Role of nanoparticles in bone remodelling

NPsModificationsTherapeutic agentsTarget (bone remodeling)Experimental modelInferenceReference
LiposomesGelatin methacryloyl-dopamine (GelMA-DOPA)MTOsteoblastMC3T3-E1 (precursors osteoblast) and OVX mice modelMT promotes osteoblast differentiation and bone formation and has been effectively used to combat oxidative stress[101]
PLGANanodecoysRAW cell membraneOsteoclastRAW 264.7 cells (preosteoclast) and OVX mouse modelNanodecoys capable of scavenging RANKL and TNF-α produced by osteoclast cells and promote osteoblastogenesis[103]
CSNano-HA (n-HA/resveratrol/chitosan)ResveratrolOsteoclastRAW 264.7 cells and OVX rat modelCS microsphere implanted into bone defects in the osteoporotic rat femoral condyles, enhanced entochondrostosis and also possessed anti-inflammatory property to treat osteoporotic bone disorder[106]
HAIO NPsmiR-21 and miR-124Osteoblast and osteoclastMC3T3-E1, 4B12 cells and RAW 264.7 cellsnHAp/IO/miR-21/miR-124 improves metabolism of preosteoblasts and promotes osteogenesis, simultaneously decreasing differentiation of preosteoclasts[107]
Mesoporous silica NPsnanoceriaOsteoblast and osteoclastMC3T3-E1 cells and RAW 264.7 cellsCe-MSNs exhibited antioxidant capability and stimulated cell proliferation and osteogenic responses[114]
Selenium NPsOsteoblastMC3T3-E1 cellsSeNPs in osteogenic differentiation in order to treat osteoporosis by regulating the oxidative stress[118]
Gold NPsEGCGEGCGOsteoclastBone marrow macrophages cells and in vivo LPS-induced calvarial bone erosion modelEGCG-GNPs exhibited anti-osteoclastogenesis by reducing the intracellular ROS generation and inhibited the MAPK pathway[119]

NPs: nanoparticles; CS: chitosan; EGCG: epigallocatechin gallate; GNPs: gold nanoparticles