Bone targeting moieties

Bone targeting agentsNPsOutcomesReference
TetracyclinePLGA (SIM-loaded TC-PLGA)SIM-loaded TC-PLGA NPs exhibit enhanced bone targeting efficiency as confirmed by in vitro and in vivo OVX rats[98]
BisphosphonateLipid bilayer NPs (HA-coated zoledronic acid functionalized LNPs)HZL in the LNP exhibited a strong affinity towards HA, further enhancing its efficacy in the treatment of OP[99]
PyrophosphatesLiposomes NPs (PPi functionalized biomineral binding liposomes NPs loaded icariin)PPis act as targeting moieties that anchor to HA surface and mediate the sustained release of icariin that is responsible for the enhancement of osteoblast activity and inhibits the osteoclast function, as well as induces cancellous bone mineralization[94]
Aspartate (Asp8) (Oligopeptides)PLGA NPsPoly-Asp-PLGA NPs have strong binding affinity to HA, which is validated through bone resorption surfaces to target osteoclasts[95]

NPs: nanoparticles; TC: tetracycline; SIM: simvastatin; HZL: hydroxyapatite-coated zoledronic acid functionalized lipid bilayer NPs; OP: osteoporosis