Summary of sleep measures
|Sleep variable||(Mean ± SD)|
|ODI/hour of sleep||7.50 ± 7.26|
|SpO2 time under 90%||9.39 ± 15.33|
|HFC duration (min)||191.31 ± 98.97|
|HFC %||42.00 ± 19.44|
|LFC duration (min)||171.31 ± 89.92|
|LFC %||38.15 ± 18.21|
|e-LFC duration (min)||86.44 ± 68.66|
|e-LFC %||19.27 ± 14.81|
|e-LFCBB duration (min)||74.66 ± 56.98|
|e-LFCBB %||16.66 ± 12.39|
|e-LFCNB duration (min)||11.78 ± 23.37|
|e-LFCNB %||2.61 ± 5.07|
|Wake (#)||40.04 ± 35.19|
ODI: oxygen 3% desaturation index; SpO2: pulse oxygen saturation; HFC: high frequency coupling % of total estimated sleep time; LFC: low frequency coupling % of total estimated sleep time; e-LFC: elevated-low frequency coupling % of total estimated sleep time; e-LFCBB: broadband e-LFC (generic sleep fragmentation, including apnea); e-LFCNB: narrowband e-LFC (activation of the respiratory chemoreflex); Wake: estimated actigraphic wake during the sleep period
RJT conceptualized the study design and analysis and drafted the manuscript; PM provided technical MRI details, and critically reviewed the manuscript; HK performed statistical analysis and reviewed the manuscript, EJH interpreted raw data and reviewed the manuscript, CSD was responsible for the brain imaging and reviewed the manuscript, CK and TFAA organized, managed, and analyzed data and reviewed the manuscript, RA conceptualized the study design, organized the data collection, and reviewed the manuscript. All authors contributed to manuscript revision, read, and approved the submitted version.
Dr. Thomas reports patent and licenses with royalties from MyCardio, LLC, for the ECG-spectrogram, unlicensed patent for a CO2 regulating device for treatment of central and complex sleep apnea, license with royalties’ from DeVibiss-Drive for an auto-CPAP algorithm, and a general sleep medicine consultant for Guidepoint Global and GLG Councils. Dr. Au has no conflicts of interest but is on the Scientific Advisory Board of Signant Health and is a scientific consultant to Biogen. The other authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
The research study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (2103P000121) and Boston University (H-32375).
The informed consent to participate in the study was obtained from all participants.
The data supporting this report can be obtained through standard processes from the Framingham Heart Study Service Center. https://framinghamheartstudy.org/fhs-for-researchers/fhs-service-center/
Support was provided by the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical center Chief Academic Officer’s Innovation Fund, the Framingham Heart Study’s National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute contract (N01-HC-25195; HHSN268201500001I), by grants (R01-AG016495, R01-AG008122, R01-AG033040, R01-AG054156; R56 AG062109) from the National Institute on Aging, and by grant (R01-NS017950) from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and a grant from Pfizer. The study sponsors had no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the paper for publication.
© The Author(s) 2021.