Array ( [0] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 5 [Create_Time] => 2020-02-29 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202010/20201023011247.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10012/10012.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10012/10012.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10012/10012_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Current evidence and outcomes for retinopathy of prematurity prevention: insight into novel maternal and placental contributions [Abstract] => Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a blinding morbidity of preterm infants, which represents a significant clinical problem, accounting for up to 40% of all childhood blindness. ROP displays a range of severity, though even mild disease may result in life-long visual impairment. [AbstractComplete] =>

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a blinding morbidity of preterm infants, which represents a significant clinical problem, accounting for up to 40% of all childhood blindness. ROP displays a range of severity, though even mild disease may result in life-long visual impairment. This is complicated by the fact that our current treatments have significant ocular and potentially systemic effects. Therefore, disease prevention is desperately needed to mitigate the life-long deleterious effects of ROP for preterm infants. Although ROP demonstrates a delayed onset of retinal disease following preterm birth, representing a potential window for prevention, we have been unable to sufficiently alter the natural disease course and meaningfully prevent ROP. Prevention therapeutics requires knowledge of early ROP molecular changes and risk, occurring prior to clinical retinal disease. While we still have an incomplete understanding of these disease mechanisms, emerging data integrating contributions of maternal/placental pathobiology with ROP are poised to inform novel approaches to prevention. Herein, we review the molecular basis for current prevention strategies and the clinical outcomes of these interventions. We also discuss how insights into early ROP pathophysiology may be gained by a better understanding of maternal and placental factors playing a role in preterm birth.

[Names] => Lara Carroll, Leah A. Owen [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00002 [Published] => February 29, 2020 [Viewed] => 3490 [Downloaded] => 116 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00002 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:4–26 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Retinopathy of prematurity, prevention, therapeutics, placenta [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 10012 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10012/5b910a3128d0b954cf81291a2592d620.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10012/113e46bc343cba17a17d20f90eb8d9ed.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 15 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Carroll L, Owen LA. Current evidence and outcomes for retinopathy of prematurity prevention: insights into novel maternal and placental disease contributions. Explor Med. 2020:4–26. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00002 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:28:38 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:28:38 [KeysWordContens] => Current evidence and outcomes for retinopathy of prematurity prevention: insight into novel maternal and placental contributions, Retinopathy of prematurity, prevention, therapeutics, placenta, Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a blinding morbidity of preterm infants, which represents a significant clinical problem, accounting for up to 40% of all childhood blindness. ROP displays a range of severity, though even mild disease may result in life-long visual impairment. This is complicated by the fact that our current treatments have significant ocular and potentially systemic effects. Therefore, disease prevention is desperately needed to mitigate the life-long deleterious effects of ROP for preterm infants. Although ROP demonstrates a delayed onset of retinal disease following preterm birth, representing a potential window for prevention, we have been unable to sufficiently alter the natural disease course and meaningfully prevent ROP. Prevention therapeutics requires knowledge of early ROP molecular changes and risk, occurring prior to clinical retinal disease. While we still have an incomplete understanding of these disease mechanisms, emerging data integrating contributions of maternal/placental pathobiology with ROP are poised to inform novel approaches to prevention. Herein, we review the molecular basis for current prevention strategies and the clinical outcomes of these interventions. We also discuss how insights into early ROP pathophysiology may be gained by a better understanding of maternal and placental factors playing a role in preterm birth. ,Lara Carroll, Leah A. Owen [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [1] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 6 [Create_Time] => 2020-02-29 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202010/20201023005022.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10013/10013.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10013/10013.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10013/10013_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Identifying factors associated with opioid cessation in a biracial sample using machine learning [Abstract] => Aim: Racial disparities in opioid use disorder (OUD) management exist, however, and there is limited research on factors that influence opioid cessation in different population groups. Methods: We employed multiple machine learning prediction algorithms least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, random forest, deep neural network, and support vector machine to assess factors associated with ceasing opioid use in a sample of 1,192 African Americans (AAs) and 2,557 individuals of European ancestry (EAs) who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition criteria for OUD. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Racial disparities in opioid use disorder (OUD) management exist, however, and there is limited research on factors that influence opioid cessation in different population groups.

Methods:

We employed multiple machine learning prediction algorithms least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, random forest, deep neural network, and support vector machine to assess factors associated with ceasing opioid use in a sample of 1,192 African Americans (AAs) and 2,557 individuals of European ancestry (EAs) who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition criteria for OUD. Values for nearly 4,000 variables reflecting demographics, alcohol and other drug use, general health, non-drug use behaviors, and diagnoses for other psychiatric disorders, were obtained for each participant from the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism, a detailed semi-structured interview.

Results:

Support vector machine models performed marginally better on average than other machine learning methods with maximum prediction accuracies of 75.4% in AAs and 79.4% in EAs. Subsequent stepwise regression considered the 83 most highly ranked variables across all methods and models and identified less recent cocaine use (AAs: odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, P = 9.19 × 10−5; EAs: OR = 1.91, P = 3.30 × 10−15), shorter duration of opioid use (AAs: OR = 0.55, P = 5.78 × 10−6; EAs: OR = 0.69, P = 3.01 × 10−7), and older age (AAs: OR = 2.44, P = 1.41 × 10−12; EAs: OR = 2.00, P = 5.74 × 10−9) as the strongest independent predictors of opioid cessation in both AAs and EAs. Attending self-help groups for OUD was also an independent predictor (P < 0.05) in both population groups, while less gambling severity (OR = 0.80, P = 3.32 × 10−2) was specific to AAs and post-traumatic stress disorder recovery (OR = 1.93, P = 7.88 × 10−5), recent antisocial behaviors (OR = 0.64, P = 2.69 × 10−3), and atheism (OR = 1.45, P = 1.34 × 10−2) were specific to EAs. Factors related to drug use comprised about half of the significant independent predictors in both AAs and EAs, with other predictors related to non-drug use behaviors, psychiatric disorders, overall health, and demographics.

Conclusions:

These proof-of-concept findings provide avenues for hypothesis-driven analysis, and will lead to further research on strategies to improve OUD management in EAs and AAs.

[Names] => Jiayi W. Cox ... Lindsay A. Farrer [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00003 [Published] => February 29, 2020 [Viewed] => 3995 [Downloaded] => 85 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00003 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 24 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:27–41 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Opioid use disorder, opioid cessation, machine learning, feature selection, outcome prediction [DetailTitle] => The Biological Basis of Substance Use Disorders [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/24 [Id] => 10013 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10013/7adcf85e91bc0271b60e7ea3193bf238.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10013/21b6ea97c65245715d2b878a847a2757.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Cox JW, Sherva RM, Lunetta KL, Saitz R, Kon M, Kranzler HR, et al. Identifying factors associated with opioid cessation in a biracial sample using machine learning. Explor Med. 2020;1:27–41. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00003 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:53:30 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:53:30 [KeysWordContens] => Identifying factors associated with opioid cessation in a biracial sample using machine learning, Opioid use disorder, opioid cessation, machine learning, feature selection, outcome prediction, Aim: Racial disparities in opioid use disorder (OUD) management exist, however, and there is limited research on factors that influence opioid cessation in different population groups. Methods: We employed multiple machine learning prediction algorithms least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, random forest, deep neural network, and support vector machine to assess factors associated with ceasing opioid use in a sample of 1,192 African Americans (AAs) and 2,557 individuals of European ancestry (EAs) who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition criteria for OUD. Values for nearly 4,000 variables reflecting demographics, alcohol and other drug use, general health, non-drug use behaviors, and diagnoses for other psychiatric disorders, were obtained for each participant from the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism, a detailed semi-structured interview. Results: Support vector machine models performed marginally better on average than other machine learning methods with maximum prediction accuracies of 75.4% in AAs and 79.4% in EAs. Subsequent stepwise regression considered the 83 most highly ranked variables across all methods and models and identified less recent cocaine use (AAs: odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, P = 9.19 × 10−5; EAs: OR = 1.91, P = 3.30 × 10−15), shorter duration of opioid use (AAs: OR = 0.55, P = 5.78 × 10−6; EAs: OR = 0.69, P = 3.01 × 10−7), and older age (AAs: OR = 2.44, P = 1.41 × 10−12; EAs: OR = 2.00, P = 5.74 × 10−9) as the strongest independent predictors of opioid cessation in both AAs and EAs. Attending self-help groups for OUD was also an independent predictor (P < 0.05) in both population groups, while less gambling severity (OR = 0.80, P = 3.32 × 10−2) was specific to AAs and post-traumatic stress disorder recovery (OR = 1.93, P = 7.88 × 10−5), recent antisocial behaviors (OR = 0.64, P = 2.69 × 10−3), and atheism (OR = 1.45, P = 1.34 × 10−2) were specific to EAs. Factors related to drug use comprised about half of the significant independent predictors in both AAs and EAs, with other predictors related to non-drug use behaviors, psychiatric disorders, overall health, and demographics. Conclusions: These proof-of-concept findings provide avenues for hypothesis-driven analysis, and will lead to further research on strategies to improve OUD management in EAs and AAs. ,Jiayi W. Cox ... Lindsay A. Farrer [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [2] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 7 [Create_Time] => 2020-02-29 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202010/20201023033551.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10014/10014.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10014/10014.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10014/10014_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => PNPLA3 gene and kidney disease [Abstract] => Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a disease regularly seen in clinical practice. At present, CKD is described as a change of kidney structure and/or function and it is classified in relation to cause, values of glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria category. Seeing that CKD is closely linked to the development of end-stage renal disease and other comorbidities, the determination of additional independent predictors for CKD is clinically necessary. [AbstractComplete] =>

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a disease regularly seen in clinical practice. At present, CKD is described as a change of kidney structure and/or function and it is classified in relation to cause, values of glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria category. Seeing that CKD is closely linked to the development of end-stage renal disease and other comorbidities, the determination of additional independent predictors for CKD is clinically necessary. At present, there is evidence associating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with CKD, thereby suggesting that NAFLD patients may require intensive surveillance to reduce their risk of CKD. In 2008, genome-wide association studies documented an association between the variant rs738409 (C > G p.I148M) in the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) gene (mainly implicated in the lipid regulation) and the entire spectrum of NAFLD (i.e., liver steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma). In the last years, accumulating epidemiological evidence suggests the existence of a relationship between PNPLA3 rs738409 and risk of CKD, indicating that rs738409 may also contribute to the kidney injury. This is of particular scientific interest, as such association may explain, at least in part, the epidemiological association between liver and kidney disease. In this narrative review, we will discuss the accumulating evidence regarding the association between PNPLA3 rs738409 and risk of CKD, the putative biological mechanisms underpinning such relationship, and the possible future perspective.

[Names] => Alessandro Mantovani, Chiara Zusi [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00004 [Published] => February 29, 2020 [Viewed] => 2882 [Downloaded] => 62 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00004 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:42–50 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3, kidney disease, chronic kidney disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 10014 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10014/2d04dd0f345aa7edb9e92bf5b01e28b1.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10014/cee01d29afa15f2018732812abe20997.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 32 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Mantovani A, Zusi C. PNPLA3 gene and kidney disease. Explor Med. 2020:42–50. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00004 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:32:54 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:32:54 [KeysWordContens] => PNPLA3 gene and kidney disease, Patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3, kidney disease, chronic kidney disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a disease regularly seen in clinical practice. At present, CKD is described as a change of kidney structure and/or function and it is classified in relation to cause, values of glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria category. Seeing that CKD is closely linked to the development of end-stage renal disease and other comorbidities, the determination of additional independent predictors for CKD is clinically necessary. At present, there is evidence associating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with CKD, thereby suggesting that NAFLD patients may require intensive surveillance to reduce their risk of CKD. In 2008, genome-wide association studies documented an association between the variant rs738409 (C > G p.I148M) in the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) gene (mainly implicated in the lipid regulation) and the entire spectrum of NAFLD (i.e., liver steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma). In the last years, accumulating epidemiological evidence suggests the existence of a relationship between PNPLA3 rs738409 and risk of CKD, indicating that rs738409 may also contribute to the kidney injury. This is of particular scientific interest, as such association may explain, at least in part, the epidemiological association between liver and kidney disease. In this narrative review, we will discuss the accumulating evidence regarding the association between PNPLA3 rs738409 and risk of CKD, the putative biological mechanisms underpinning such relationship, and the possible future perspective. ,Alessandro Mantovani, Chiara Zusi [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [3] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 8 [Create_Time] => 2020-02-29 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202109/20210901031925.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10011/10011.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10011/10011.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10011/10011_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Welcome message from the Editor-in-Chief [Abstract] => [AbstractComplete] => [Names] => Lindsay A. Farrer [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00001 [Published] => February 29, 2020 [Viewed] => 1568 [Downloaded] => 37 [Subject] => Editorial [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00001 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:1–3 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 10011 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10011/8985112baa773c12d43fe9cb2194890d.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10011/74ebf28b6842d54c01183f11f615699a.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => 2021-02-01 [CitethisArticle] => Farrer LA. Welcome message from the Editor-in-Chief. Explor Med. 2020;1:1–3. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00001 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Lindsay A.Farrer, [CEmail] => farrer@bu.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:25:59 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:25:59 [KeysWordContens] => Welcome message from the Editor-in-Chief,,,Lindsay A. Farrer [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [4] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 27 [Create_Time] => 2020-04-30 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202010/20201023034831.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10015/10015.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10015/10015.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10015/10015_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Sex differences in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: hints for future management of the disease [Abstract] => Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Despite extensive studies, the heterogeneity of the risk factors as well as different disease mechanisms complicate the goals toward effective diagnosis and management. Recently, it has been shown that sex differences play a role in the prevalence and progression of NAFLD. [AbstractComplete] =>

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Despite extensive studies, the heterogeneity of the risk factors as well as different disease mechanisms complicate the goals toward effective diagnosis and management. Recently, it has been shown that sex differences play a role in the prevalence and progression of NAFLD. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies revealed that the lower prevalence of NAFLD in premenopausal as compared to postmenopausal women and men is mainly due to the protective effects of estrogen and body fat distribution. It has been also described that males and females present differential pathogenic features in terms of biochemical profiles and histological characteristics. However, the exact molecular mechanisms for the gender differences that exist in the pathogenesis of NAFLD are still elusive. Lipogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammation play a key role in the progression of NAFLD. For NAFLD, only a few studies characterized these mechanisms at the molecular level. Therefore, we aim to review the reported differential molecular mechanisms that trigger such different pathogenesis in both sexes. Differences in lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis were discussed based on the evidence reported in recent publications. In conclusion, with this review, we hope to provide a new perspective for the development of future practice guidelines as well as a new avenue for the management of the disease.

[Names] => Noel C. Salvoza ... Natalia Rosso [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00005 [Published] => April 30, 2020 [Viewed] => 9182 [Downloaded] => 207 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00005 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 22 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:51–74 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, sex differences, hormones, inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, gut microbiota, metabolites [DetailTitle] => Exploring NAFLD/NASH [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/22 [Id] => 10015 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10015/63787f577a329c1f9725559cc3218704.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10015/3c10f89235ce911c1290eafd3f42da05.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 18 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Salvoza NC, Giraudi PJ, Tiribelli C, Rosso N. Sex differences in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: hints for future management of the disease. Explor Med. 2020;1:51–74. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00005 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:35:15 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:35:15 [KeysWordContens] => Sex differences in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: hints for future management of the disease, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, sex differences, hormones, inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, gut microbiota, metabolites, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Despite extensive studies, the heterogeneity of the risk factors as well as different disease mechanisms complicate the goals toward effective diagnosis and management. Recently, it has been shown that sex differences play a role in the prevalence and progression of NAFLD. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies revealed that the lower prevalence of NAFLD in premenopausal as compared to postmenopausal women and men is mainly due to the protective effects of estrogen and body fat distribution. It has been also described that males and females present differential pathogenic features in terms of biochemical profiles and histological characteristics. However, the exact molecular mechanisms for the gender differences that exist in the pathogenesis of NAFLD are still elusive. Lipogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammation play a key role in the progression of NAFLD. For NAFLD, only a few studies characterized these mechanisms at the molecular level. Therefore, we aim to review the reported differential molecular mechanisms that trigger such different pathogenesis in both sexes. Differences in lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis were discussed based on the evidence reported in recent publications. In conclusion, with this review, we hope to provide a new perspective for the development of future practice guidelines as well as a new avenue for the management of the disease. ,Noel C. Salvoza ... Natalia Rosso [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [5] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 28 [Create_Time] => 2020-04-30 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202010/20201023035928.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10016/10016.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10016/10016.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10016/10016_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Understanding cardiac systolic performance beyond left ventricular ejection fraction [Abstract] => Left ventricular ejection fraction is the critical parameter used for heart failure classification, decision making and assessing prognosis. It is defined as a volumetric ratio and is essentially a composite of arterial and ventricular elastances, but not intrinsic contractility. The clinician should be aware of its numerous limitations when measuring and reporting it. [AbstractComplete] =>

Left ventricular ejection fraction is the critical parameter used for heart failure classification, decision making and assessing prognosis. It is defined as a volumetric ratio and is essentially a composite of arterial and ventricular elastances, but not intrinsic contractility. The clinician should be aware of its numerous limitations when measuring and reporting it. And make a step toward more insightful understanding of hemodynamics.

