Exploration of Neuroscience, a peer-reviewed open access online journal. The journal publishes papers of the highest quality and significance in all areas related to basic and applied neurosciences. Priority is given to work identifying novel insights into the nervous system and its function, disease mechanisms, molecular biomarkers, therapeutic targets and treatments. Particular emphasis is given on studies providing advancements to the clinical translation of basic research findings. Appropriate topics include, but are not limited to, vascular neurology, neuroimmunology, neurooncology, neurodegenerative diseases, movement disorders, cognitive disorders, neurogenetics, sleep and sleep disorders, and epilepsy. Both central and peripheral nervous systems and diseases are addressed. Studies presenting innovative methodological developments including structural and functional neuroimaging, electrophysiological network analysis, inducible transgenic or knockout systems and, specifically, optogenetics are particularly invited, since they may pave the way for subsequent neurophysiological and pathophysiological studies. Studies on new treatment concepts, including cell-based therapies, biologicals and gene therapies, are particularly welcome, as are studies examining pharmacological and rehabilitative treatments or prevention strategies. We aim to attract impactful articles deepening our understanding of the healthy and the injured brain with the potential of improving neurological disease outcomes.