodegenerative diseases
    The brain cholesterol content is determined by the balance between the pathways of in situ biosynthesis and cholesterol elimination via 24-hydroxylation catalyzed by cytochrome P450 46A1 (CYP46A1). ...
    Irina A. Pikuleva
    Published: December 30, 2021 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2021.00013
    Open Access
    Advancing diagnosis and treatment of Niemann-Pick C disease through biomarker discovery
    Niemann-Pick C disease is a rare neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disease caused by accumulation of unesterified cholesterol. Diagnosis of the disease is often delayed due to its rarity, the het...
    Xuntian Jiang, Daniel S. Ory
    Published: December 30, 2021 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2021.00012
    Open Access
    Peroxisomes in intracellular cholesterol transport: from basic physiology to brain pathology
    Peroxisomes are actively involved in the metabolism of various lipids including fatty acids, ether phospholipids, bile acids as well as the processing of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Recent...
    Jian Xiao ... Jie Luo
    Published: December 30, 2021 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2021.00011
    Open Access
    Maternal imprinting, mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA and Alzheimer’s disease
    Familial early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is more probable in individuals coming from mothers diagnosed with AD than from fathers diagnosed with AD. Studies in animal models have show...
    Alberto Pérez-Mediavilla, Marta Zamarbide
    Published: October 29, 2021 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2021.00010
    Open Access
    Immunization with neural-derived peptides as a neuroprotective therapy for spinal cord injury
    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces several destructive events that develop immediately after the primary insult. These phenomena increase tissue damage; that is why, numerous therapeutic approaches ar...
    Andrea Paola Ibarra-García, Antonio Ibarra
    Published: October 29, 2021 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2021.00009
    Open Access
    Striking a balance: PIP2 and PIP3 signaling in neuronal health and disease
    Phosphoinositides are membrane phospholipids involved in a variety of cellular processes like growth, development, metabolism, and transport. This review focuses on the maintenance of cellular homeo...
    Kamran Tariq, Bryan W. Luikart
    Published: October 29, 2021 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2021.00008
    Open Access
    T-cell based immunotherapies for Parkinson’s disease
    Current evidence indicates that neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra associated to Parkinson's disease is a consequence of a neuroinflammatory process in whic...
    Rodrigo Pacheco
    Published: October 29, 2021 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2021.00007
    Open Access
    Therapeutic potential of the cannabinoid receptor 2 in neuropsychiatry
    Since the identification and cloning of the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R), several studies focused on the characterization of its physiological and pathological role. Initially, CB2R was considered ...
    María S. García-Gutiérrez ... Jorge Manzanares
    Published: August 05, 2021 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2021.00006
    Open Access
    Gut microbial imbalance and neurodegenerative proteinopathies: from molecular mechanisms to prospects of clinical applications
    The pathogenic basis behind some of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases in advanced societies, known as proteinopathies, deals with alterations in protein homeostasis. Despite the broad di...
    Paula Alonso-García ... Eva Martínez-Pinilla
    Published: August 05, 2021 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2021.00005
    Open Access
    Neurological complications during HIV infection
    Early in the course of infection, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is able to enter the central nervous system where it stablishes a permanent reservoir. Current antiretroviral therapies do not ef...
    Jose M. Martinez-Navio
    Published: August 05, 2021 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2021.00004
    Open Access
    Cholesterol in autism spectrum disorders
    The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a series of neurological diseases that share serious alterations of the development of the central nervous system. The degree of disability may vary so t...
    Rafael Franco ... Irene Reyes-Resina
    Published: August 05, 2021 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2021.00003
    Open Access
    Letter to the Editor
    P2X7 receptor involvement in COVID-19 disease
    Peter Illes
    Published: August 05, 2021 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2021.00002
    Open Access
    Science plus technology to address challenges in determining the efficacy of neuroprotective/neurorestorative therapies
    Rafael Franco
    Published: August 05, 2021 Explor Neuroprot Ther. DOI: 10.37349/ent.2021.00001