Potential vaccine improvement strategies and expectations

Vector engineeringMutations

Less cytotoxic vectors, prolonged transgene expression

Tumor targeting

Targeting APCs for improved immunogenicity

AntigenstaRNAUse of minimal vectors, easier handling, and readiness
Oncolytic virusesTumor targeting and killing

Introduction of tumor targeting epitopes

Introduction of immunogenic epitopes

Protein and epitope optimization

Improved immune responses

Combination of epitopes for a larger spectrum of immunogenicity

Epitope selection

Identification of tumor-specific epitopes on cancer cells

More potent personalized immune responses

RNA deliveryStabilizationImproved resistant to degradation, longer RNA half-life
EncapsulationImproved stability, delivery, prolonged circulation in vivo
Combination therapyPrime-boostPrime-boost vaccinations with Ad and other viral vectors
ICB, other drugsSuperior to self-replicating vector alone
Process optimizationVaccine doseOptimization of applied dose
RouteEvaluation of administration route

APCs: antibody-producing cells; taRNA: trans-amplifying RNA