[Names] => Elena-Laura Antohi, Ovidiu Chioncel [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00006 [Published] => April 30, 2020 [Viewed] => 5669 [Downloaded] => 142 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:75–84 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Left ventricular ejection fraction, ventriculo-arterial coupling, left ventricular functions, hemodynamics [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 10016 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10016/3d3bdaaad4823f4d72b44c58e1afda0b.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10016/bcd636c23be3e11dc5fe09653cc87da5.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Antohi EL, Chioncel C. Understanding the cardiac systolic performance beyond left ventricular ejection fraction. Explor Med. 2020:1:75–84. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00006 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:37:21 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:37:21 [KeysWordContens] => Understanding cardiac systolic performance beyond left ventricular ejection fraction, Left ventricular ejection fraction, ventriculo-arterial coupling, left ventricular functions, hemodynamics, Left ventricular ejection fraction is the critical parameter used for heart failure classification, decision making and assessing prognosis. It is defined as a volumetric ratio and is essentially a composite of arterial and ventricular elastances, but not intrinsic contractility. The clinician should be aware of its numerous limitations when measuring and reporting it. And make a step toward more insightful understanding of hemodynamics. ,Elena-Laura Antohi, Ovidiu Chioncel [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [6] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 29 [Create_Time] => 2020-06-29 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230303070049.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10017/10017.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10017/10017.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10017/10017_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Perspectives of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease research: a personal point of view [Abstract] => Rational government of patient fluxes from primary care to hepatology clinic is a priority of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) research. Estimating pre-test probability of disease, risk of fibrosis progression, and exclusion of competing causes of liver disease must be addressed. Here we propose a novel taxonomic classification of NAFLD based on hepatic, pathogenic and systemic features of disease in the individual patient. The variable course of disease in any given patient remains a clinical enigma. [AbstractComplete] =>

Rational government of patient fluxes from primary care to hepatology clinic is a priority of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) research. Estimating pre-test probability of disease, risk of fibrosis progression, and exclusion of competing causes of liver disease must be addressed. Here we propose a novel taxonomic classification of NAFLD based on hepatic, pathogenic and systemic features of disease in the individual patient. The variable course of disease in any given patient remains a clinical enigma. Therefore, future studies will have to better characterize the role of genetic polymorphisms, family and personal history, diet, alcohol, physical activity and drugs as modifiers of the course of disease and clues to the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. A better understanding of these, together with a taxonomic diagnosis, may prompt a more accurate personalization of care. For example, understanding the putative role of psycho-depression in NAFLD promises to revolutionize disease management in a proportion of cases. Similarly, sex differences in outcome and response to treatment are insufficiently characterized. More studies are awaited regarding those forms of NAFLD which occur secondary to endocrine derangements. The intersections between NAFLD and the lung must better be defined. These include the bi-directional associations of NAFLD and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sleep apnoea syndrome, as well as the totally unexplored chapter of NAFLD and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Finally, the therapeutic roles of intermittent fasting and anticoagulation must be assessed. In conclusion, over the last 20 years, NAFLD has taught us a lot regarding the pathogenic importance of insulin resistance, the limitations of correcting this in the treatment of NAFLD, the root causes of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, sex differences in disease and the role of nuclear receptors. However, the overwhelming COVID-19 pandemic is now expected to reset the priorities of public health.

[Names] => Amedeo Lonardo, Stefano Ballestri [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00007 [Published] => June 29, 2020 [Viewed] => 5482 [Downloaded] => 123 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00007 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 22 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:85–107 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Alcoholic fatty liver disease, coronavirus disease 2019, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, endocrine nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, genetic risk score, liver biopsy, natural history, sex differences [DetailTitle] => Exploring NAFLD/NASH [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/22 [Id] => 10017 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10017/5d50e5c9987fb0c7c31d44c4c1572842.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10017/9e44d141675a793da77e554914898718.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 23 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Lonardo A, Ballestri S. Perspectives of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease research: a personal point of view. Explor Med. 2020:1:85–107. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00007 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => AmedeoLonardo, [CEmail] => a.lonardo@libero.it, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:39:26 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:39:26 [KeysWordContens] => Perspectives of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease research: a personal point of view, Alcoholic fatty liver disease, coronavirus disease 2019, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, endocrine nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, genetic risk score, liver biopsy, natural history, sex differences, Rational government of patient fluxes from primary care to hepatology clinic is a priority of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) research. Estimating pre-test probability of disease, risk of fibrosis progression, and exclusion of competing causes of liver disease must be addressed. Here we propose a novel taxonomic classification of NAFLD based on hepatic, pathogenic and systemic features of disease in the individual patient. The variable course of disease in any given patient remains a clinical enigma. Therefore, future studies will have to better characterize the role of genetic polymorphisms, family and personal history, diet, alcohol, physical activity and drugs as modifiers of the course of disease and clues to the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. A better understanding of these, together with a taxonomic diagnosis, may prompt a more accurate personalization of care. For example, understanding the putative role of psycho-depression in NAFLD promises to revolutionize disease management in a proportion of cases. Similarly, sex differences in outcome and response to treatment are insufficiently characterized. More studies are awaited regarding those forms of NAFLD which occur secondary to endocrine derangements. The intersections between NAFLD and the lung must better be defined. These include the bi-directional associations of NAFLD and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sleep apnoea syndrome, as well as the totally unexplored chapter of NAFLD and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Finally, the therapeutic roles of intermittent fasting and anticoagulation must be assessed. In conclusion, over the last 20 years, NAFLD has taught us a lot regarding the pathogenic importance of insulin resistance, the limitations of correcting this in the treatment of NAFLD, the root causes of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, sex differences in disease and the role of nuclear receptors. However, the overwhelming COVID-19 pandemic is now expected to reset the priorities of public health. ,Amedeo Lonardo, Stefano Ballestri [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [7] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 31 [Create_Time] => 2020-06-29 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202010/20201023065101.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100110/100110.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100110/100110.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100110/100110_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Reduction of endoglin receptor impairs mononuclear cell-migration [Abstract] => Aim: To test if the impairment of mononuclear cell (MNC) migration in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is due to the reduction of the endoglin (ENG) receptor on the cell surface and oxidative stress. Methods: MNCs of HHT patients and normal controls were subjected to migration assay. Fractions of MNCs were pre-incubated with antibodies specific to HHT causative genes ENG [hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1 (HHT1)] or activin receptor-like kinase 1 [ALK1, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2 (HHT2)], AMD3100 or Diprotin-A to block ENG, ALK1 C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) or CD26 (increased in HHT1 MNCs) before migration assay. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

To test if the impairment of mononuclear cell (MNC) migration in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is due to the reduction of the endoglin (ENG) receptor on the cell surface and oxidative stress.

Methods:

MNCs of HHT patients and normal controls were subjected to migration assay. Fractions of MNCs were pre-incubated with antibodies specific to HHT causative genes ENG [hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1 (HHT1)] or activin receptor-like kinase 1 [ALK1, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2 (HHT2)], AMD3100 or Diprotin-A to block ENG, ALK1 C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) or CD26 (increased in HHT1 MNCs) before migration assay. The MNCs were allowed to migrate toward stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) for 18 h. The expression of CXCR4, CD26, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) in MNCs and nitric oxide levels in the plasma were analyzed.

Results:

Compared to the controls, fewer HHT1 MNCs and similar number of HHT2 MNCs migrated toward SDF-1α. Diprotin-A pre-treatment improved HHT1 MNC-migration, but had no effect on normal and HHT2 MNCs. Pre-incubation with an anti-ENG antibody reduced the migration of normal MNCs. Diprotin-A did not improve the migration of ENG antibody pre-treated MNCs. Anti-ALK1 antibody had no effect on MNC-migration. AMD3100 treatment reduced normal and HHT MNC-migration. ENG mRNA level was reduced in HHT1 and HHT2 MNCs. ALK1 mRNA was reduced in HHT2 MNCs only. CD26 expression was higher in HHT1 MNCs. Pre-treatment of MNCs with anti-ENG or anti-ALK1 antibody had no effect on CD26 and CXCR4 expression. The expression of antioxidant enzymes, SOD1, was reduced in HHT1 MNCs, which was accompanied with an increase of ROS in HHT MNCs and nitric oxide in HHT1 plasma.

Conclusions:

Reduction of ENG receptor on MNC surface reduced monocyte migration toward SDF-1α independent of CD26 expression. Increased oxidative stress could alter HHT MNC migration behavior.

[Names] => Zhenying Han ... Hua Su [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00010 [Published] => June 29, 2020 [Viewed] => 2233 [Downloaded] => 26 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00010 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:136–148 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Endoglin, ALK1, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, mononuclear cells, migration, oxidative stress [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100110 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100110/8e4f6c6b7946152bcabf2af0d702afdf.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100110/b8b740e4eb6c306de5cf1a57ac51e8c8.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 7 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Han Z, Shaligram S, Faughnan ME, Clark D, Sun Z, Su H. Reduction of endoglin receptor impairs mononuclear cell-migration. Explor Med. 2020;1:136–48. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00010 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:46:28 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:46:28 [KeysWordContens] => Reduction of endoglin receptor impairs mononuclear cell-migration, Endoglin, ALK1, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, mononuclear cells, migration, oxidative stress, Aim: To test if the impairment of mononuclear cell (MNC) migration in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is due to the reduction of the endoglin (ENG) receptor on the cell surface and oxidative stress. Methods: MNCs of HHT patients and normal controls were subjected to migration assay. Fractions of MNCs were pre-incubated with antibodies specific to HHT causative genes ENG [hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1 (HHT1)] or activin receptor-like kinase 1 [ALK1, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2 (HHT2)], AMD3100 or Diprotin-A to block ENG, ALK1 C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) or CD26 (increased in HHT1 MNCs) before migration assay. The MNCs were allowed to migrate toward stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) for 18 h. The expression of CXCR4, CD26, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) in MNCs and nitric oxide levels in the plasma were analyzed. Results: Compared to the controls, fewer HHT1 MNCs and similar number of HHT2 MNCs migrated toward SDF-1α. Diprotin-A pre-treatment improved HHT1 MNC-migration, but had no effect on normal and HHT2 MNCs. Pre-incubation with an anti-ENG antibody reduced the migration of normal MNCs. Diprotin-A did not improve the migration of ENG antibody pre-treated MNCs. Anti-ALK1 antibody had no effect on MNC-migration. AMD3100 treatment reduced normal and HHT MNC-migration. ENG mRNA level was reduced in HHT1 and HHT2 MNCs. ALK1 mRNA was reduced in HHT2 MNCs only. CD26 expression was higher in HHT1 MNCs. Pre-treatment of MNCs with anti-ENG or anti-ALK1 antibody had no effect on CD26 and CXCR4 expression. The expression of antioxidant enzymes, SOD1, was reduced in HHT1 MNCs, which was accompanied with an increase of ROS in HHT MNCs and nitric oxide in HHT1 plasma. Conclusions: Reduction of ENG receptor on MNC surface reduced monocyte migration toward SDF-1α independent of CD26 expression. Increased oxidative stress could alter HHT MNC migration behavior. ,Zhenying Han ... Hua Su [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [8] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 32 [Create_Time] => 2020-06-29 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230303072550.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10019/10019.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10019/10019.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10019/10019_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Placental OPRM1 DNA methylation and associations with neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, a pilot study [Abstract] => Aim: Epigenetic variation of DNA methylation of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) has been identified in the blood and saliva of individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) and infants with neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). It is unknown whether epigenetic variation in OPRM1 exists within placental tissue in women with OUD and whether it is associated with NOWS outcomes. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Epigenetic variation of DNA methylation of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) has been identified in the blood and saliva of individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) and infants with neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). It is unknown whether epigenetic variation in OPRM1 exists within placental tissue in women with OUD and whether it is associated with NOWS outcomes. In this pilot study, the authors aimed to 1) examine the association between placental OPRM1 DNA methylation levels and NOWS outcomes, and 2) compare OPRM1 methylation levels in opioid-exposed versus non-exposed control placentas.

Methods:

Placental tissue was collected from eligible opioid (n = 64) and control (n = 29) women after delivery. Placental DNA was isolated and methylation levels at six cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites within the OPRM1 promoter were quantified. Methylation levels were evaluated for associations with infant NOWS outcome measures: need for pharmacologic treatment, length of hospital stay (LOS), morphine treatment days, and treatment with two medications. Regression models were created and adjusted for clinical co-variates. Methylation levels between opioid and controls placentas were also compared.

Results:

The primary opioid exposures were methadone and buprenorphine. Forty-nine (76.6%) of the opioid-exposed infants required pharmacologic treatment, 10 (15.6%) two medications, and average LOS for all opioid-exposed infants was 16.5 (standard deviation 9.7) days. There were no significant associations between OPRM1 DNA methylation levels in the six CpG sites and any NOWS outcome measures. No significant differences were found in methylation levels between the opioid and control samples.

Conclusions:

No significant associations were found between OPRM1 placental DNA methylation levels and NOWS severity in this pilot cohort. In addition, no significant differences were seen in OPRM1 methylation in opioid versus control placentas. Future association studies examining methylation levels on a genome-wide level are warranted.

[Names] => Elisha M. Wachman ... Huiping Zhang [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00009 [Published] => June 29, 2020 [Viewed] => 3082 [Downloaded] => 44 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00009 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 24 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:124–135 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, neonatal abstinence syndrome, DNA methylation, OPRM1, epigenetics, placenta, opioids [DetailTitle] => The Biological Basis of Substance Use Disorders [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/24 [Id] => 10019 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10019/a6c28e8f77a18e7719775faaa169245e.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10019/526c3f6be3c9e557575d2910deb2f6df.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 6 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Wachman EM, Wang A, Isley BC, Boateng J, Beierle JA, Hansbury A, et al. Placental OPRM1 DNA methylation and associations with neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, a pilot study. Explor Med. 2020;1:124–35. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00009 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Elisha M.Wachman, [CEmail] => Elisha.Wachman@bmc.org, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:44:45 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:44:45 [KeysWordContens] => Placental OPRM1 DNA methylation and associations with neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, a pilot study, neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, neonatal abstinence syndrome, DNA methylation, OPRM1, epigenetics, placenta, opioids, Aim: Epigenetic variation of DNA methylation of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) has been identified in the blood and saliva of individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) and infants with neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). It is unknown whether epigenetic variation in OPRM1 exists within placental tissue in women with OUD and whether it is associated with NOWS outcomes. In this pilot study, the authors aimed to 1) examine the association between placental OPRM1 DNA methylation levels and NOWS outcomes, and 2) compare OPRM1 methylation levels in opioid-exposed versus non-exposed control placentas. Methods: Placental tissue was collected from eligible opioid (n = 64) and control (n = 29) women after delivery. Placental DNA was isolated and methylation levels at six cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites within the OPRM1 promoter were quantified. Methylation levels were evaluated for associations with infant NOWS outcome measures: need for pharmacologic treatment, length of hospital stay (LOS), morphine treatment days, and treatment with two medications. Regression models were created and adjusted for clinical co-variates. Methylation levels between opioid and controls placentas were also compared. Results: The primary opioid exposures were methadone and buprenorphine. Forty-nine (76.6%) of the opioid-exposed infants required pharmacologic treatment, 10 (15.6%) two medications, and average LOS for all opioid-exposed infants was 16.5 (standard deviation 9.7) days. There were no significant associations between OPRM1 DNA methylation levels in the six CpG sites and any NOWS outcome measures. No significant differences were found in methylation levels between the opioid and control samples. Conclusions: No significant associations were found between OPRM1 placental DNA methylation levels and NOWS severity in this pilot cohort. In addition, no significant differences were seen in OPRM1 methylation in opioid versus control placentas. Future association studies examining methylation levels on a genome-wide level are warranted. ,Elisha M. Wachman ... Huiping Zhang [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [9] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 33 [Create_Time] => 2020-06-29 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202305/20230520062842.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10018/10018.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10018/10018.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10018/10018_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => GLP-1 receptor agonists for NAFLD treatment in patients with and without type 2 diabetes: an updated meta-analysis [Abstract] => Aim: Recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have tested the efficacy of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) to specifically treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We performed a meta-analysis of RCTs to investigate the efficacy of GLP-1 RAs for treatment of NAFLD or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: We systematically searched PubMed and ClinicalTrials.Gov databases utilizing specific terms to identify placebo-controlled or head-to-head RCTs (last research on March 1, 2020) involving NAFLD patients with the aim of evaluating the efficacy of GLP-1 RAs to treat NAFLD/NASH. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have tested the efficacy of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) to specifically treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We performed a meta-analysis of RCTs to investigate the efficacy of GLP-1 RAs for treatment of NAFLD or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

Methods:

We systematically searched PubMed and ClinicalTrials.Gov databases utilizing specific terms to identify placebo-controlled or head-to-head RCTs (last research on March 1, 2020) involving NAFLD patients with the aim of evaluating the efficacy of GLP-1 RAs to treat NAFLD/NASH. Primary outcomes were changes in serum liver enzymes, liver fat content, or histologic resolution of NASH. Weighted mean differences (WMD) were used to test the differences between the treatment arms.

Results:

Overall, we found 7 placebo-controlled or head-to-head RCTs involving 472 middle-aged individuals (66% men; 77% with established diabetes) followed for a median of 16 weeks that have used liraglutide or exenatide to treat NAFLD on imaging (n = 6) or biopsy (n = 1). Compared to placebo or reference therapy, treatment with GLP-1 RAs decreased serum alanine aminotransferase [n = 7 studies; WMD: –8.77 IU/L, 95% confidence intervals (CI) –17.69 to 0.14 IU/L; I2 = 87.3%], gamma-glutamyltransferase levels (n = 4 studies; WMD: –10.17 IU/L, 95% CI –14.27 IU/L to –6.07 IU/L; I2 = 0%) and imaging-defined liver fat content (n = 4 studies; WMD: –6.23%, 95% CI –8.95% to –3.51%; I2 = 85.9%). In one RCT involving 55 patients with biopsy-proven NASH, a 48-week treatment with liraglutide also led to a greater histological resolution of NASH than placebo.

