Details of the anticancer efficacy of BD in several human malignancies using in vitro models
|Cancer type||Cell lines||Anti-cancer efficacy||Mode of action||Concentration (μM)||IC50 (anti-proliferation)||References|
|NSCLC||A549NCI-H292||Anti-proliferative||↑ROS, ↑pJNK, ↑Apoptosis;↑LC3-II, ↑Autophagy||0–40||A549: 17.89 (48 h)NCI-H292: 14.42 (48 h)|||
|A549H460PC9H1975||Anti-proliferative||A549, H460: ↑pJNK, ↓Bcl-2, ↑BAX, ↑caspase 3 and PARP, ↑Apoptosis||0–12.5||A549: 0.6 (48 h)H460: 0.5 (48 h)PC9: 1.0 (48 h)H1975: 2.7 (48 h)|||
|Pancreatic adenocarcinoma||PANC1SW1990CAPAN-1||Anti-proliferative||PANC1: ↑p38-MAPK, ↓Bcl-2, ↑BAX, ↑caspase 3 and 8||< 0.1–> 30||PANC1: 2.53 (72 h)SW1990: 5.21 (72 h)CAPAN-1: 1.35 (72 h)||[29, 37]|
|Chronic Myeloid Leukemia||K562||Anti-proliferative||↓pAKT and pERK;↓Ψm, ↑caspase 3 and 9, ↑PARP||0–12||6.37 ± 0.39 (72 h)|||
|TNBC||MDA-MB-231||Anti-proliferativeAnti-invasiveAnti-migration||↓PI3K, ↓pAKT, ↑E-cadherins, ↓vimentin and β-catenin, partial EMT reversal||0–100||5.84 (48 h); 2.364 (72 h)|||
|Osteosarcoma||MNNG/HOSU-2OSMG-63Saos-2||Anti-proliferativeAnti-invasiveAnti-migrationAnti-CLC||↓pSTAT3, ↓Cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK2, ↑Apoptosis; ↓pSTAT3, ↓CD133, SOX2, Oct-4, Nanog||0–20||MNNG/HOS: 0.9 (48 h)U-2OS: 0.05 (48 h)MG-63: 0.65 (48 h)Saos-2: 0.51 (48 h)|||
|Hepatocellular carcinoma||Huh7Hep3B||Anti-proliferative||↑Proteasome, ↓Total β-catenin, ↓Active β-catenin, ↓JAG1, ↓NICD, ↑Apoptosis||0–20||Approx. 2.5 (48 h)|||
|Bel7404HepG2Hep3BHuh7PLC||Anti-proliferative||↓miR-95, ↑CUGBP2, ↑Apoptosis||0.25–1.5||Bal7407: ~1.0 (72 h)HepG2: ~0.8 (72 h)Hep3B: ~0.75 (72 h)Huh7: ~0.6 (72 h)PLC: ~0.8 (72 h)|||
Ψm: mitochondrial membrane potential; CD133: prominin-1; CDK2: cyclin dependent kinase 2; CUGBP2: Elav-like family member 2; JAG1: Jagged1; LC3-II: autophagy marker; Nanog: homeobox protein NANOG; NICD: cleaved intracellular domain of Notch receptor; Oct-4: octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (also known as POU5F1); PARP: poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase; p38-MAPK: p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases; pAKT: phosphorylated protein kinase B; pERK: phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase; pJNK: phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase; pSTAT3: phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; SOX2: SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2; CDK4: cyclin-dependent kinase 4; EMT: epithelial-mesenchymal transition; miR-95: microRNA-95
The concept and design of this manuscript are conceived by ZWS and MG. ZWS, AKP, and MG wrote and revised the manuscript, presented the concept, created figures, tables. All authors have read the manuscript and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
This work was supported by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), under its Ramalingaswami Fellowship number BT/RLF/Re-entry/24/2014 and Science and Engineering Research Board under its ECRA scheme (SERB File No. ECR/2016/001519) award to Dr. Manoj Garg. The sponsor(s) have no role in designing, analysis, interpretation and writing.
© The Author(s) 2020.