Summary of current and emerging molecular biomarkers associated with targeted therapies

Biomarker Agents Status
KRAS/NRAS Cetuximab, Panitumumab (negative predictive biomarker) Approved EMA and FDA
BRAF
  V600E Encorafenib + Binimetinib + Cetuximab [57] Approved FDA
  nonV600E MEK ± BRAF ± EGFR inhibitors Experimental
MSI Pembrolizumab [66, 67]; Nivolumab [68] Approved FDA
HER2 Trastuzumab + Pertuzumab [84]; Lapatinib + Trastuzumab [85] Experimental
NTRK Larotrectinib, Entrectinib Approved EMA (Larotrectinib) and FDA (Larotrectinib, Entrectinib)
NF1 MEK ± BRAF ± EGFR inhibitors Experimental