Conclusions:

GLP-1 RAs (mostly liraglutide) seem to be a promising treatment option for NAFLD or NASH.

[Names] => Alessandro Mantovani ... Giovanni Targher [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00008 [Published] => June 29, 2020 [Viewed] => 2533 [Downloaded] => 82 [Subject] => Meta-Analysis [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00008 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 26 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:108–123 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis [DetailTitle] => Exploring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/26 [Id] => 10018 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10018/3f61d080f4592deff244745c46889948.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A10018/f64acc857eef10ea8605f251910c538c.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 3 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Mantovani A, Beatrice G, Petracca G, Pampagnin F, Sandri D, Targher G. GLP-1 receptor agonists for NAFLD treatment in patients with and without type 2 diabetes: an updated meta-analysis. Explor Med. 2020:1:108–23. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00008 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => AlessandroMantovani,GiovanniTargher, [CEmail] => alessandro.mantovani@univr.it,giovanni.targher@univr.it, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:42:14 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:42:14 [KeysWordContens] => GLP-1 receptor agonists for NAFLD treatment in patients with and without type 2 diabetes: an updated meta-analysis, Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, Aim: Recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have tested the efficacy of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) to specifically treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We performed a meta-analysis of RCTs to investigate the efficacy of GLP-1 RAs for treatment of NAFLD or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: We systematically searched PubMed and ClinicalTrials.Gov databases utilizing specific terms to identify placebo-controlled or head-to-head RCTs (last research on March 1, 2020) involving NAFLD patients with the aim of evaluating the efficacy of GLP-1 RAs to treat NAFLD/NASH. Primary outcomes were changes in serum liver enzymes, liver fat content, or histologic resolution of NASH. Weighted mean differences (WMD) were used to test the differences between the treatment arms. Results: Overall, we found 7 placebo-controlled or head-to-head RCTs involving 472 middle-aged individuals (66% men; 77% with established diabetes) followed for a median of 16 weeks that have used liraglutide or exenatide to treat NAFLD on imaging (n = 6) or biopsy (n = 1). Compared to placebo or reference therapy, treatment with GLP-1 RAs decreased serum alanine aminotransferase [n = 7 studies; WMD: –8.77 IU/L, 95% confidence intervals (CI) –17.69 to 0.14 IU/L; I2 = 87.3%], gamma-glutamyltransferase levels (n = 4 studies; WMD: –10.17 IU/L, 95% CI –14.27 IU/L to –6.07 IU/L; I2 = 0%) and imaging-defined liver fat content (n = 4 studies; WMD: –6.23%, 95% CI –8.95% to –3.51%; I2 = 85.9%). In one RCT involving 55 patients with biopsy-proven NASH, a 48-week treatment with liraglutide also led to a greater histological resolution of NASH than placebo. Conclusions: GLP-1 RAs (mostly liraglutide) seem to be a promising treatment option for NAFLD or NASH. ,Alessandro Mantovani ... Giovanni Targher [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [10] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 35 [Create_Time] => 2020-06-29 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202305/20230520072453.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100111/100111.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100111/100111.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100111/100111_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and portal hypertension [Abstract] => Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a substantial and growing problem worldwide and has become the second most common indication for liver transplantation as it may progress to cirrhosis and develop complications from portal hypertension primarily caused by advanced fibrosis and erratic tissue remodeling. However, elevated portal venous pressure has also been detected in experimental models of fatty liver and in human NAFLD when fibrosis is far less advanced and cirrhosis is absent. [AbstractComplete] =>

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a substantial and growing problem worldwide and has become the second most common indication for liver transplantation as it may progress to cirrhosis and develop complications from portal hypertension primarily caused by advanced fibrosis and erratic tissue remodeling. However, elevated portal venous pressure has also been detected in experimental models of fatty liver and in human NAFLD when fibrosis is far less advanced and cirrhosis is absent. Early increases in intrahepatic vascular resistance may contribute to the progression of liver disease. Specific pathophenotypes linked to the development of portal hypertension in NAFLD include hepatocellular lipid accumulation and ballooning injury, capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, enhanced contractility of hepatic stellate cells, activation of Kupffer cells and pro-inflammatory pathways, adhesion and entrapment of recruited leukocytes, microthrombosis, angiogenesis and perisinusoidal fibrosis. These pathological events are amplified in NAFLD by concomitant visceral obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and dysbiosis, promoting aberrant interactions with adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and gut microbiota. Measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient by retrograde insertion of a balloon-tipped central vein catheter is the current reference method for predicting outcomes of cirrhosis associated with clinically significant portal hypertension and guiding interventions. This invasive technique is rarely considered in the absence of cirrhosis where currently available clinical, imaging and laboratory correlates of portal hypertension may not reflect early changes in liver hemodynamics. Availability of less invasive but sufficiently sensitive methods for the assessment of portal venous pressure in NAFLD remains therefore an unmet need. Recent efforts to develop new biomarkers and endoscopy-based approaches such as endoscopic ultrasound-guided measurement of portal pressure gradient may help achieve this goal. In addition, cellular and molecular targets are being identified to guide emerging therapies in the prevention and management of portal hypertension.

[Names] => Marvin Ryou ... Gyorgy Baffy [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00011 [Published] => June 29, 2020 [Viewed] => 5424 [Downloaded] => 98 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00011 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 22 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:149–169 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, sinusoidal homeostasis, portal hypertension, portal venous pressure, hepatic venous pressure gradient, portal pressure gradient, endoscopic ultrasound, metabolic biomarkers [DetailTitle] => Exploring NAFLD/NASH [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/22 [Id] => 100111 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100111/e50b66137b9c09a9bb78fff0004cf850.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100111/9459fc9c3baf6ec461ea0dc0d99da46e.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 24 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Ryou M, Stylopoulos N, Baffy G. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and portal hypertension. Explor Med. 2020;1:149–69. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00011 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => GyorgyBaffy, [CEmail] => gbaffy@bwh.harvard.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:48:18 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:48:18 [KeysWordContens] => Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and portal hypertension, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, sinusoidal homeostasis, portal hypertension, portal venous pressure, hepatic venous pressure gradient, portal pressure gradient, endoscopic ultrasound, metabolic biomarkers, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a substantial and growing problem worldwide and has become the second most common indication for liver transplantation as it may progress to cirrhosis and develop complications from portal hypertension primarily caused by advanced fibrosis and erratic tissue remodeling. However, elevated portal venous pressure has also been detected in experimental models of fatty liver and in human NAFLD when fibrosis is far less advanced and cirrhosis is absent. Early increases in intrahepatic vascular resistance may contribute to the progression of liver disease. Specific pathophenotypes linked to the development of portal hypertension in NAFLD include hepatocellular lipid accumulation and ballooning injury, capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, enhanced contractility of hepatic stellate cells, activation of Kupffer cells and pro-inflammatory pathways, adhesion and entrapment of recruited leukocytes, microthrombosis, angiogenesis and perisinusoidal fibrosis. These pathological events are amplified in NAFLD by concomitant visceral obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and dysbiosis, promoting aberrant interactions with adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and gut microbiota. Measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient by retrograde insertion of a balloon-tipped central vein catheter is the current reference method for predicting outcomes of cirrhosis associated with clinically significant portal hypertension and guiding interventions. This invasive technique is rarely considered in the absence of cirrhosis where currently available clinical, imaging and laboratory correlates of portal hypertension may not reflect early changes in liver hemodynamics. Availability of less invasive but sufficiently sensitive methods for the assessment of portal venous pressure in NAFLD remains therefore an unmet need. Recent efforts to develop new biomarkers and endoscopy-based approaches such as endoscopic ultrasound-guided measurement of portal pressure gradient may help achieve this goal. In addition, cellular and molecular targets are being identified to guide emerging therapies in the prevention and management of portal hypertension. ,Marvin Ryou ... Gyorgy Baffy [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [11] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 39 [Create_Time] => 2020-07-03 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230302084517.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100112/100112.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100112/100112.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100112/100112_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => The therapeutic potential of C-C chemokine receptor antagonists in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [Abstract] => Pooled prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) globally is about 25%. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with advanced fibrosis has been linked with substantial morbidity and mortality, without having to-date any licensed treatment. C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) antagonists have been investigated as candidates for the treatment of NASH. Inhibition of CCR2 is expected to mitigate hepatic inflammation, through reducing the activation of Kupffer cells, as well as the infiltration of monocytes and macrophages into the liver. [AbstractComplete] =>

Pooled prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) globally is about 25%. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with advanced fibrosis has been linked with substantial morbidity and mortality, without having to-date any licensed treatment. C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) antagonists have been investigated as candidates for the treatment of NASH. Inhibition of CCR2 is expected to mitigate hepatic inflammation, through reducing the activation of Kupffer cells, as well as the infiltration of monocytes and macrophages into the liver. Inhibition of CCR5 is expected to mitigate hepatic fibrogenesis, through impairing the activation of hepatic stellate cells, as well as to mitigate hepatic inflammation, through impairing the activation of Kupffer cells and macrophages. Cenicriviroc (CVC) is the first in class, dual inhibitor of CCR2 and CCR5. After exhibiting favorable results in animal models, CVC was shown to be beneficial in NASH patients with more severe fibrosis at a phase 2b trial (CENTAUR) and is currently at a phase 3 clinical trial (AURORA). Apart from CVC, other CCR5 mono-antagonists, such as maraviroc, are under evaluation in clinical trials with human immunodeficiency virus patients with NAFLD. The aim of this review was to summarize existing evidence on CVC and other CCR antagonists in NASH patients, primarily focusing on their clinical efficacy and safety.

[Names] => Michael Doulberis ... Stergios A. Polyzos [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00012 [Published] => August 31, 2020 [Viewed] => 3658 [Downloaded] => 66 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00012 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 22 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:170–183 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => C-C chemokine ligand antagonist, cenicriviroc, fibrosis, insulin resistance, leronlimab, maraviroc, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [DetailTitle] => Exploring NAFLD/NASH [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/22 [Id] => 100112 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100112/625dc6c31bf1c9985421062473bb4628.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100112/1bdf5cddc36f22ebf73414790b31994b.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 4 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Doulberis M, Papadimitriou K, Papaefthymiou A, Jannis Kountouras J, Polyzos SA. The therapeutic potential of C-C chemokine receptor antagonists in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Explor Med. 2020;1:170–83. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00012 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Stergios A.Polyzos, [CEmail] => spolyzos@auth.gr, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:50:07 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:50:07 [KeysWordContens] => The therapeutic potential of C-C chemokine receptor antagonists in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, C-C chemokine ligand antagonist, cenicriviroc, fibrosis, insulin resistance, leronlimab, maraviroc, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, Pooled prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) globally is about 25%. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with advanced fibrosis has been linked with substantial morbidity and mortality, without having to-date any licensed treatment. C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) antagonists have been investigated as candidates for the treatment of NASH. Inhibition of CCR2 is expected to mitigate hepatic inflammation, through reducing the activation of Kupffer cells, as well as the infiltration of monocytes and macrophages into the liver. Inhibition of CCR5 is expected to mitigate hepatic fibrogenesis, through impairing the activation of hepatic stellate cells, as well as to mitigate hepatic inflammation, through impairing the activation of Kupffer cells and macrophages. Cenicriviroc (CVC) is the first in class, dual inhibitor of CCR2 and CCR5. After exhibiting favorable results in animal models, CVC was shown to be beneficial in NASH patients with more severe fibrosis at a phase 2b trial (CENTAUR) and is currently at a phase 3 clinical trial (AURORA). Apart from CVC, other CCR5 mono-antagonists, such as maraviroc, are under evaluation in clinical trials with human immunodeficiency virus patients with NAFLD. The aim of this review was to summarize existing evidence on CVC and other CCR antagonists in NASH patients, primarily focusing on their clinical efficacy and safety. ,Michael Doulberis ... Stergios A. Polyzos [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [12] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 40 [Create_Time] => 2020-07-17 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202111/20211129054127.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100116/100116.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100116/100116.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100116/100116-cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Visual communication and learning from COVID-19 to advance preparedness for pandemics [Abstract] => The currently ongoing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected globally human health and economy. Research in progress has shown facts associated with this disease and raised questions relevant for disease control and prevention. In this perspective, the collaboration between science and art in visual communication using the artwork “Enseñanza” (“Teaching”) contributes to the representation of the lessons [AbstractComplete] =>

The currently ongoing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected globally human health and economy. Research in progress has shown facts associated with this disease and raised questions relevant for disease control and prevention. In this perspective, the collaboration between science and art in visual communication using the artwork “Enseñanza” (“Teaching”) contributes to the representation of the lessons learned from COVID-19 and the way forward. To advance preparedness for current and future pandemics, the authors propose to address international collaborations, support to science, access to food supplies and health services, sustainable development and a “One Health” approach searching a balanced interaction of humanity with nature and a more holistic approach to disease prevention and control.

[Names] => José de la Fuente ... Christian Gortázar [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00016 [Published] => August 31, 2020 [Viewed] => 3731 [Downloaded] => 67 [Subject] => Perspective [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00016 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:244–247 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Coronavirus, COVID-19, communication, art, pandemic [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100116 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100116/ca51b062ec0ae53fb79ad74edc11ca64.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100116/4d16ae3438b094fccb496df3e4623cc3.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => de la Fuente J, Bedia J, Gortázar C. Visual communication and learning from COVID-19 to advance preparedness for pandemics. Explor Med. 2020;1:244–7. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00016 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Joséde la Fuente, [CEmail] => jose_delafuente@yahoo.com, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:00:38 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:00:38 [KeysWordContens] => Visual communication and learning from COVID-19 to advance preparedness for pandemics, Coronavirus, COVID-19, communication, art, pandemic, The currently ongoing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected globally human health and economy. Research in progress has shown facts associated with this disease and raised questions relevant for disease control and prevention. In this perspective, the collaboration between science and art in visual communication using the artwork “Enseñanza” (“Teaching”) contributes to the representation of the lessons learned from COVID-19 and the way forward. To advance preparedness for current and future pandemics, the authors propose to address international collaborations, support to science, access to food supplies and health services, sustainable development and a “One Health” approach searching a balanced interaction of humanity with nature and a more holistic approach to disease prevention and control. ,José de la Fuente ... Christian Gortázar [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [13] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 58 [Create_Time] => 2020-08-08 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202010/20201027024858.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100113/100113.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100113/100113.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100113/100113_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Type 2 diabetes and cancer: problems and suggestions for best patient management [Abstract] => Diabetes and cancer are widespread worldwide and the number of subjects presenting both diseases increased over the years. The management of cancer patients having diabetes represents a challenge not only because of the complexity and heterogeneity of these pathologies but also for the lack of standardised clinical guidelines. The diagnosis of cancer is traumatizing and monopolizes the attention of both patients and caregivers. Thus, pre-existent or new-onset diabetes can be overshadowed thus increasing the risk for short- and long-term adverse events. [AbstractComplete] =>

Diabetes and cancer are widespread worldwide and the number of subjects presenting both diseases increased over the years. The management of cancer patients having diabetes represents a challenge not only because of the complexity and heterogeneity of these pathologies but also for the lack of standardised clinical guidelines. The diagnosis of cancer is traumatizing and monopolizes the attention of both patients and caregivers. Thus, pre-existent or new-onset diabetes can be overshadowed thus increasing the risk for short- and long-term adverse events. Moreover, drugs used for each disease can interfere with the clinical course of the concomitant disease, making challenging the management of these patients. Over the years, this issue has become more relevant because of the increased patients’ life expectancy due to the improved efficacy of diabetes and cancer therapies.

The purpose of this review is to highlight what is known and what should be taken into consideration to optimise the clinical management of patients with diabetes and cancer. Due to the complexity of these diseases, a multidisciplinary, shared approach, including all the protagonists involved, is necessary to improve patients’ quality of life and lifespan.

