Summarizing documented clinical manifestations, gut microbial profiles, and conventional and new microbial-related therapies in proteinopathies

ND Hallmarks Clinical manifestations Conventional therapies Gut microbial profile New microbial-related therapies
PD Lewy bodies Bradykinesia, tremor or postural instability
L-DOPA, dopaminergic agonists, MAO-B inhibitors and COMT inhibitors Reduction of anti-inflammatory species and greater abundance of pro-inflammatory Enterobacteriaceae [13, 53, 66, 69, 70]
SIBO and Helicobacter pylori infection [79, 87, 88]
Probiotic containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Bifidobacerium strains [79, 8991]
Regular intake of Bacillus spp. [66, 94, 95]
Regular consumption of synbiotics [96]
FMT [101, 102]
AD Senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles Progressive loss of memory, language and learning capabilities To increase acetylcholine levels
To decrease NMDA glutamate receptors activity
Reduction in gut microbiota diversity [123]
Differences in Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio [124]
Helicobacter pylori infection [125, 126]
Larger proportion of pro-inflammatory Escherichia/ Shigella spp. taxa and lower proportion of anti-inflammatory Eubacterium rectale spp. taxa [127]
Multibiotics [147]
Lactobacilli and Bifibodbacterium combinations [148]
Probiotic mixture combined with selenium as prebiotic [149]
Daily consumption of probiotic-fermented kefir [150]
FMT [154]
HD mHTT aggregations Depression, dementia, motor alterations and GIT dysfunction Dopamine inhibitors, anti-excitotoxic compounds and antipsychotic drugs Differences in richness and diversity [173] Currently under investigation