Effects of ROS on different bone cells and materials

Bone agentsRegulatory moleculesActivity of ROSReference
OsteoblastHydroxyl and superoxide radicalsInhibition of differentiation and mineralization; induction of necrosis[11]
OsteoclastSuperoxide, H2O2 and NADPH oxidaseEnhanced generation of ROS regulates osteoclast differentiation and facilitates resorption of bone tissues
Generation of resorption pit
OsteocytesNO, H2O2Induction of apoptotic cell death[20, 21]
FibrinonectinOxygen-free radicalsPartial degradation and modification of ECM molecules; inhibition of bone nodule formation[19]
Pro-inflammatory cytokinesIL-1, IL-6, TNF-αIncreases the expression of osteoclast markers[11]

IL-1: interleukin-1; ECM: extracellular matrix