[Names] => Agostino Milluzzo ... Laura Sciacca [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00013 [Published] => August 31, 2020 [Viewed] => 6145 [Downloaded] => 135 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00013 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 26 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:184–204 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Diabetes, cancer, glycaemic target, oral hypoglycaemic agents, anticancer therapy, chronic complications [DetailTitle] => Exploring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/26 [Id] => 100113 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100113/a62fff4b6144fe1d7abbb214f58110c3.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100113/783973b92365dc35e9a2ac7f7c518e36.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 8 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Milluzzo A, Vigneri P, Martorana F, Vigneri R, Sciacca L. Type 2 diabetes and cancer: problems and suggestions for best patient management. Explor Med. 2020;1:184–204. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00013 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:55:27 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:55:27 [KeysWordContens] => Type 2 diabetes and cancer: problems and suggestions for best patient management, Diabetes, cancer, glycaemic target, oral hypoglycaemic agents, anticancer therapy, chronic complications, Diabetes and cancer are widespread worldwide and the number of subjects presenting both diseases increased over the years. The management of cancer patients having diabetes represents a challenge not only because of the complexity and heterogeneity of these pathologies but also for the lack of standardised clinical guidelines. The diagnosis of cancer is traumatizing and monopolizes the attention of both patients and caregivers. Thus, pre-existent or new-onset diabetes can be overshadowed thus increasing the risk for short- and long-term adverse events. Moreover, drugs used for each disease can interfere with the clinical course of the concomitant disease, making challenging the management of these patients. Over the years, this issue has become more relevant because of the increased patients’ life expectancy due to the improved efficacy of diabetes and cancer therapies. The purpose of this review is to highlight what is known and what should be taken into consideration to optimise the clinical management of patients with diabetes and cancer. Due to the complexity of these diseases, a multidisciplinary, shared approach, including all the protagonists involved, is necessary to improve patients’ quality of life and lifespan. ,Agostino Milluzzo ... Laura Sciacca [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [14] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 59 [Create_Time] => 2020-08-08 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230302091058.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100115/100115.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100115/100115.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100115/100115_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Genetic and metabolic factors: the perfect combination to treat metabolic associated fatty liver disease [Abstract] => The prevalence of nonalcoholic or more recently re-defined metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is rapidly growing worldwide. It is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation exceeding 5% of liver weight not attributable to alcohol consumption. MAFLD refers to an umbrella of conditions ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis which may finally progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. MAFLD is closely related to components of the metabolic syndrome and to environmental factors. [AbstractComplete] =>

The prevalence of nonalcoholic or more recently re-defined metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is rapidly growing worldwide. It is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation exceeding 5% of liver weight not attributable to alcohol consumption. MAFLD refers to an umbrella of conditions ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis which may finally progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. MAFLD is closely related to components of the metabolic syndrome and to environmental factors. In addition to the latter, genetic predisposition plays a key role in MAFLD pathogenesis and strictly contributes to its progressive forms. The candidate genes which have been related to MAFLD hereditability are mainly involved in lipids remodeling, lipid droplets assembly, lipoprotein packaging and secretion, de novo lipogenesis, and mitochondrial redox status. In the recent years, it has emerged the opportunity to translate the genetics into clinics by aggregating the genetic variants mostly associated with MAFLD in polygenic risk scores. These scores might be used in combination with metabolic factors to identify those patients at higher risk to develop more severe liver disease and to schedule an individual therapeutic approach.

[Names] => Marica Meroni ... Paola Dongiovanni [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00015 [Published] => August 31, 2020 [Viewed] => 3943 [Downloaded] => 95 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00015 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 22 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:218–243 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => MAFLD, genetics, personalized medicine, polygenic risk scores [DetailTitle] => Exploring NAFLD/NASH [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/22 [Id] => 100115 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100115/2fa35c0e30de7ab8c4d867644b72dbc6.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100115/780f1e6bad4fc62473b57aacc894f9e1.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 4 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Meroni M, Longo M, Dongiovanni P. Genetic and metabolic factors: the perfect combination to treat metabolic associated fatty liver disease. Explor Med. 2020;1:218–43. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00015 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => PaolaDongiovanni, [CEmail] => paola.dongiovanni@policlinico.mi.it, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:58:54 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:58:54 [KeysWordContens] => Genetic and metabolic factors: the perfect combination to treat metabolic associated fatty liver disease, MAFLD, genetics, personalized medicine, polygenic risk scores, The prevalence of nonalcoholic or more recently re-defined metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is rapidly growing worldwide. It is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation exceeding 5% of liver weight not attributable to alcohol consumption. MAFLD refers to an umbrella of conditions ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis which may finally progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. MAFLD is closely related to components of the metabolic syndrome and to environmental factors. In addition to the latter, genetic predisposition plays a key role in MAFLD pathogenesis and strictly contributes to its progressive forms. The candidate genes which have been related to MAFLD hereditability are mainly involved in lipids remodeling, lipid droplets assembly, lipoprotein packaging and secretion, de novo lipogenesis, and mitochondrial redox status. In the recent years, it has emerged the opportunity to translate the genetics into clinics by aggregating the genetic variants mostly associated with MAFLD in polygenic risk scores. These scores might be used in combination with metabolic factors to identify those patients at higher risk to develop more severe liver disease and to schedule an individual therapeutic approach. ,Marica Meroni ... Paola Dongiovanni [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [15] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 63 [Create_Time] => 2020-08-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202305/20230520093046.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100114/100114.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100114/100114.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100114/100114-cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and transient elastography [Abstract] => Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a serious condition that can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and all of its components. According to data, around 25–30% of population has NAFLD. Giving the growing incidence of MetS, obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2, NAFLD related terminal-stage liver disease is becoming prevailing indication for liver transplantation. In order to prevent terminal stage of this disease, it is crucial to determine those that are in risk group, to modify their risk factors and monitor their potential progression. [AbstractComplete] =>

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a serious condition that can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and all of its components. According to data, around 25–30% of population has NAFLD. Giving the growing incidence of MetS, obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2, NAFLD related terminal-stage liver disease is becoming prevailing indication for liver transplantation. In order to prevent terminal stage of this disease, it is crucial to determine those that are in risk group, to modify their risk factors and monitor their potential progression. In the absence of other causes of chronic liver disease, the prime diagnosis of NAFLD in daily clinical practice includes anamnesis, laboratory results (increased levels of aminotransferases and gammaglutamil transferases) and imaging methods. The biggest challenge with NAFLD patients is to differentiate simple steatosis from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and detection of fibrosis, that is the main driver in NAFLD progression. The gold standard for NAFLD diagnosis still remains the liver biopsy (LB). However, in recent years many noninvasive methods were invented, such as transient elastography (TE). TE (FibroScan®, Echosens, Paris, France) is used for diagnosis of pathological differences of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). Investigations in the last years have confirmed that elastographic parameters of steatsis (CAP) and fibrosis (LSM) are reliable biomarkers to non-invasively assess liver steatosis and fibrosis respectively in NAFLD patients. A quick, straightforward and non-invasive method for NAFLD screening in patients with MetS components is TE-CAP. Once diagnosed, the next step is to determine the presence of fibrosis by LSM which should point out high risk patients. Those patients should be referred to hepatologists. LB may be avoided in a substantial number of patients if TE with CAP is used for screening.

[Names] => Ivana Mikolasevic ... Sandra Milic [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00014 [Published] => August 31, 2020 [Viewed] => 4631 [Downloaded] => 67 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00014 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 22 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:205–217 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Controlled attenuation parameter, liver stiffness measurement, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, transient elastography [DetailTitle] => Exploring NAFLD/NASH [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/22 [Id] => 100114 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100114/3cd69c45d4de5830575767a2988b02c6.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100114/fa1949576dd43852d4bbce658b0ec3d3.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 4 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Mikolasevic I, Lukic A, Juric T, Klapan M, Madzar P, Krolo N, et al. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and transient elastography. Explor Med. 2020;1:205–17. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00014 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => IvanaMikolasevic, [CEmail] => mikolasevic@gmail.com, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:56:52 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 08:56:52 [KeysWordContens] => Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and transient elastography, Controlled attenuation parameter, liver stiffness measurement, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, transient elastography, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a serious condition that can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and all of its components. According to data, around 25–30% of population has NAFLD. Giving the growing incidence of MetS, obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2, NAFLD related terminal-stage liver disease is becoming prevailing indication for liver transplantation. In order to prevent terminal stage of this disease, it is crucial to determine those that are in risk group, to modify their risk factors and monitor their potential progression. In the absence of other causes of chronic liver disease, the prime diagnosis of NAFLD in daily clinical practice includes anamnesis, laboratory results (increased levels of aminotransferases and gammaglutamil transferases) and imaging methods. The biggest challenge with NAFLD patients is to differentiate simple steatosis from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and detection of fibrosis, that is the main driver in NAFLD progression. The gold standard for NAFLD diagnosis still remains the liver biopsy (LB). However, in recent years many noninvasive methods were invented, such as transient elastography (TE). TE (FibroScan®, Echosens, Paris, France) is used for diagnosis of pathological differences of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). Investigations in the last years have confirmed that elastographic parameters of steatsis (CAP) and fibrosis (LSM) are reliable biomarkers to non-invasively assess liver steatosis and fibrosis respectively in NAFLD patients. A quick, straightforward and non-invasive method for NAFLD screening in patients with MetS components is TE-CAP. Once diagnosed, the next step is to determine the presence of fibrosis by LSM which should point out high risk patients. Those patients should be referred to hepatologists. LB may be avoided in a substantial number of patients if TE with CAP is used for screening. ,Ivana Mikolasevic ... Sandra Milic [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [16] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 64 [Create_Time] => 2020-08-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202010/20201027033538.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100117/100117.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100117/100117.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100117/100117-cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Role of acetylation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a focus on SIRT1 and SIRT3 [Abstract] => Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most prevalent liver chronic disease worldwide. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and involves many metabolic enzymes and multiple pathways. Posttranslational modifications of proteins (PMPs) added another layer of complexity to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMPs change protein properties and regulate many biological functions, including cellular localization, stability, intracellular signaling, and protein function. [AbstractComplete] =>

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most prevalent liver chronic disease worldwide. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and involves many metabolic enzymes and multiple pathways. Posttranslational modifications of proteins (PMPs) added another layer of complexity to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMPs change protein properties and regulate many biological functions, including cellular localization, stability, intracellular signaling, and protein function. Lysine acetylation is a common reversible PMP that consists of the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) to a lysine residue on targeted proteins. The deacetylation reaction is catalyzed by deacetylases called sirtuins. This review summarizes the role of acetylation in NAFLD with a focus on sirtuins 1 and 3.

[Names] => Fatiha Nassir [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00017 [Published] => August 31, 2020 [Viewed] => 3862 [Downloaded] => 100 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00017 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 22 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:248–258 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => NAFLD, sirtuin 1, sirtuin 3, acetylation [DetailTitle] => Exploring NAFLD/NASH [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/22 [Id] => 100117 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100117/212f4a80dbb3d826196580c77c3d0b8d.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100117/a0b8d95f1fe4ea9bdc3827f8a608f2dc.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 4 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Nassir F. Role of acetylation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a focus on SIRT1 and SIRT3. Explor Med. 2020;1:248–58. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00017 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-10-13 01:57:28 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:02:23 [KeysWordContens] => Role of acetylation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a focus on SIRT1 and SIRT3, NAFLD, sirtuin 1, sirtuin 3, acetylation, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most prevalent liver chronic disease worldwide. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and involves many metabolic enzymes and multiple pathways. Posttranslational modifications of proteins (PMPs) added another layer of complexity to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMPs change protein properties and regulate many biological functions, including cellular localization, stability, intracellular signaling, and protein function. Lysine acetylation is a common reversible PMP that consists of the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) to a lysine residue on targeted proteins. The deacetylation reaction is catalyzed by deacetylases called sirtuins. This review summarizes the role of acetylation in NAFLD with a focus on sirtuins 1 and 3. ,Fatiha Nassir [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [17] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 66 [Create_Time] => 2020-09-25 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202010/20201031024359.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100118/100118.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100118/100118.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100118/100118-cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => The diagnostic conundrum in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [Abstract] => Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver alteration worldwide. It encompasses a spectrum of disorders that range from simple steatosis to a progressive form, defined non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), that can lead to advanced fibrosis and eventually cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. On liver histology, NASH is characterized by the concomitant presence of significant fat accumulation and inflammatory reaction with hepatocellular injury. [AbstractComplete] =>

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver alteration worldwide. It encompasses a spectrum of disorders that range from simple steatosis to a progressive form, defined non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), that can lead to advanced fibrosis and eventually cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. On liver histology, NASH is characterized by the concomitant presence of significant fat accumulation and inflammatory reaction with hepatocellular injury. Until now, liver biopsy is still required to differentiate simple steatosis from NASH and evaluate the degree of liver fibrosis. Unfortunately, this technique has well-known limitations, including invasiveness and expensiveness. Moreover, it may be biased by sampling error and intra- or inter-observed variability. Furthermore, due to the increasing prevalence of NAFLD worldwide, to program a systematic screening with liver biopsy is not imaginable. In recent years, different techniques were developed and validated with the aim of non-invasively identifying NASH and assess liver fibrosis degrees. The non-invasive tests range from simple blood-tests analyses to composite scores and complex imaging techniques. Nevertheless, even if they could represent cost-effective strategies for diagnosing NASH, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, their accuracy and consequent usefulness are to be discussed. With this aim, in this review the authors summarize the current state of non-invasive assessment of NAFLD. In particular, in addition to the well-established tests, the authors describe the future perspectives in this field, reporting the latest tests based on OMICS, gut-miocrobioma and micro-RNAs. Finally, the authors provide an accurate assessment of how these non-invasive tools perform in clinical practice depending on the clinical context, with the aim of giving the clinicians a useful tool to try to resolve the diagnostic conundrum of NAFLD.

[Names] => Valerio Rosato ... Marcello Persico [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00018 [Published] => October 30, 2020 [Viewed] => 4894 [Downloaded] => 164 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00018 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 22 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:259–286 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Cirrhosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, non invasive, serum biomarkers [DetailTitle] => Exploring NAFLD/NASH [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/22 [Id] => 100118 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100118/55504621287c88e188eabe4a1067bcc0.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100118/c9acd3142b6d85f78dd69d3f5f20c595.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 6 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Rosato V, Masarone V, Aglitti A, Persico M. The diagnostic conundrum in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Explor Med. 2020;1:259–86. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00018 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:05:51 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:05:51 [KeysWordContens] => The diagnostic conundrum in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Cirrhosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, non invasive, serum biomarkers, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver alteration worldwide. It encompasses a spectrum of disorders that range from simple steatosis to a progressive form, defined non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), that can lead to advanced fibrosis and eventually cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. On liver histology, NASH is characterized by the concomitant presence of significant fat accumulation and inflammatory reaction with hepatocellular injury. Until now, liver biopsy is still required to differentiate simple steatosis from NASH and evaluate the degree of liver fibrosis. Unfortunately, this technique has well-known limitations, including invasiveness and expensiveness. Moreover, it may be biased by sampling error and intra- or inter-observed variability. Furthermore, due to the increasing prevalence of NAFLD worldwide, to program a systematic screening with liver biopsy is not imaginable. In recent years, different techniques were developed and validated with the aim of non-invasively identifying NASH and assess liver fibrosis degrees. The non-invasive tests range from simple blood-tests analyses to composite scores and complex imaging techniques. Nevertheless, even if they could represent cost-effective strategies for diagnosing NASH, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, their accuracy and consequent usefulness are to be discussed. With this aim, in this review the authors summarize the current state of non-invasive assessment of NAFLD. In particular, in addition to the well-established tests, the authors describe the future perspectives in this field, reporting the latest tests based on OMICS, gut-miocrobioma and micro-RNAs. Finally, the authors provide an accurate assessment of how these non-invasive tools perform in clinical practice depending on the clinical context, with the aim of giving the clinicians a useful tool to try to resolve the diagnostic conundrum of NAFLD. ,Valerio Rosato ... Marcello Persico [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [18] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 67 [Create_Time] => 2020-09-11 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230303064830.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100119/100119.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100119/100119.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100119/100119_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes: pathophysiological mechanisms shared between the two faces of the same coin [Abstract] => The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the close relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are multiple, complex and only partially known. The purpose of this paper was to review the current knowledge of these mechanisms in a unified manner. Subjects with NAFLD and T2DM have established insulin resistance (IR), which exacerbates the two comorbidities. [AbstractComplete] =>

The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the close relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are multiple, complex and only partially known. The purpose of this paper was to review the current knowledge of these mechanisms in a unified manner. Subjects with NAFLD and T2DM have established insulin resistance (IR), which exacerbates the two comorbidities. IR worsens NAFLD by increasing the accumulation of free fatty acids (FFAs) in the liver. This occurs due to an increase in the influx of FFAs from peripheral adipose tissue by the activation of hormone-sensitive lipase. In addition, there is de novo increased lipogenesis, a transcription factor, the sterols regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP-1c), which activates the expression of several genes strongly promotes lipogenesis by the liver and facilitate storage of triglycerides. Lipids accumulation in the liver induces a chronic stress in the endoplasmic reticulum of the hepatocytes. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with NAFLD severity, but unrelated to IR. In particular, the alteration of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 contributes to the susceptibility to NAFLD. Furthermore, the lipotoxicity of ceramides and diacylglycerol, well known in T2DM, triggers a chronic inflammatory process favoring the progression from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis. Reactive oxygen species produced by mitochondrial dysfunction trigger both liver inflammation and beta-cells damage, promoting the progression of both NAFLD and T2DM. The close association between NAFLD and T2DM is bidirectional, as T2DM may trigger both NAFLD onset and its progression, but NAFLD itself may contribute to the development of IR and T2DM. Future studies on the mechanisms will have to deepen the knowledge of the interaction between the two pathologies and should allow the identification of new therapeutic targets for the treatment of NAFLD, currently substantially absent.

