Studies on wheatgrass ameliorating chemoprevention

Type of cancerCell line usedAnalysis methodMechanistic approach for chemopreventionResultsReference
Laryngeal cancerHep2 cell linesHydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and anti-proliferative activityCell proliferation is via G1 arrest in the cell cycle and p53 induction. Isolated compounds inhibit cyclin D1/Cdk4 binding and thus inhibit cell proliferation.The presence of polyphenolics has proved the anti-leukemic potential of wheatgrass.[47]
Lung cancerA549 human lung adenocarcinoma cellsMTT assaySuppression of HIF-1α expressionWheatgrass extract suppresses HIF-1α expression in airway epithelial cells and inhibits mucin overexpression induced by HIF-1α.[59]
Cervical cancerHuman epithelial cells (HeLa)MTT assay, cell cycle analysis, nuclear morphological examination, and RT-PCRCell arrest at G0-G1 phase of cell cycleWheatgrass possesses anti-cancer potential by inducing apoptosis and anti-proliferative action and is used to prevent and treat human cervical cancer.[55]
Breast cancerMCF-7HPLC and GC–MSConducted immunomodulatory bioactive assays and observed delayed type hypersensitivity response and splenocyte proliferation assayYWG and WG1 were discovered to show positive anti-cancer and immunomodulatory activity.[54]
Prostate cancerPC3
Colon cancerHCT-116
Lung cancerA549
Pancreatic cancerMIA PaCa-2
Ovarian cancerA2780 A2780cisRXTT assaysXTT assaysWheatgrass may lessen the cytotoxicity of carboplatin on ovarian cancer cells that are susceptible to the drug cisplatin.[58]

MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide; HIF-1α: hypoxia inducible factor; RT: reverse transcription; MCF-7: Michigan cancer foundation-7; A2780cisR: A2780 cisplatin resistant; XTT: 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H- tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide; YWG: 5-bromo-2-(5-bromo-chloro-1, 2-dihydroxy-4-methylcyclohexyl)-tetrahydro-2,6,6-trimethyl- 2H-pran-3-yl-acetate; WG1: 2,28-diamino-3,27-dihydroxynonacosan-12-one; HPLC: high-performance liquid chromatography