Most frequent viruses causing respiratory tract infections

VirusSub-typesEffect on cGAS-STING and host defense
Adenovirus55 serotypesInhibited by viral proteins activated when bound to antibodies
Bocavirus1 serotypeNo direct effect reported inhibited TNF-α, NFκB, IFN-β
Coronavirusα (NL63, 229E)
Cell type specific
epithelium: inhibited STING, IRF3
T-/B-cells: activated cGAS via cGAMP
InfluenzavirusA (H1–3, N1–2), B, CActivated cGAS, STING, IFN-β
MetapneumovirusA, BNo report
Parainfluenzavirus4 serotypesActivated STING
RhinovirusA, B, C (> 100 serotypes)Activated cGAS, STING, IFN-β
RSVA, BActivated cAMP, IFN-β

TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-alpha; MERS: Middle East respiratory syndrome; cAMP: cyclic adenosine monophosphate