[Names] => Carlo Acierno ... Ferdinando Carlo Sasso [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00019 [Published] => October 30, 2020 [Viewed] => 5625 [Downloaded] => 241 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00019 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 22 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:287–306 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, adipokines [DetailTitle] => Exploring NAFLD/NASH [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/22 [Id] => 100119 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100119/2f93d236b419f7addb827717fa57b938.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100119/cbc72e9bf2f2e816c2a1d35d3a4474d1.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 37 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Acierno C, Caturano A, Pafundi PC, Nevola R, Adinolfi LE, Sasso FC. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes: pathophysiological mechanisms shared between the two faces of the same coin. Explor Med. 2020;1:287–306. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00019 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Luigi ElioAdinolfi, [CEmail] => luigielio.adinolfi@unicampania.it, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:07:51 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:07:51 [KeysWordContens] => Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes: pathophysiological mechanisms shared between the two faces of the same coin, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, adipokines, The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the close relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are multiple, complex and only partially known. The purpose of this paper was to review the current knowledge of these mechanisms in a unified manner. Subjects with NAFLD and T2DM have established insulin resistance (IR), which exacerbates the two comorbidities. IR worsens NAFLD by increasing the accumulation of free fatty acids (FFAs) in the liver. This occurs due to an increase in the influx of FFAs from peripheral adipose tissue by the activation of hormone-sensitive lipase. In addition, there is de novo increased lipogenesis, a transcription factor, the sterols regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP-1c), which activates the expression of several genes strongly promotes lipogenesis by the liver and facilitate storage of triglycerides. Lipids accumulation in the liver induces a chronic stress in the endoplasmic reticulum of the hepatocytes. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with NAFLD severity, but unrelated to IR. In particular, the alteration of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 contributes to the susceptibility to NAFLD. Furthermore, the lipotoxicity of ceramides and diacylglycerol, well known in T2DM, triggers a chronic inflammatory process favoring the progression from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis. Reactive oxygen species produced by mitochondrial dysfunction trigger both liver inflammation and beta-cells damage, promoting the progression of both NAFLD and T2DM. The close association between NAFLD and T2DM is bidirectional, as T2DM may trigger both NAFLD onset and its progression, but NAFLD itself may contribute to the development of IR and T2DM. Future studies on the mechanisms will have to deepen the knowledge of the interaction between the two pathologies and should allow the identification of new therapeutic targets for the treatment of NAFLD, currently substantially absent. ,Carlo Acierno ... Ferdinando Carlo Sasso [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [19] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 68 [Create_Time] => 2020-10-09 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230302093531.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100120/100120.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100120/100120.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100120/100120-cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Country rankings on the scientific production in endocrinology and diabetology [Abstract] => [AbstractComplete] => [Names] => Alessandro Mantovani ... Chiara Zusi [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00020 [Published] => October 30, 2020 [Viewed] => 1758 [Downloaded] => 19 [Subject] => Commentary [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00020 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:307–313 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100120 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100120/0b7ad1f5e6deaf9855845486fcb1e17e.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100120/c756c76e6f994366d166806171f813bb.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Mantovani A, Rinaldi E, Zusi C. Country rankings on the scientific production in endocrinology and diabetology. Explor Med. 2020;1:307–13. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00020 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => AlessandroMantovani, [CEmail] => alessandro.mantovani@univr.it, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:09:23 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:09:23 [KeysWordContens] => Country rankings on the scientific production in endocrinology and diabetology,,,Alessandro Mantovani ... Chiara Zusi [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [20] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 76 [Create_Time] => 2020-10-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202011/20201102085727.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100121/100121.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100121/100121.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100121/100121_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Insulin pump therapy and continuous glucose monitoring in adults with type 2 diabetes: where are we now? [Abstract] => Technology in diabetes is rapidly evolving, with the aim of helping affected people to safely optimize their blood glucose control. New technologies are now considered as an essential tool for managing glycemia predominantly in people with type 1 diabetes, and clinical trials have demonstrated that in these subjects the use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems are associated with improved glycemic control along with a better quality of life. [AbstractComplete] =>

Technology in diabetes is rapidly evolving, with the aim of helping affected people to safely optimize their blood glucose control. New technologies are now considered as an essential tool for managing glycemia predominantly in people with type 1 diabetes, and clinical trials have demonstrated that in these subjects the use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems are associated with improved glycemic control along with a better quality of life. Literature regarding technologies and type 2 diabetes is relatively lacking, but innovations may have an important role also in the management of these patients. Some studies in adults with type 2 diabetes have shown benefits with the use of CGM in terms of glycemic variability and improved therapeutic adjustments. Clinical trials about CSII and CGM use in type 2 diabetes may have some pitfalls and future studies are needed to assess how these advanced systems could improve clinical outcomes and also ensure cost-effectiveness in this population. In this narrative review, we aim to highlight the most relevant studies on this topic and to focus on the potential role of new technological devices in type 2 diabetes management.

[Names] => Erika Pedone ... Amelia Caretto [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00021 [Published] => October 30, 2020 [Viewed] => 3375 [Downloaded] => 56 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00021 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 26 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:314–330 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Continuous glucose monitoring, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, cost-effectiveness, multiple daily injection, hypoglycemia, type 2 diabetes, diabetes technology [DetailTitle] => Exploring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/26 [Id] => 100121 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100121/11657d7aada35af785b85f62ea8402f3.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100121/d5a1d45d2d4ef2efc1428afc8c76bfa5.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 2 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Pedone E, Laurenzi A, Allora A, Bolla AM, Caretto A. Insulin pump therapy and continuous glucose monitoring in adults with type 2 diabetes: where are we now? Explor Med. 2020;1:314–30. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00021 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:11:07 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:11:07 [KeysWordContens] => Insulin pump therapy and continuous glucose monitoring in adults with type 2 diabetes: where are we now?, Continuous glucose monitoring, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, cost-effectiveness, multiple daily injection, hypoglycemia, type 2 diabetes, diabetes technology, Technology in diabetes is rapidly evolving, with the aim of helping affected people to safely optimize their blood glucose control. New technologies are now considered as an essential tool for managing glycemia predominantly in people with type 1 diabetes, and clinical trials have demonstrated that in these subjects the use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems are associated with improved glycemic control along with a better quality of life. Literature regarding technologies and type 2 diabetes is relatively lacking, but innovations may have an important role also in the management of these patients. Some studies in adults with type 2 diabetes have shown benefits with the use of CGM in terms of glycemic variability and improved therapeutic adjustments. Clinical trials about CSII and CGM use in type 2 diabetes may have some pitfalls and future studies are needed to assess how these advanced systems could improve clinical outcomes and also ensure cost-effectiveness in this population. In this narrative review, we aim to highlight the most relevant studies on this topic and to focus on the potential role of new technological devices in type 2 diabetes management. ,Erika Pedone ... Amelia Caretto [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [21] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 77 [Create_Time] => 2020-10-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230306062845.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100123/100123.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100123/100123.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100123/100123_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => High-performance computing will assist experiments in recovery from COVID-19 [Abstract] => [AbstractComplete] => [Names] => Bhushan Dharmadhikari ... Prabir Patra [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00023 [Published] => October 30, 2020 [Viewed] => 1837 [Downloaded] => 22 [Subject] => Perspective [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00023 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:355–358 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100123 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100123/224e7b547c16f77ea823501fa4fb8f97.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100123/192994644829471d3496362edfcdfa8a.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => 2021-01-30 [CitethisArticle] => Dharmadhikari B, Patra S, Patra P. High-performance computing will assist experiments in recovery from COVID-19. Explor Med. 2020;1:355–8. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00023 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => PrabirPatra, [CEmail] => ppatra@bridgeport.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:19:01 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:19:01 [KeysWordContens] => High-performance computing will assist experiments in recovery from COVID-19,,,Bhushan Dharmadhikari ... Prabir Patra [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [22] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 78 [Create_Time] => 2020-10-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202012/20201202180616.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100122/100122.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100122/100122.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100122/100122_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Going against the norm: validation of a novel alternative to brain SPECT normative datasets [Abstract] => Aim: Quantitative analysis of brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging is dependent on normative datasets that are challenging to produce. This study investigated the combination of SPECT neuroimaging from a large clinical population rather than small numbers of controls. The authors hypothesized this “population template” would demonstrate noninferiority to a control dataset, providing a viable alternative for quantifying perfusion abnormalities in SPECT neuroimaging. Methods: A total of 2, 068 clinical SPECT scans were averaged to form the “population template”. Validation was three-fold. First, the template was imported into SPECT brain analysis software, MIMneuro®, and compared against its control dataset of 90 individuals through its region and cluster analysis tools. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Quantitative analysis of brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging is dependent on normative datasets that are challenging to produce. This study investigated the combination of SPECT neuroimaging from a large clinical population rather than small numbers of controls. The authors hypothesized this “population template” would demonstrate noninferiority to a control dataset, providing a viable alternative for quantifying perfusion abnormalities in SPECT neuroimaging.

Methods:

A total of 2, 068 clinical SPECT scans were averaged to form the “population template”. Validation was three-fold. First, the template was imported into SPECT brain analysis software, MIMneuro®, and compared against its control dataset of 90 individuals through its region and cluster analysis tools. Second, a cohort of 100 cognitively impaired subjects was evaluated against both the population template and MIMneuro®’s normative dataset to compute region-based metrics. Concordance and intraclass correlation coefficients, mean square deviations, total deviation indices, and limits of agreement were derived from these data to measure agreement and test for noninferiority. Finally, the same patients were clinically read in CereMetrix® to confirm that expected perfusion patterns appeared after comparison to the template.

Results:

MIMneuro®’s default threshold for normality is ± 1.65 z-score and this served as our noninferiority margin. Direct comparison of the template to controls produced no regions that exceeded this threshold and all clusters identified were far from statistically significant. Agreement measures revealed consistency between the softwares and that CereMetrix® results were noninferior to MIMneuro®, albeit with proportional bias. Visual analysis also confirmed that expected perfusion patterns appeared when individual scans were compared to the population template within CereMetrix®.

Conclusions:

The authors demonstrated a population template was noninferior to a smaller control dataset despite inclusion of abnormal scans. This suggests that our patient-based population template can serve as an alternative for identifying and quantifying perfusion abnormalities in brain SPECT.

[Names] => Lindsay M. Quandt, Cyrus A. Raji [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00022 [Published] => October 30, 2020 [Viewed] => 2949 [Downloaded] => 47 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00022 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 25 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:331–354 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Brain imaging, SPECT, diagnostic imaging, cognitive impairment, traumatic brain injury, noninferiority trial, quantitative imaging biomarkers, normative database [DetailTitle] => Digital Biomarkers: The New Frontier for Medicine and Research [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/25 [Id] => 100122 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100122/03d52c37daa5388c7f3169597fc8732a.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100122/fbb3d119d568864cffe6c582d7cbafe7.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => 2021-02-01 [CitethisArticle] => Quandt LM, Raji CA. Going against the norm: validation of a novel alternative to brain SPECT normative datasets. Explor Med. 2020;1:331–54. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00022 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:15:21 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:15:21 [KeysWordContens] => Going against the norm: validation of a novel alternative to brain SPECT normative datasets, Brain imaging, SPECT, diagnostic imaging, cognitive impairment, traumatic brain injury, noninferiority trial, quantitative imaging biomarkers, normative database, Aim: Quantitative analysis of brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging is dependent on normative datasets that are challenging to produce. This study investigated the combination of SPECT neuroimaging from a large clinical population rather than small numbers of controls. The authors hypothesized this “population template” would demonstrate noninferiority to a control dataset, providing a viable alternative for quantifying perfusion abnormalities in SPECT neuroimaging. Methods: A total of 2, 068 clinical SPECT scans were averaged to form the “population template”. Validation was three-fold. First, the template was imported into SPECT brain analysis software, MIMneuro®, and compared against its control dataset of 90 individuals through its region and cluster analysis tools. Second, a cohort of 100 cognitively impaired subjects was evaluated against both the population template and MIMneuro®’s normative dataset to compute region-based metrics. Concordance and intraclass correlation coefficients, mean square deviations, total deviation indices, and limits of agreement were derived from these data to measure agreement and test for noninferiority. Finally, the same patients were clinically read in CereMetrix® to confirm that expected perfusion patterns appeared after comparison to the template. Results: MIMneuro®’s default threshold for normality is ± 1.65 z-score and this served as our noninferiority margin. Direct comparison of the template to controls produced no regions that exceeded this threshold and all clusters identified were far from statistically significant. Agreement measures revealed consistency between the softwares and that CereMetrix® results were noninferior to MIMneuro®, albeit with proportional bias. Visual analysis also confirmed that expected perfusion patterns appeared when individual scans were compared to the population template within CereMetrix®. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated a population template was noninferior to a smaller control dataset despite inclusion of abnormal scans. This suggests that our patient-based population template can serve as an alternative for identifying and quantifying perfusion abnormalities in brain SPECT. ,Lindsay M. Quandt, Cyrus A. Raji [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [23] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 79 [Create_Time] => 2020-11-24 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230303033853.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100124/100124.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100124/100124.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100124/100124_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => The need for a harmonized speech dataset for Alzheimer’s disease biomarker development [Abstract] => This commentary is the product of a concerted effort to understand the needs, barriers, and gaps in the field of speech and language biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It distills interviews, surveys, and extensive correspondence with global leaders in the areas of dementia research, clinical trials, linguistics, and data analytics into an idealized clinical-study design for the harmonized collection of voice recordings. [AbstractComplete] =>

This commentary is the product of a concerted effort to understand the needs, barriers, and gaps in the field of speech and language biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It distills interviews, surveys, and extensive correspondence with global leaders in the areas of dementia research, clinical trials, linguistics, and data analytics into an idealized clinical-study design for the harmonized collection of voice recordings. The ultimate goal of the effort is to democratize the ongoing speech and language analytics efforts by making such rich datasets available to the wider research ecosystem.

[Names] => Nicole L. Bjorklund ... Lampros Kourtis [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00024 [Published] => December 31, 2020 [Viewed] => 3101 [Downloaded] => 105 [Subject] => Commentary [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00024 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 25 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:359–363 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Voice data collection, speech and language biomarkers, acoustic and linguistic features, cohort characterization, open-access database, Alzheimer’s disease, neurodegenerative disease [DetailTitle] => Digital Biomarkers: The New Frontier for Medicine and Research [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/25 [Id] => 100124 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100124/f7ae965c1ec36a483cb84b28d4c5fa61.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100124/619bc2e4d5387a9928ebb86e85b60f88.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Bjorklund NL, Fillit H, Malzbender K, Purushothama S, Kourtis L. The need for a harmonized speech dataset for Alzheimer’s disease biomarker development. Explor Med. 2020;1:359–63. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00024 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => LamprosKourtis, [CEmail] => lampros@circadic.io, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:28:57 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:28:57 [KeysWordContens] => The need for a harmonized speech dataset for Alzheimer’s disease biomarker development, Voice data collection, speech and language biomarkers, acoustic and linguistic features, cohort characterization, open-access database, Alzheimer’s disease, neurodegenerative disease, This commentary is the product of a concerted effort to understand the needs, barriers, and gaps in the field of speech and language biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It distills interviews, surveys, and extensive correspondence with global leaders in the areas of dementia research, clinical trials, linguistics, and data analytics into an idealized clinical-study design for the harmonized collection of voice recordings. The ultimate goal of the effort is to democratize the ongoing speech and language analytics efforts by making such rich datasets available to the wider research ecosystem. ,Nicole L. Bjorklund ... Lampros Kourtis [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [24] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 84 [Create_Time] => 2020-12-10 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202101/20210107020312.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100126/100126.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100126/100126.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100126/100126_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Using machine intelligence to uncover Alzheimer’s disease progression heterogeneity [Abstract] => Aim: Research suggests that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is heterogeneous with numerous subtypes. Through a proprietary interactive ML system, several underlying biological mechanisms associated with AD pathology were uncovered. This paper is an introduction to emerging analytic efforts that can more precisely elucidate the heterogeneity of AD. Methods: A public AD data set (GSE84422) consisting of transcriptomic data of postmortem brain samples from healthy controls (n = 121) and AD (n = 380) subjects was analyzed. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Research suggests that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is heterogeneous with numerous subtypes. Through a proprietary interactive ML system, several underlying biological mechanisms associated with AD pathology were uncovered. This paper is an introduction to emerging analytic efforts that can more precisely elucidate the heterogeneity of AD.

Methods:

A public AD data set (GSE84422) consisting of transcriptomic data of postmortem brain samples from healthy controls (n = 121) and AD (n = 380) subjects was analyzed. Data were processed by an artificial intelligence platform designed to discover potential drug repurposing candidates, followed by an interactive augmented intelligence program.

Results:

Using perspective analytics, six perspective classes were identified: Class I is defined by TUBB1, ASB4, and PDE5A; Class II by NRG2 and ZNF3; Class III by IGF1, ASB4, and GTSE1; Class IV is defined by cDNA FLJ39269, ITGA1, and CPM; Class V is defined by PDE5A, PSEN1, and NDUFS8; and Class VI is defined by DCAF17, cDNA FLJ75819, and SLC33A1. It is hypothesized that these classes represent biological mechanisms that may act alone or in any combination to manifest an Alzheimer’s pathology.

Conclusions:

Using a limited transcriptomic public database, six different classes that drive AD were uncovered, supporting the premise that AD is a heterogeneously complex disorder. The perspective classes highlighted genetic pathways associated with vasculogenesis, cellular signaling and differentiation, metabolic function, mitochondrial function, nitric oxide, and metal ion metabolism. The interplay among these genetic factors reveals a more profound underlying complexity of AD that may be responsible for the confluence of several biological factors. These results are not exhaustive; instead, they demonstrate that even within a relatively small study sample, next-generation machine intelligence can uncover multiple genetically driven subtypes. The models and the underlying hypotheses generated using novel analytic methods may translate into potential treatment pathways.

