Distribution of samples across different demographic groups
Control (Tested as normal)
Normal cognition (Not tested, deemed normal)
Education group (Mode)
College graduate (35%)
College graduate (38%)
College graduate (47%)
Some college (61%)
High school graduate (35%)
College graduate (58%)
High school graduate (46%)
High school graduate (35%)
80.5 ± 1.6
72.2 ± 2.3
77.8 ± 2.6
80.0 ± 4.9
83.4 ± 1.9
81.1 ± 5.3
83.8 ± 2.5
84.6 ± 3.5
SD: standard deviation
We acknowledge the dedication of the Framingham Heart Study participants without whom this research would not be possible. We also thank the FHS study staff for their many years of hard work in the examination of subjects and acquisition of data.
LZ, AN, and RHG contributed to the conception and design of the study. CMP, JAT, and HB contributed to refinement of the design of the study. AN performed the statistical analysis. LZ, AN, and RHG drafted the manuscript. CMP, JAT, HB, and RA critically reviewed the manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.
Conflicts of interest
RA has received grant funding support from Biogen. She serves on the scientific advisory boards of Signant Health and Novo Nordisk, and is a scientific consultant to Biogen; none of which have any conflict of interest with the contents of this project. RHG reports personal fees from BrainCheck outside the submitted work and reports receiving stock options from BrainCheck.
The Framingham Heart Study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of Boston University Medical Center.
Consent to participate
All participants provided written consent to the study.
Consent to publication
Availability of data and materials
Given that the text transcripts, demographic, and neuropsychological test data contain personal information, the dataset used in the current study is not publicly available. However, the scripts and tools are available upon request.
This work was partially supported by the National Library of Medicine Training Grant (T15LM007442; Authors JAT and HAB), National Science Foundation NRT Grant (1735095; Author LZ), Framingham Heart Study’s National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute contract (N01-HC-25195; HHSN268201500001I), and NIH grants from the National Institute on Aging (AG008122, AG016495, AG033040, AG049810, AG054156, AG062109, AG068753) and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency FA8750-16-C-0299. The views expressed in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Institutes of Health or the US Department of Health and Human Services. The funding agencies had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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