Main clinical trials that explored predictive biomarkers in CRC
|The combination of panitumumab and FOLFOX4 significantly improved PFS in patients with KRAS wild-type tumors.
|Molecular testing of tumors for all activating RAS mutations is essential before considering anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy, thereby allowing the further tailoring of cetuximab administration to maximize patient benefit.
|The addition of cetuximab to FOLFOX-4 significantly improved PFS and response in patients with KRAS wild-type tumors.
|MRC COIN 
|This trial has not confirmed a benefit of addition of cetuximab to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in first-line treatment of patients with advanced CRC.
|In this study a significantly higher OS was demonstrated for FOLFIRI plus cetuximab compared to FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab in the extended RAS wild-type subgroup.
|Early results suggest antitumor activity of single-agent AMG 510 in KRASG12C mutant solid tumors.
|The trial is ongoing and responses to treatment with MRTX849 have been observed in both lung and CRC KRASG12C mutant patients.
|SWOG 1406 
|The addition of vemurafenib to the combination of cetuximab and irinotecan in BRAFV600 mutated tumors resulted in a prolongation of PFS and a higher disease control rate.
|BEACON CRC 
|A combination of encorafenib, cetuximab, and binimetinib resulted in significantly longer OS and a higher response rate than standard therapy in patients with mCRC with the BRAF V600E mutation.
|This study showed that mismatch-repair status predicted clinical benefit of immune checkpoint blockade with pembrolizumab.
|CheckMate 142 
|Nivolumab provided durable responses and disease control in pre-treated patients with dMMR/MSI-H mCRC.
|The combination of trastuzumab and lapatinib is active and well tolerated in treatment-refractory patients with HER2-positive tumors.
|Durable responses were seen in patients with refractory colorectal cancers with HER2 activation/overexpression when the approved targeted therapy regimen administered without chemotherapy.
|CALGB/SWOG 80405 
|The CMSs are highly prognostic and predictive for OS and PFS.
|Fire-3(AIO KRK-0306) 
|Prolonged OS induced by FOLFIRI plus cetuximab versus FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab in the FIRE-3 study appears to be driven by CMS2 and CMS4.
OS: overall survival
AMR and NN contributed conception and design of the review; AMR wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors contributed to manuscript revision, read and approved the submitted version.
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
© The Author(s) 2020.