[Names] => Bessi Qorri ... Joseph Geraci [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00026 [Published] => December 31, 2020 [Viewed] => 2946 [Downloaded] => 67 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00026 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 25 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:377–395 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Machine learning, genetic subtypes, disease heterogeneity, drug repurposing, augmented intelligence, machine intelligence, artificial intelligence, target discovery [DetailTitle] => Digital Biomarkers: The New Frontier for Medicine and Research [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/25 [Id] => 100126 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100126/62043180f5b8d7f620cb95c793c301e3.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100126/c99888ba44b77a86ae29fae3bc745866.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 6 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Qorri B, Tsay M, Agrawal A, Au R, Geraci J. Using machine intelligence to uncover Alzheimer’s disease progression heterogeneity. Explor Med. 2020;1:377–95. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00026 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:37:36 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:37:36 [KeysWordContens] => Using machine intelligence to uncover Alzheimer’s disease progression heterogeneity, Machine learning, genetic subtypes, disease heterogeneity, drug repurposing, augmented intelligence, machine intelligence, artificial intelligence, target discovery, Aim: Research suggests that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is heterogeneous with numerous subtypes. Through a proprietary interactive ML system, several underlying biological mechanisms associated with AD pathology were uncovered. This paper is an introduction to emerging analytic efforts that can more precisely elucidate the heterogeneity of AD. Methods: A public AD data set (GSE84422) consisting of transcriptomic data of postmortem brain samples from healthy controls (n = 121) and AD (n = 380) subjects was analyzed. Data were processed by an artificial intelligence platform designed to discover potential drug repurposing candidates, followed by an interactive augmented intelligence program. Results: Using perspective analytics, six perspective classes were identified: Class I is defined by TUBB1, ASB4, and PDE5A; Class II by NRG2 and ZNF3; Class III by IGF1, ASB4, and GTSE1; Class IV is defined by cDNA FLJ39269, ITGA1, and CPM; Class V is defined by PDE5A, PSEN1, and NDUFS8; and Class VI is defined by DCAF17, cDNA FLJ75819, and SLC33A1. It is hypothesized that these classes represent biological mechanisms that may act alone or in any combination to manifest an Alzheimer’s pathology. Conclusions: Using a limited transcriptomic public database, six different classes that drive AD were uncovered, supporting the premise that AD is a heterogeneously complex disorder. The perspective classes highlighted genetic pathways associated with vasculogenesis, cellular signaling and differentiation, metabolic function, mitochondrial function, nitric oxide, and metal ion metabolism. The interplay among these genetic factors reveals a more profound underlying complexity of AD that may be responsible for the confluence of several biological factors. These results are not exhaustive; instead, they demonstrate that even within a relatively small study sample, next-generation machine intelligence can uncover multiple genetically driven subtypes. The models and the underlying hypotheses generated using novel analytic methods may translate into potential treatment pathways. ,Bessi Qorri ... Joseph Geraci [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [25] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 85 [Create_Time] => 2020-12-10 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202101/20210104031901.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100125/100125.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100125/100125.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100125/100125_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => The entero-insular axis: a journey in the physiopathology of diabetes [Abstract] => Glycemic homeostasis is an essential mechanism for the proper working of an organism. However, balance in blood lipid and protein levels also plays an important role. The discovery of the hormone insulin and the description of its function for glycemic control made fundamental scientific progress in this field. However, since then our view of the problem has been deeply influenced only in terms of glucose and insulin (in an insulin-centric and glucose-centric way). [AbstractComplete] =>

Glycemic homeostasis is an essential mechanism for the proper working of an organism. However, balance in blood lipid and protein levels also plays an important role. The discovery of the hormone insulin and the description of its function for glycemic control made fundamental scientific progress in this field. However, since then our view of the problem has been deeply influenced only in terms of glucose and insulin (in an insulin-centric and glucose-centric way). Based on recent scientific discoveries, a fine and sophisticated network of hormonal and metabolic interactions, involving almost every apparatus and tissue of the human body, has been theorized. Efficient metabolic homeostasis is founded on these intricate interactions. Although it is still not fully defined, this complex network can undergo alterations that lead to metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus (DM). The endocrine pancreas plays a crucial role in the metabolic balance of an organism, but insulin is just one of the elements involved and each single pancreatic islet hormone is worthy of our concern. Moreover, pancreatic hormones need to be considered in a general view, concerning both their systemic function as direct mediators and as hormones, which, in turn, are regulated by other hormones or other substances. This more complex scenario should be taken into account for a better understanding of the pathophysiology and the therapeutic algorithms of DM. As a consequence, improvements in modern medicine could help to contemplate this new perspective. This review is focused on some aspects of gut-pancreas interaction, aiming to integrate this synergy into a wider context involving other organs and tissues.

[Names] => Roberta Malaguarnera ... Salvatore Piro [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00025 [Published] => December 31, 2020 [Viewed] => 2490 [Downloaded] => 59 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00025 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 26 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:364–376 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Diabetes mellitus, insulin, glucagon, incretins, gut, gastrointestinal hormones, cross-talk [DetailTitle] => Exploring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/26 [Id] => 100125 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100125/a30cd72b4751c26106056c34f99f708b.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100125/1ded243320d6f949fcb06775d5525efb.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Malaguarnera R, Scamporrino A, Filippello A, Di Mauro S, Minardo A, Purrello F, et al. The entero-insular axis: a journey in the physiopathology of diabetes. Explor Med. 2020;1:364–76. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00025 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:32:37 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:32:37 [KeysWordContens] => The entero-insular axis: a journey in the physiopathology of diabetes, Diabetes mellitus, insulin, glucagon, incretins, gut, gastrointestinal hormones, cross-talk, Glycemic homeostasis is an essential mechanism for the proper working of an organism. However, balance in blood lipid and protein levels also plays an important role. The discovery of the hormone insulin and the description of its function for glycemic control made fundamental scientific progress in this field. However, since then our view of the problem has been deeply influenced only in terms of glucose and insulin (in an insulin-centric and glucose-centric way). Based on recent scientific discoveries, a fine and sophisticated network of hormonal and metabolic interactions, involving almost every apparatus and tissue of the human body, has been theorized. Efficient metabolic homeostasis is founded on these intricate interactions. Although it is still not fully defined, this complex network can undergo alterations that lead to metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus (DM). The endocrine pancreas plays a crucial role in the metabolic balance of an organism, but insulin is just one of the elements involved and each single pancreatic islet hormone is worthy of our concern. Moreover, pancreatic hormones need to be considered in a general view, concerning both their systemic function as direct mediators and as hormones, which, in turn, are regulated by other hormones or other substances. This more complex scenario should be taken into account for a better understanding of the pathophysiology and the therapeutic algorithms of DM. As a consequence, improvements in modern medicine could help to contemplate this new perspective. This review is focused on some aspects of gut-pancreas interaction, aiming to integrate this synergy into a wider context involving other organs and tissues. ,Roberta Malaguarnera ... Salvatore Piro [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [26] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 93 [Create_Time] => 2020-12-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230303035701.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100127/100127.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100127/100127.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100127/100127_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Detection of mild traumatic brain injury in pediatric populations using BrainCheck, a tablet-based cognitive testing software: a preliminary study [Abstract] => Aim: Despite its high frequency of occurrence, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), or concussion, is difficult to recognize and diagnose, particularly in pediatric populations. Conventional methods to diagnose mTBI primarily rely on clinical questionnaires and sometimes include neuroimaging or pencil and paper neuropsychological testing. However, these methods are time consuming, require administration/interpretation from health professionals, and lack adequate test sensitivity and specificity. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Despite its high frequency of occurrence, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), or concussion, is difficult to recognize and diagnose, particularly in pediatric populations. Conventional methods to diagnose mTBI primarily rely on clinical questionnaires and sometimes include neuroimaging or pencil and paper neuropsychological testing. However, these methods are time consuming, require administration/interpretation from health professionals, and lack adequate test sensitivity and specificity. This study explores the use of BrainCheck Sport, a computerized neurocognitive test that is available on iPad, iPhone, or computer desktop, for mTBI assessment. The BrainCheck Sport Battery consists of 6 gamified traditional neurocognitive tests that assess areas of cognition vulnerable to mTBI such as attention, processing speed, executing functioning, and coordination.

Methods:

We administered BrainCheck Sport to 10 participants diagnosed with mTBI at the emergency department of Children’s hospital or local high school within 96 h of injury, and 115 normal controls at a local high school. Statistical analysis included Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square tests, and Hochberg tests to examine differences between the mTBI group and control group on each assessment in the battery. Significant metrics from these assessments were used to build a logistic regression model that distinguishes mTBI from control participants.

Results:

BrainCheck Sport was able to detect significant differences in Coordination, Stroop, Immediate/Delayed Recognition between normal controls and mTBI patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of our logistic regression model found a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 81%, with an area under the curve of 0.884.

Conclusions:

BrainCheck Sport has potential in distinguishing mTBI from control participants, by providing a shorter, gamified test battery to assess cognitive function after brain injury, while also providing a method for tracking recovery with the opportunity to do so remotely from a patient’s home.

[Names] => Siao Ye ... Reza Hosseini Ghomi [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00027 [Published] => December 31, 2020 [Viewed] => 2408 [Downloaded] => 79 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00027 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 25 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:396–405 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => mTBI, concussion, BrainCheck, neurocognitive testing [DetailTitle] => Digital Biomarkers: The New Frontier for Medicine and Research [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/25 [Id] => 100127 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100127/e493c5701e9b50fdd67d5fbadc9e6907.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100127/baf10235fde2a9b5a869420559506872.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => 2021-02-01 [CitethisArticle] => Ye S, Ko B, Phi H, Sun K, Eagleman DM, Flores B, et al. Detection of mild traumatic brain injury in pediatric populations using BrainCheck, a tablet-based cognitive testing software: a preliminary study. Explor Med. 2020;1:396–405. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00027 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => BinHuang,Reza HosseiniGhomi, [CEmail] => bin@braincheck.com,reza@braincheck.com, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:39:11 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:39:11 [KeysWordContens] => Detection of mild traumatic brain injury in pediatric populations using BrainCheck, a tablet-based cognitive testing software: a preliminary study, mTBI, concussion, BrainCheck, neurocognitive testing, Aim: Despite its high frequency of occurrence, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), or concussion, is difficult to recognize and diagnose, particularly in pediatric populations. Conventional methods to diagnose mTBI primarily rely on clinical questionnaires and sometimes include neuroimaging or pencil and paper neuropsychological testing. However, these methods are time consuming, require administration/interpretation from health professionals, and lack adequate test sensitivity and specificity. This study explores the use of BrainCheck Sport, a computerized neurocognitive test that is available on iPad, iPhone, or computer desktop, for mTBI assessment. The BrainCheck Sport Battery consists of 6 gamified traditional neurocognitive tests that assess areas of cognition vulnerable to mTBI such as attention, processing speed, executing functioning, and coordination. Methods: We administered BrainCheck Sport to 10 participants diagnosed with mTBI at the emergency department of Children’s hospital or local high school within 96 h of injury, and 115 normal controls at a local high school. Statistical analysis included Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square tests, and Hochberg tests to examine differences between the mTBI group and control group on each assessment in the battery. Significant metrics from these assessments were used to build a logistic regression model that distinguishes mTBI from control participants. Results: BrainCheck Sport was able to detect significant differences in Coordination, Stroop, Immediate/Delayed Recognition between normal controls and mTBI patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of our logistic regression model found a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 81%, with an area under the curve of 0.884. Conclusions: BrainCheck Sport has potential in distinguishing mTBI from control participants, by providing a shorter, gamified test battery to assess cognitive function after brain injury, while also providing a method for tracking recovery with the opportunity to do so remotely from a patient’s home. ,Siao Ye ... Reza Hosseini Ghomi [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [27] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 94 [Create_Time] => 2020-12-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202103/20210309060045.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100128/100128.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100128/100128.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100128/100128_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Identification of digital voice biomarkers for cognitive health [Abstract] => Aim: Human voice contains rich information. Few longitudinal studies have been conducted to investigate the potential of voice to monitor cognitive health. The objective of this study is to identify voice biomarkers that are predictive of future dementia. Methods: Participants were recruited from the Framingham Heart Study. The vocal responses to neuropsychological tests were recorded, [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Human voice contains rich information. Few longitudinal studies have been conducted to investigate the potential of voice to monitor cognitive health. The objective of this study is to identify voice biomarkers that are predictive of future dementia.

Methods:

Participants were recruited from the Framingham Heart Study. The vocal responses to neuropsychological tests were recorded, which were then diarized to identify participant voice segments. Acoustic features were extracted with the OpenSMILE toolkit (v2.1). The association of each acoustic feature with incident dementia was assessed by Cox proportional hazards models.

Results:

Our study included 6, 528 voice recordings from 4, 849 participants (mean age 63 ± 15 years old, 54.6% women). The majority of participants (71.2%) had one voice recording, 23.9% had two voice recordings, and the remaining participants (4.9%) had three or more voice recordings. Although all asymptomatic at the time of examination, participants who developed dementia tended to have shorter segments than those who were dementia free (P < 0.001). Additionally, 14 acoustic features were significantly associated with dementia after adjusting for multiple testing (P < 0.05 / 48 = 1 × 10–3). The most significant acoustic feature was jitterDDP_sma_de (P = 7.9 × 10–7), which represents the differential frame-to-frame Jitter. A voice based linear classifier was also built that was capable of predicting incident dementia with area under curve of 0.812.

Conclusions:

Multiple acoustic and linguistic features are identified that are associated with incident dementia among asymptomatic participants, which could be used to build better prediction models for passive cognitive health monitoring.

[Names] => Honghuang Lin ... Rhoda Au [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2020.00028 [Published] => December 31, 2020 [Viewed] => 2760 [Downloaded] => 79 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2020 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2020.00028 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 25 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2020;1:406–417 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Digital voice, dementia, epidemiology, acoustic features, prediction [DetailTitle] => Digital Biomarkers: The New Frontier for Medicine and Research [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/25 [Id] => 100128 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100128/ee7eda06e54d4339bf4b2c2782212a32.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100128/72aea76bd9e5ddd1e416c31bb2e05c65.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 15 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Lin H, Karjadi C, Ang TFA, Prajakta J, McManus C, Alhanai TW, et al. Identification of digital voice biomarkers for cognitive health. Explor Med. 2020;1:406–17. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2020.00028 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:40:34 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-11 09:40:34 [KeysWordContens] => Identification of digital voice biomarkers for cognitive health, Digital voice, dementia, epidemiology, acoustic features, prediction, Aim: Human voice contains rich information. Few longitudinal studies have been conducted to investigate the potential of voice to monitor cognitive health. The objective of this study is to identify voice biomarkers that are predictive of future dementia. Methods: Participants were recruited from the Framingham Heart Study. The vocal responses to neuropsychological tests were recorded, which were then diarized to identify participant voice segments. Acoustic features were extracted with the OpenSMILE toolkit (v2.1). The association of each acoustic feature with incident dementia was assessed by Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Our study included 6, 528 voice recordings from 4, 849 participants (mean age 63 ± 15 years old, 54.6% women). The majority of participants (71.2%) had one voice recording, 23.9% had two voice recordings, and the remaining participants (4.9%) had three or more voice recordings. Although all asymptomatic at the time of examination, participants who developed dementia tended to have shorter segments than those who were dementia free (P < 0.001). Additionally, 14 acoustic features were significantly associated with dementia after adjusting for multiple testing (P < 0.05 / 48 = 1 × 10–3). The most significant acoustic feature was jitterDDP_sma_de (P = 7.9 × 10–7), which represents the differential frame-to-frame Jitter. A voice based linear classifier was also built that was capable of predicting incident dementia with area under curve of 0.812. Conclusions: Multiple acoustic and linguistic features are identified that are associated with incident dementia among asymptomatic participants, which could be used to build better prediction models for passive cognitive health monitoring. ,Honghuang Lin ... Rhoda Au [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [28] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 95 [Create_Time] => 2021-01-04 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202103/20210301003925.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100129/100129.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100129/100129.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100129/100129_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Silent coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetes: a narrative review on epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical studies [Abstract] => Silent coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the manifestations of heart disease that particularly affects subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). From a clinical point of view, silent CAD represents a constant challenge for the diabetologist, who has to decide whether a patient could or could not be screened for this disease. In the present narrative review, several aspects of silent CAD are considered: the epidemiology of the disease, the associated risk factors, and main studies conducted, in the last 20 years, especially aimed to demonstrate the usefulness of the screening of silent CAD, to improve cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. [AbstractComplete] =>

Silent coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the manifestations of heart disease that particularly affects subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). From a clinical point of view, silent CAD represents a constant challenge for the diabetologist, who has to decide whether a patient could or could not be screened for this disease. In the present narrative review, several aspects of silent CAD are considered: the epidemiology of the disease, the associated risk factors, and main studies conducted, in the last 20 years, especially aimed to demonstrate the usefulness of the screening of silent CAD, to improve cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes.

[Names] => Saula Vigili de Kreutzenberg [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00029 [Published] => February 28, 2021 [Viewed] => 2262 [Downloaded] => 53 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00029 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 26 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:1–19 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Silent coronary artery disease, epidemiology, risk factors, screening [DetailTitle] => Exploring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/26 [Id] => 100129 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100129/60bc2d08e853763bcbad3e56c3943301.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100129/c7d69cf6252fff752e0cfa6795aa2210.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => 2021-02-01 [CitethisArticle] => Vigili de Kreutzenberg S. Silent coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetes: a narrative review on epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical studies. Explor Med. 2021;2:1–19. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00029 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-20 03:28:56 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-20 03:28:56 [KeysWordContens] => Silent coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetes: a narrative review on epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical studies, Silent coronary artery disease, epidemiology, risk factors, screening, Silent coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the manifestations of heart disease that particularly affects subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). From a clinical point of view, silent CAD represents a constant challenge for the diabetologist, who has to decide whether a patient could or could not be screened for this disease. In the present narrative review, several aspects of silent CAD are considered: the epidemiology of the disease, the associated risk factors, and main studies conducted, in the last 20 years, especially aimed to demonstrate the usefulness of the screening of silent CAD, to improve cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. ,Saula Vigili de Kreutzenberg [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [29] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 98 [Create_Time] => 2021-02-02 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230303090238.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100130/100130.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100130/100130.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100130/100130_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Cardiovascular involvement after liver transplantation: role of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis [Abstract] => Patients submitted to liver transplantation (LT) are exposed to high risk of cardiovascular (CV) complications which are the main determinants of both short-term and long-term morbidity and mortality in LT. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a very frequent condition in general population and is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) which represents the first cause of death of these patients. NAFLD is predicted to become the first indication to LT and nowadays is also frequently detected in patients submitted to LT for other indications. [AbstractComplete] =>

Patients submitted to liver transplantation (LT) are exposed to high risk of cardiovascular (CV) complications which are the main determinants of both short-term and long-term morbidity and mortality in LT. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a very frequent condition in general population and is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) which represents the first cause of death of these patients. NAFLD is predicted to become the first indication to LT and nowadays is also frequently detected in patients submitted to LT for other indications. Thus, the risk of CVD in patients submitted to LT is forecasted to increase in the next years. In this review the extent of CV involvement in patients submitted to LT and the role of NAFLD, either recurring after transplantation or as de novo presentation, in increasing CV risk is analysed. The risk of developing metabolic alterations, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and weight gain, all manifestations of metabolic syndrome, occurring in the first months after LT, is depicted. The different presentations of cardiac involvement, represented by early atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, heart failure and arrhythmias in patients with NAFLD submitted to LT is described. In addition, the tools to detect cardiac alterations either before or after LT is reported providing the possibility for an early diagnosis of CVD and an early therapy able to reduce morbidity and mortality for these diseases. The need for long-term concerted multidisciplinary activity with dietary counseling and exercise combined with drug treatment of all manifestations of metabolic syndrome is emphasized.

