Details of the anticancer efficacy of BD in several human malignancies using in vivo models

Cancer type Model used Dose Duration Measurement frequency Route of administration Observed effects Mode of action References
NSCLC A549 cells in BALB/c-nu mice 40 mg/kg/day 15 days Every 2 days Intraperitoneal injection ↓Tumour growth ↑pJNK, ↑caspase 9 ↑Apoptosis; ↑LC3-II, ↑Autophagy [28]
Osteosarcoma MNNG/HOS cells in BALC/c-nu mice 2.5 mg/kg/2 days;
5.0 mg/kg/2 days
12 days Every 2 days Intraperitoneal injection ↓Tumour size
↓Tumour weight
↓pSTAT3, ↓MMP2 and MMP9, ↓Ki67 [47]
Hepatocellular carcinoma Huh7 cells in BALC/c-nu mice 0.75 mg/kg/day; 1.5 mg/kg/day 10 days Daily Intravenous tail vein injection ↓Tumour growth ↑Proteasome, ↓Total β-catenin, ↓Active β-catenin, ↓JAG1, ↓NICD, ↑Apoptosis [45]

MMP2: matrix metalloproteinase-2 (gelatinase A); MMP9: matrix metallopeptidase 9 (gelatinase B)