Biological activity of most relevant β-glucans investigated in pre-clinical studies

Pre-clinical study (ref.)Treatment modelsβ-glucans/fungusBiological activity
Sorimachi K, et al., [64]
Niu YC, et al., [65]
Animal model (rat bone marrow)
Animal model (mouse S180 cells), IV administration
Glucan/Agaricus blazei Murill- ↑ secretion of IL-8 and TNF-α by macrophages
- ↑ production of IL-23, IL-12, IL-1
- ↑ cytokine and leukocyte growth factor production
Kubala L, et al., [66]
Zhong K, et al., [67]
Human model
Mice splenic Lymphocytes
Schizophyllan/Schizophyllum commune- ↑ lymphocytes proliferation, through production of IL-2
- ↑ production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha
Yang A, et al., [68]Murine macrophages
Human hepatoma HepG2 cells
TPG-1/Trametes robiniophila- ↑ production of TNF-α and IL-6 through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)
Wang J, et al., [69]
Wang SY, et al., [70]
Chien CM, et al., [71]
Animal model, in vitro, Raw 264.7 cells
Human myeloid leukemia cell lines
Human umbilical cord blood
Proteoglycan fraction/Ganoderma lucidum- ↑ anti-inflammation activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation
- ↑ T cells activity
- ↑ expression of IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and INF-γ
- modulate NK cell cytotoxicity
Carmona EM, et al., [72]
Ali MF, et al., [73]
Rat cells
Human model
Glucan/Pneumocystis and Aspergillus- ↑ TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 production by B-lymphocytes
- ↑ IL-23 and IL-6 release by dendritic cells
- ↑ secretion of IL-17 and IL-22, both Th17-produced cytokines
Kankkunen P, et al., [52]
Ding J, et al., [74]
Vetvicka V, et al., [47]
Human macrophages
Human monocyte-derived DCs
Murine melanoma B16 cell line
Glucan/Saccharomyces cerevisiae- ↑ Th2 immune response and inhibits Th1 by promoting the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF-β)
- ↑ IL-1β transcription and secretion
- ↑ IL12, IL-2, TNF, IFN production
- ↑ tumor-specific CTL activity
- modulate NK cells activity and killing towards tumor cells
Ina K, et al., [75]Human model (gastric cancer patients), IV administrationLentinan/Lentinula edodes- ↑ PD-L1 tumor expression
- ↑ release of TNF-α, IL-12 and IFN-γ
- ↑ T cells activity, especially CD8+ cells and Th1 polarization
Masuda Y, et al., [76]
Masuda Y, et al., [77]
Animal model
Animal model
Maitake α-glucan (YM-2A)/Grifola frondosa- ↑ activation of dendritic cells and macrophages
- ↑ IFN-γ production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells
Bose N, et al., [78]Human serumImprime PGG/Saccharomyces cerevisiae- ↑ phenotypic and functional activation of monocytes
- ↑ activation of neutrophils, through production of IL-8, CCL2, and CD11b