[Names] => Rosa Lombardi ... Anna Ludovica Fracanzani [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00030 [Published] => February 28, 2021 [Viewed] => 1973 [Downloaded] => 39 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00030 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 22 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med [Pages] => 2021;2:20–38 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Orthotopic liver transplantation, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, cardiovascular mortality, subclinical atherosclerosis, fatty liver [DetailTitle] => Exploring NAFLD/NASH [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/22 [Id] => 100130 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100130/87f315d9f4df11d28b351e92589c91ae.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100130/cbaddea64a7789a197dab9088f0e7fca.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => 2021-02-02 [CitethisArticle] => Lombardi R, Pisano G, Fargion S, Fracanzani AL. Cardiovascular involvement after liver transplantation: role of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Explor Med. 2021;2:20–38. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00030 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => RosaLombardi, [CEmail] => rosa.lombardi@unimi.it, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-20 03:30:03 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-20 03:30:03 [KeysWordContens] => Cardiovascular involvement after liver transplantation: role of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, Orthotopic liver transplantation, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, cardiovascular mortality, subclinical atherosclerosis, fatty liver, Patients submitted to liver transplantation (LT) are exposed to high risk of cardiovascular (CV) complications which are the main determinants of both short-term and long-term morbidity and mortality in LT. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a very frequent condition in general population and is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) which represents the first cause of death of these patients. NAFLD is predicted to become the first indication to LT and nowadays is also frequently detected in patients submitted to LT for other indications. Thus, the risk of CVD in patients submitted to LT is forecasted to increase in the next years. In this review the extent of CV involvement in patients submitted to LT and the role of NAFLD, either recurring after transplantation or as de novo presentation, in increasing CV risk is analysed. The risk of developing metabolic alterations, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and weight gain, all manifestations of metabolic syndrome, occurring in the first months after LT, is depicted. The different presentations of cardiac involvement, represented by early atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, heart failure and arrhythmias in patients with NAFLD submitted to LT is described. In addition, the tools to detect cardiac alterations either before or after LT is reported providing the possibility for an early diagnosis of CVD and an early therapy able to reduce morbidity and mortality for these diseases. The need for long-term concerted multidisciplinary activity with dietary counseling and exercise combined with drug treatment of all manifestations of metabolic syndrome is emphasized. ,Rosa Lombardi ... Anna Ludovica Fracanzani [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [30] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 105 [Create_Time] => 2021-03-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202102/20210227095629.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100131/100131.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100131/100131.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100131/100131_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Cell-derived vesicles for delivery of cancer immunotherapy [Abstract] => In recent years, cancer immunotherapy has received unprecedented attention due to the clinical achievements. The applications of biomedical engineering and materials science to cancer immunotherapy have solved the challenges caused by immunotherapy to a certain extent. Among them, cell-derived vesicles are natural biomaterials chosen as carriers or immune-engineering in view of their many unique advantages. This review will briefly introduce the recent applications of cell-derived vesicles for cancer immunotherapy. [AbstractComplete] =>

In recent years, cancer immunotherapy has received unprecedented attention due to the clinical achievements. The applications of biomedical engineering and materials science to cancer immunotherapy have solved the challenges caused by immunotherapy to a certain extent. Among them, cell-derived vesicles are natural biomaterials chosen as carriers or immune-engineering in view of their many unique advantages. This review will briefly introduce the recent applications of cell-derived vesicles for cancer immunotherapy.

[Names] => Jialu Xu, Chao Wang [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00031 [Published] => February 28, 2021 [Viewed] => 2842 [Downloaded] => 73 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00031 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 36 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:39–59 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Cell-derived vesicles, immunotherapy, extracellular vesicles [DetailTitle] => Nanomedicine and Cancer Immunotherapy [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/36 [Id] => 100131 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100131/8f1703de74b0d73b8b89a0dd4eb52e17.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100131/d607f42d4d978eb8650074e082b84734.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Xu J, Wang C. Cell-derived vesicles for delivery of cancer immunotherapy. Explor Med. 2021;2:39–59. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00031 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-20 03:33:41 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-20 03:33:41 [KeysWordContens] => Cell-derived vesicles for delivery of cancer immunotherapy, Cell-derived vesicles, immunotherapy, extracellular vesicles, In recent years, cancer immunotherapy has received unprecedented attention due to the clinical achievements. The applications of biomedical engineering and materials science to cancer immunotherapy have solved the challenges caused by immunotherapy to a certain extent. Among them, cell-derived vesicles are natural biomaterials chosen as carriers or immune-engineering in view of their many unique advantages. This review will briefly introduce the recent applications of cell-derived vesicles for cancer immunotherapy. ,Jialu Xu, Chao Wang [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [31] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 106 [Create_Time] => 2021-03-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202306/20230614034018.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100132/100132.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100132/100132.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100132/100132_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Genome-wide association study of phenotypes measuring progression from first cocaine or opioid use to dependence reveals novel risk genes [Abstract] => Aim: Substance use disorders (SUD) result in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Opioids, and to a lesser extent cocaine, contribute to a large percentage of this health burden. Despite their high heritability, few genetic risk loci have been identified for either opioid or cocaine dependence (OD or CD, respectively). A genome-wide association study of OD and CD related phenotypes reflecting the time between first self-reported use of these substances and a first DSM-IV dependence diagnosis was conducted. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Substance use disorders (SUD) result in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Opioids, and to a lesser extent cocaine, contribute to a large percentage of this health burden. Despite their high heritability, few genetic risk loci have been identified for either opioid or cocaine dependence (OD or CD, respectively). A genome-wide association study of OD and CD related phenotypes reflecting the time between first self-reported use of these substances and a first DSM-IV dependence diagnosis was conducted.

Methods:

Cox proportional hazards regression in a discovery sample of 6,188 African-Americans (AAs) and 6,835 European-Americans (EAs) participants in a genetic study of multiple substance dependence phenotypes were used to test for association between genetic variants and these outcomes. The top findings were tested for replication in two independent cohorts.

Results:

In the discovery sample, three independent regions containing variants associated with time to dependence at P < 5 × 10−8 were identified, one (rs61835088 = 1.03 × 10−8) for cocaine in the combined EA-AA meta-analysis in the gene FAM78B on chromosome 1, and two for opioids in the AA portion of the sample in intergenic regions of chromosomes 4 (rs4860439, P = 1.37 × 10−8) and 9 (rs7032521, P = 3.30 × 10−8). After meta-analysis with data from the replication cohorts, the signal at rs61835088 improved (HR = 0.87, P = 3.71 × 10−9 and an intergenic SNP on chromosome 21 (rs2825295, HR = 1.14, P = 2.57 × 10−8) that missed the significance threshold in the AA discovery sample became genome-wide significant (GWS) for CD.

Conclusions:

Although the two GWS variants are not in genes with obvious links to SUD biology and have modest effect sizes, they are statistically robust and show evidence for association in independent samples. These results may point to novel pathways contributing to disease progression and highlight the utility of related phenotypes to better understand the genetics of SUDs.

[Names] => Richard Sherva ... Lindsay A. Farrer [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00032 [Published] => February 28, 2021 [Viewed] => 2776 [Downloaded] => 52 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00032 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 24 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:60–73 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Substance use disorders, cocaine use disorders, opioid use disorders, genetics, FAM78B, GWAS [DetailTitle] => The Biological Basis of Substance Use Disorders [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/24 [Id] => 100132 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100132/d3e3b154d57292d33f692f00dd90ed2b.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100132/4392985a3cdce61a1aa15ade9710e7e0.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Sherva R, Zhu C, Wetherill L, Edenberg HJ, Johnson E, Degenhardt L, et al. Genome-wide association study of phenotypes measuring progression from first cocaine or opioid use to dependence reveals novel risk genes. Explor Med. 2021;2:60–73. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00032 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => RichardSherva, [CEmail] => sherva@bu.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-20 03:35:15 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-20 03:35:15 [KeysWordContens] => Genome-wide association study of phenotypes measuring progression from first cocaine or opioid use to dependence reveals novel risk genes, Substance use disorders, cocaine use disorders, opioid use disorders, genetics, FAM78B, GWAS, Aim: Substance use disorders (SUD) result in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Opioids, and to a lesser extent cocaine, contribute to a large percentage of this health burden. Despite their high heritability, few genetic risk loci have been identified for either opioid or cocaine dependence (OD or CD, respectively). A genome-wide association study of OD and CD related phenotypes reflecting the time between first self-reported use of these substances and a first DSM-IV dependence diagnosis was conducted. Methods: Cox proportional hazards regression in a discovery sample of 6,188 African-Americans (AAs) and 6,835 European-Americans (EAs) participants in a genetic study of multiple substance dependence phenotypes were used to test for association between genetic variants and these outcomes. The top findings were tested for replication in two independent cohorts. Results: In the discovery sample, three independent regions containing variants associated with time to dependence at P < 5 × 10−8 were identified, one (rs61835088 = 1.03 × 10−8) for cocaine in the combined EA-AA meta-analysis in the gene FAM78B on chromosome 1, and two for opioids in the AA portion of the sample in intergenic regions of chromosomes 4 (rs4860439, P = 1.37 × 10−8) and 9 (rs7032521, P = 3.30 × 10−8). After meta-analysis with data from the replication cohorts, the signal at rs61835088 improved (HR = 0.87, P = 3.71 × 10−9 and an intergenic SNP on chromosome 21 (rs2825295, HR = 1.14, P = 2.57 × 10−8) that missed the significance threshold in the AA discovery sample became genome-wide significant (GWS) for CD. Conclusions: Although the two GWS variants are not in genes with obvious links to SUD biology and have modest effect sizes, they are statistically robust and show evidence for association in independent samples. These results may point to novel pathways contributing to disease progression and highlight the utility of related phenotypes to better understand the genetics of SUDs. ,Richard Sherva ... Lindsay A. Farrer [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 1 [AccountId] => 0 ) [32] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 110 [Create_Time] => 2021-03-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202103/20210309004042.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100133/100133.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100133/100133.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100133/100133_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => A machine learning approach to identify correlates of current e-cigarette use in Canada [Abstract] => Aim: Popularity of electronic cigarettes (i.e. e-cigarettes) is soaring in Canada. Understanding person-level correlates of current e-cigarette use (vaping) is crucial to guide tobacco policy, but prior studies have not fully identified these correlates due to model overfitting caused by multicollinearity. This study addressed this issue by using classification tree, a machine learning algorithm. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Popularity of electronic cigarettes (i.e. e-cigarettes) is soaring in Canada. Understanding person-level correlates of current e-cigarette use (vaping) is crucial to guide tobacco policy, but prior studies have not fully identified these correlates due to model overfitting caused by multicollinearity. This study addressed this issue by using classification tree, a machine learning algorithm.

Methods:

This population-based cross-sectional study used the Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs Survey (CTADS) from 2017 that targeted residents aged 15 or older. Forty-six person-level characteristics were first screened in a logistic mixed-effects regression procedure for their strength in predicting vaper type (current vs. former vaper) among people who reported to have ever vaped. A 9:1 ratio was used to randomly split the data into a training set and a validation set. A classification tree model was developed using the cross-validation method on the training set using the selected predictors and assessed on the validation set using sensitivity, specificity and accuracy.

Results:

Of the 3,059 people with an experience of vaping, the average age was 24.4 years (standard deviation = 11.0), with 41.9% of them being female and 8.5% of them being aboriginal. There were 556 (18.2%) current vapers. The classification tree model performed relatively well and suggested attraction to e-cigarette flavors was the most important correlate of current vaping, followed by young age (< 18) and believing vaping to be less harmful to oneself than cigarette smoking.

Conclusions:

People who vape due to flavors are associated with very high risk of becoming current vapers. The findings of this study provide evidence that supports the ongoing ban on flavored vaping products in the US and suggests a similar regulatory intervention may be effective in Canada.

[Names] => Rui Fu ... Michael Chaiton [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00033 [Published] => February 28, 2021 [Viewed] => 2220 [Downloaded] => 34 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00033 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 24 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:74–85 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Electronic cigarettes, vaping, machine learning, classification tree [DetailTitle] => The Biological Basis of Substance Use Disorders [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/24 [Id] => 100133 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100133/d28eddf5bc8b706557c3e39a2b466550.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100133/eeff6c9666a51fb10c5f3d257d2313c7.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Fu R, Mitsakakis N, Chaiton M. A machine learning approach to identify correlates of current e-cigarette use in Canada. Explor Med. 2021;2:74–85. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00033 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-20 03:36:29 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-20 03:36:29 [KeysWordContens] => A machine learning approach to identify correlates of current e-cigarette use in Canada, Electronic cigarettes, vaping, machine learning, classification tree, Aim: Popularity of electronic cigarettes (i.e. e-cigarettes) is soaring in Canada. Understanding person-level correlates of current e-cigarette use (vaping) is crucial to guide tobacco policy, but prior studies have not fully identified these correlates due to model overfitting caused by multicollinearity. This study addressed this issue by using classification tree, a machine learning algorithm. Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study used the Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs Survey (CTADS) from 2017 that targeted residents aged 15 or older. Forty-six person-level characteristics were first screened in a logistic mixed-effects regression procedure for their strength in predicting vaper type (current vs. former vaper) among people who reported to have ever vaped. A 9:1 ratio was used to randomly split the data into a training set and a validation set. A classification tree model was developed using the cross-validation method on the training set using the selected predictors and assessed on the validation set using sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Results: Of the 3,059 people with an experience of vaping, the average age was 24.4 years (standard deviation = 11.0), with 41.9% of them being female and 8.5% of them being aboriginal. There were 556 (18.2%) current vapers. The classification tree model performed relatively well and suggested attraction to e-cigarette flavors was the most important correlate of current vaping, followed by young age (< 18) and believing vaping to be less harmful to oneself than cigarette smoking. Conclusions: People who vape due to flavors are associated with very high risk of becoming current vapers. The findings of this study provide evidence that supports the ongoing ban on flavored vaping products in the US and suggests a similar regulatory intervention may be effective in Canada. ,Rui Fu ... Michael Chaiton [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [33] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 112 [Create_Time] => 2021-03-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230303052758.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100134/100134.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100134/100134.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100134/100134_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Assessing the capacity for mental manipulation in patients with statically-determined mild cognitive impairment using digital technology [Abstract] => Aims: Prior research employing a standard backward digit span test has been successful in operationally defining neurocognitive constructs associated with the Fuster’s model of executive attention. The current research sought to test if similar behavior could be obtained using a cross-modal mental manipulation test. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aims:

Prior research employing a standard backward digit span test has been successful in operationally defining neurocognitive constructs associated with the Fuster’s model of executive attention. The current research sought to test if similar behavior could be obtained using a cross-modal mental manipulation test.

Methods:

Memory clinic patients were studied. Using Jak-Bondi criteria, 24 patients were classified with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 33 memory clinic patients did not meet criteria for MCI (i.e. non-MCI). All patients were assessed with the digital version of the WRAML-2 Symbolic Working Memory Test-Part 1, a cross-modal mental manipulation task where patients hear digits, but respond by touching digits from lowest to highest on an answer key. Only 4 and 5-span trials were analyzed. Using an iPad, all test stimuli were played; and, all responses were obtained with a touch key. Only correct trials were analyzed. Average time to complete trials and latency for each digit was recorded.

Results:

Groups did not differ when average time to complete 4-span trials was calculated. MCI patients displayed slower latency, or required more time to re-order the 1st and 3rd digits. Regression analyses, primarily involving initial and latter response latencies, were associated with better, but different underlying neuropsychological abilities. Almost no 5-span analyses were significant.

Conclusions:

This cross-modal test paradigm found no difference for total average time. MCI patients generated slower 1st and 3rd response latency, suggesting differences in time allocation to achieve correct serial order recall. Moreover, different neuropsychological abilities were associated with different time-based test components. These data extend prior findings using a standard backward digit span test. Differences in time epochs are consistent with constructs underlying the model of executive attention and help explain mental manipulation deficits in MCI. These latency measures could constitute neurocognitive biomarkers that track emergent disease.

