Biodegradable NP-induced pathways

Biodegradable NPs* Target receptors Reported signal pathways§ Reported protein expression§ References
Polymeric NPs:
Starches TLRs, CLRs, RLRs NF-κB IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, CCL2, CCL5, CCL4 [15], [16], [17]
Chitin/Chitosan TLR2, CD206, Dectin 1 ERK, NF-κB, MAPK IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-6, IL-8 [19], [24]
PLGA Multiple PRRs ERK, NF-κB, MHC-1 IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-10 [27], [28]
Protein NPs:
Virus like particles TLR7, TLR9, PTX TGF-β, MHC-1, Lectin/classical complement pathways, MAPK, NF-κB IL-1β, TNF-α, CCL2, IL-6 [49]
Liposomes and SLNPs TLRs, CD206 ERK, MAPK, classical pathway binding to IgG, IgM, C1q, CRP CCL2, IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-17F [59], [86]

: With or without surface chemistry modifications;

: frequently reported in literature; ERK: extracellular regulated kinase; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; PTX: pentraxin