Examples of preclinical studies, clinical trials, and approved cancer vaccines

BreastVEE-HER-2Prevention of tumor growth and death in mice [89]
VEE-HER-2Good tolerance, PR in 1 patient, SD in 2 patients in phase I [90]
VEE-HER2Combination with pembrolizumab (ICB) in phase II [88]
CervicalSFV-E6/E7Tumor regression or complete eradication in mice [91]
SFV-E6/E7 (Vvax001)Good tolerability, HPV-specific responses in phase I [92]
ColonVEE-CEAAnti-tumor activity in mice with MC38-CEA tumors [93]
VEE-CEAImmune responses, prolonged survival in phase I patients [94]
OvarianMVAnti-tumor activity in mice with ovarian tumor xenografts [95]
MVSD in 67% of RROC patients in phase I [96]
ProstateVEE-PSMARobust PSMA-specific immune responses in mice [97]
VEE-PSMANo clinical changes in CRPC patients in phase I [98]
PancreaticVEE-CEACEA-specific T-cell responses in transgenic mice [99]
VEE-CEAAb and T-cell responses, prolonged survival in phase I [99]
VariousChAd + VEE neoAgClinical benefits in cancer patients in phase I/II [100]

CEA: carcinoembryonic antigen; ChAd: chimpanzee Ad; CRPC: castrate-resistant prostate cancer; E6/E7: human papillomavirus envelope proteins 6 and 7; HER-2: human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; HPV: human papillomavirus; ICB: immune checkpoint blockade; MC38: mouse colon cancer cell; neoAg: neo-antigen; PSMA: prostate-specific membrane antigen; RROC: refractory recurrent ovarian cancer