[Names] => Sheina Emrani ... David J. Libon [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00034 [Published] => February 28, 2021 [Viewed] => 2404 [Downloaded] => 29 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00034 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 25 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:86–97 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Biomarkers, mild cognitive impairment, executive control, temporal organization, intra-component latency, digit span [DetailTitle] => Digital Biomarkers: The New Frontier for Medicine and Research [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/25 [Id] => 100134 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100134/202eb990cd7ad1d5a43cac6b3cdae639.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100134/d333c70c584aba5ca40722acd8f572cc.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Emrani S, Lamar M, Price CC, Baliga S, Wasserman V, Matusz E, et al. Assessing the capacity for mental manipulation in patients with statically-determined mild cognitive impairment using digital technology. Explor Med. 2021;2:86–97. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00034 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => GaneshBaliga,David J.Libon, [CEmail] => baliga@rowan.edu,libon@rowan.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-20 07:12:27 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-20 07:12:27 [KeysWordContens] => Assessing the capacity for mental manipulation in patients with statically-determined mild cognitive impairment using digital technology, Biomarkers, mild cognitive impairment, executive control, temporal organization, intra-component latency, digit span, Aims: Prior research employing a standard backward digit span test has been successful in operationally defining neurocognitive constructs associated with the Fuster’s model of executive attention. The current research sought to test if similar behavior could be obtained using a cross-modal mental manipulation test. Methods: Memory clinic patients were studied. Using Jak-Bondi criteria, 24 patients were classified with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 33 memory clinic patients did not meet criteria for MCI (i.e. non-MCI). All patients were assessed with the digital version of the WRAML-2 Symbolic Working Memory Test-Part 1, a cross-modal mental manipulation task where patients hear digits, but respond by touching digits from lowest to highest on an answer key. Only 4 and 5-span trials were analyzed. Using an iPad, all test stimuli were played; and, all responses were obtained with a touch key. Only correct trials were analyzed. Average time to complete trials and latency for each digit was recorded. Results: Groups did not differ when average time to complete 4-span trials was calculated. MCI patients displayed slower latency, or required more time to re-order the 1st and 3rd digits. Regression analyses, primarily involving initial and latter response latencies, were associated with better, but different underlying neuropsychological abilities. Almost no 5-span analyses were significant. Conclusions: This cross-modal test paradigm found no difference for total average time. MCI patients generated slower 1st and 3rd response latency, suggesting differences in time allocation to achieve correct serial order recall. Moreover, different neuropsychological abilities were associated with different time-based test components. These data extend prior findings using a standard backward digit span test. Differences in time epochs are consistent with constructs underlying the model of executive attention and help explain mental manipulation deficits in MCI. These latency measures could constitute neurocognitive biomarkers that track emergent disease. ,Sheina Emrani ... David J. Libon [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [34] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 113 [Create_Time] => 2021-03-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230303053906.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100135/100135.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100135/100135.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100135/100135_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Risk factors in acute diabetic foot syndrome: analysis of 75 consecutive patients referred to a tertiary center in Modena, Italy [Abstract] => Aim: Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) is a complication of diabetes in which the presence of infections, ulceration and/or destruction of deep tissue associated with neuropathy, peripheral atherosclerosis and comorbidity affect the prognosis, the need for limb amputation and quality of life. Purpose of the present study is to report the features of patients with acute DFS admitted to our Diabetic Foot Unit tertiary Center in 2019. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) is a complication of diabetes in which the presence of infections, ulceration and/or destruction of deep tissue associated with neuropathy, peripheral atherosclerosis and comorbidity affect the prognosis, the need for limb amputation and quality of life. Purpose of the present study is to report the features of patients with acute DFS admitted to our Diabetic Foot Unit tertiary Center in 2019.

Methods:

In all patients admitted, the approach was performed through a multidisciplinary team (Diabetic Foot Care Team) and described in a specific diagnostic-therapeutic-assistance program. Criteria of inclusion were presence of sepsis and/or suspected osteomyelitis and/or critical limb ischemia. Clinical features and interventions performed were registered. Primary endpoints were mortality and amputation (major, minor). Secondary endpoints were length of hospitalization, type of revascularization and duration of antibiotic therapy.

Results:

Among 75 consecutive patients (mean age 70.9 years) enrolled, prevalence of acute DFS was higher among men (M/F 3:1). Poor glycemic control [mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 67.9 ± 22.3 mmol/mol], long duration of diabetes (mean 19 ± 16.3 years), high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (mean 89.5 ± 45.1 mg/ dL) and obesity (mean Body Mass Index 30.2 ± 7.6 kg/m2) were common. Diabetes-related complications as peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (76%), ischemic heart disease (48%), retinopathy (40.5%), hepatic steatosis (50%), heart failure (17.8%) were present. During hospitalization, 21 subjects (28.4%) underwent lower limb amputations (overall rate of major amputation 4%), and 41.3% underwent percutaneous angioplasty. Long period of hospitalization (18.4 ± 7.9 days) and prolonged antibiotic therapy (23.9 ± 15.9 days) were observed. Major amputation was associated with C-reactive protein > 6.5 mg/dL (P = 0.03), osteomyelitis (P = 0.001), prior insulin therapy (P = 0.015).

Conclusions:

Male sex, co-morbidity, PAD, systemic inflammation and poor glycemic control are major features of acute hospitalized DFS. An approach through a multidisciplinary team is recommended in order to treat vascular and extra-vascular complications aimed at reducing mortality and at improving quality of life.

[Names] => Mauro Maurantonio ... Luca Roncucci [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00035 [Published] => February 28, 2021 [Viewed] => 1933 [Downloaded] => 28 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00035 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 26 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:98–109 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Co-morbidity, diabetic foot syndrome, diabetic ulcer, limb amputation, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, multidisciplinary team, mortality, sex differences [DetailTitle] => Exploring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/26 [Id] => 100135 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100135/faeec6204691c805ffe3ce7401a5eae5.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100135/2e0313b8148926fdae925b5c6781234f.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Maurantonio M, Gabrielli F, Castellano C, Carla A, Andreone P, Roncucci L. Risk factors in acute diabetic foot syndrome: analysis of 75 consecutive patients referred to a tertiary center in Modena, Italy. Explor Med. 2021;2:98–109. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00035 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => MauroMaurantonio, [CEmail] => maurantonio.mauro@aou.mo.it, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-20 03:37:35 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-20 03:37:35 [KeysWordContens] => Risk factors in acute diabetic foot syndrome: analysis of 75 consecutive patients referred to a tertiary center in Modena, Italy, Co-morbidity, diabetic foot syndrome, diabetic ulcer, limb amputation, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, multidisciplinary team, mortality, sex differences, Aim: Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) is a complication of diabetes in which the presence of infections, ulceration and/or destruction of deep tissue associated with neuropathy, peripheral atherosclerosis and comorbidity affect the prognosis, the need for limb amputation and quality of life. Purpose of the present study is to report the features of patients with acute DFS admitted to our Diabetic Foot Unit tertiary Center in 2019. Methods: In all patients admitted, the approach was performed through a multidisciplinary team (Diabetic Foot Care Team) and described in a specific diagnostic-therapeutic-assistance program. Criteria of inclusion were presence of sepsis and/or suspected osteomyelitis and/or critical limb ischemia. Clinical features and interventions performed were registered. Primary endpoints were mortality and amputation (major, minor). Secondary endpoints were length of hospitalization, type of revascularization and duration of antibiotic therapy. Results: Among 75 consecutive patients (mean age 70.9 years) enrolled, prevalence of acute DFS was higher among men (M/F 3:1). Poor glycemic control [mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 67.9 ± 22.3 mmol/mol], long duration of diabetes (mean 19 ± 16.3 years), high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (mean 89.5 ± 45.1 mg/ dL) and obesity (mean Body Mass Index 30.2 ± 7.6 kg/m2) were common. Diabetes-related complications as peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (76%), ischemic heart disease (48%), retinopathy (40.5%), hepatic steatosis (50%), heart failure (17.8%) were present. During hospitalization, 21 subjects (28.4%) underwent lower limb amputations (overall rate of major amputation 4%), and 41.3% underwent percutaneous angioplasty. Long period of hospitalization (18.4 ± 7.9 days) and prolonged antibiotic therapy (23.9 ± 15.9 days) were observed. Major amputation was associated with C-reactive protein > 6.5 mg/dL (P = 0.03), osteomyelitis (P = 0.001), prior insulin therapy (P = 0.015). Conclusions: Male sex, co-morbidity, PAD, systemic inflammation and poor glycemic control are major features of acute hospitalized DFS. An approach through a multidisciplinary team is recommended in order to treat vascular and extra-vascular complications aimed at reducing mortality and at improving quality of life. ,Mauro Maurantonio ... Luca Roncucci [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [35] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 116 [Create_Time] => 2021-03-05 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230303055016.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100136/100136.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100136/100136.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100136/100136_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Proof of concept: digital clock drawing behaviors prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement may predict length of hospital stay and cost of care [Abstract] => Aims: Reduced pre-operative cognitive functioning in older adults is a risk factor for postoperative complications, but it is unknown if preoperative digitally-acquired clock drawing test (CDT) cognitive screening variables, which allow for more nuanced examination of patient performance, may predict lengthier hospital stay and greater cost of hospital care. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aims:

Reduced pre-operative cognitive functioning in older adults is a risk factor for postoperative complications, but it is unknown if preoperative digitally-acquired clock drawing test (CDT) cognitive screening variables, which allow for more nuanced examination of patient performance, may predict lengthier hospital stay and greater cost of hospital care. This issue is particularly relevant for older adults undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), as this surgical procedure is chosen for intermediate-risk older adults needing aortic replacement. This proof of concept research explored if specific latency and graphomotor variables indicative of planning from digitally-acquired command and copy clock drawing would predict post-TAVR duration and cost of hospitalization, over and above age, education, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification score, and frailty.

Methods:

Form January 2018 to December 2019, 162 out of 190 individuals electing TAVR completed digital clock drawing as part of a hospital wide cognitive screening program. Separate hierarchical regressions were computed for the command and copy conditions of the CDT and assessed how a-priori selected clock drawing metrics (total time to completion, ideal digit placement difference, and hour hand distance from center; included within the same block) incrementally predicted outcome, as measured by R2 change significance values.

Results:

Above and beyond age, education, ASA physical status classification score, and frailty, only digitally-acquired CDT copy performance explained significant variance for length of hospital stay (9.5%) and cost of care (8.9%).

Conclusions:

Digital variables from clock copy condition provided predictive value over common demographic and comorbidity variables. We hypothesize this is due to the sensitivity of the copy condition to executive dysfunction, as has been shown in previous studies for subtypes of cognitive impairment. Individuals undergoing TAVR procedures are often frail and executively compromised due to their cerebrovascular disease. We encourage additional research on the value of digitally-acquired clock drawing within different surgery types. Type of cognitive impairment and the value of digitally-acquired CDT command and copy parameters in other surgeries remain unknown.

[Names] => Margaret Ellenora Wiggins ... Catherine C. Price [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00036 [Published] => March 05, 2021 [Viewed] => 2842 [Downloaded] => 38 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00036 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 25 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:110–121 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Clock drawing test, perioperative neuropsychology, transcatheter aortic valve replacement, hospital outcomes [DetailTitle] => Digital Biomarkers: The New Frontier for Medicine and Research [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/25 [Id] => 100136 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100136/1d3e7bb1355847c1644e855ee97bf718.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100136/499fe5028115ab4e9666dc3b294f6fe3.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 2 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Wiggins ME, Dion C, Formanski E, Davoudi A, Amini S, Heilman KM, et al. Proof of concept: digital clock drawing behaviors prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement may predict length of hospital stay and cost of care. Explor Med. 2020;2:110–21. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00036 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Catherine C.Price, [CEmail] => cep23@phhp.ufl.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-20 03:40:58 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-20 03:40:58 [KeysWordContens] => Proof of concept: digital clock drawing behaviors prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement may predict length of hospital stay and cost of care, Clock drawing test, perioperative neuropsychology, transcatheter aortic valve replacement, hospital outcomes, Aims: Reduced pre-operative cognitive functioning in older adults is a risk factor for postoperative complications, but it is unknown if preoperative digitally-acquired clock drawing test (CDT) cognitive screening variables, which allow for more nuanced examination of patient performance, may predict lengthier hospital stay and greater cost of hospital care. This issue is particularly relevant for older adults undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), as this surgical procedure is chosen for intermediate-risk older adults needing aortic replacement. This proof of concept research explored if specific latency and graphomotor variables indicative of planning from digitally-acquired command and copy clock drawing would predict post-TAVR duration and cost of hospitalization, over and above age, education, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification score, and frailty. Methods: Form January 2018 to December 2019, 162 out of 190 individuals electing TAVR completed digital clock drawing as part of a hospital wide cognitive screening program. Separate hierarchical regressions were computed for the command and copy conditions of the CDT and assessed how a-priori selected clock drawing metrics (total time to completion, ideal digit placement difference, and hour hand distance from center; included within the same block) incrementally predicted outcome, as measured by R2 change significance values. Results: Above and beyond age, education, ASA physical status classification score, and frailty, only digitally-acquired CDT copy performance explained significant variance for length of hospital stay (9.5%) and cost of care (8.9%). Conclusions: Digital variables from clock copy condition provided predictive value over common demographic and comorbidity variables. We hypothesize this is due to the sensitivity of the copy condition to executive dysfunction, as has been shown in previous studies for subtypes of cognitive impairment. Individuals undergoing TAVR procedures are often frail and executively compromised due to their cerebrovascular disease. We encourage additional research on the value of digitally-acquired clock drawing within different surgery types. Type of cognitive impairment and the value of digitally-acquired CDT command and copy parameters in other surgeries remain unknown. ,Margaret Ellenora Wiggins ... Catherine C. Price [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [36] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 126 [Create_Time] => 2021-04-27 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202111/20211118064308.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100137/100137.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100137/100137.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100137/100137_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Hepatic manifestations of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome [Abstract] => Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a potentially life-threatening drug reaction, which can affect multiple organs. Patients with DRESS syndrome and hepatic manifestations may present alterations ranging from mild hepatitis to acute liver failure. The diagnosis might be difficult, and the management of these patients is challenging. This report analyzes a series of five cases reporting the clinical presentation, which ranged from acute hepatitis to liver failure, and discussed their treatment. [AbstractComplete] =>

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a potentially life-threatening drug reaction, which can affect multiple organs. Patients with DRESS syndrome and hepatic manifestations may present alterations ranging from mild hepatitis to acute liver failure. The diagnosis might be difficult, and the management of these patients is challenging. This report analyzes a series of five cases reporting the clinical presentation, which ranged from acute hepatitis to liver failure, and discussed their treatment.

[Names] => Maria Gabriela Delgado ... Jean François Dufour [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00037 [Published] => April 30, 2021 [Viewed] => 3284 [Downloaded] => 60 [Subject] => Case Report [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00037 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 39 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:122–134 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, liver manifestations, diagnosis, treatment [DetailTitle] => Exploring Chronic Liver Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/39# [Id] => 100137 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100137/8436b05681fdf40cb1fb3c4241efa8f5.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100137/5559a075149e2a3c3c9a97595c1d8cb5.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Delgado MG, Casu S, Montani M, Brunner F, Semmo N, Berzigotti A, et al. Hepatic manifestations of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome. Explor Med. 2021;2:122–34. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00037 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Maria GabrielaDelgado,Jean FrançoisDufour, [CEmail] => mariagabriela.delgado@insel.ch,jean-Francois.Dufour@insel.ch, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-20 03:42:57 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-20 03:42:57 [KeysWordContens] => Hepatic manifestations of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome, Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, liver manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a potentially life-threatening drug reaction, which can affect multiple organs. Patients with DRESS syndrome and hepatic manifestations may present alterations ranging from mild hepatitis to acute liver failure. The diagnosis might be difficult, and the management of these patients is challenging. This report analyzes a series of five cases reporting the clinical presentation, which ranged from acute hepatitis to liver failure, and discussed their treatment. ,Maria Gabriela Delgado ... Jean François Dufour [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [37] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 127 [Create_Time] => 2021-04-27 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202104/20210430081344.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100138/100138.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100138/100138.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100138/100138_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Angiotensin-(3-4) modulates the overweight- and undernutrition-induced ACE2 downregulation in renal proximal tubule cells: implications for COVID-19? [Abstract] => Aim: The renal lesions–including severe acute kidney injury–are severe outcomes in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections. There are no reports regarding the influence of the nutritional status on the severity and progress of these lesions. Ageing is also an important risk factor. Methods: In the present study we compared the influence of overweight and undernutrition on the levels of renal angiotensin converting enzymes 1 and 2 (ACE and ACE2), which were evaluated by Western blotting. Since the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been implicated in the progress of kidney failure during coronavirus disease 2019, the influence of Angiotensin-(3-4) [Ang-(3-4)] was investigated. Ang-(3-4) is the shortest angiotensin-derived peptide, which is considered the physiological antagonist of several Ang II effects. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

The renal lesions–including severe acute kidney injury–are severe outcomes in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections. There are no reports regarding the influence of the nutritional status on the severity and progress of these lesions. Ageing is also an important risk factor.

Methods:

In the present study we compared the influence of overweight and undernutrition on the levels of renal angiotensin converting enzymes 1 and 2 (ACE and ACE2), which were evaluated by Western blotting. Since the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been implicated in the progress of kidney failure during coronavirus disease 2019, the influence of Angiotensin-(3-4) [Ang-(3-4)] was investigated. Ang-(3-4) is the shortest angiotensin-derived peptide, which is considered the physiological antagonist of several Ang II effects.

Results:

Both overweight and undernutrition downregulate the levels of ACE2 without influence on the levels of ACE in proximal tubules from kidney rats. Administration of Ang-(3-4) upregulates ACE2 to levels above the control in overweight but not in undernourished rats.

Conclusions:

Chronic undernourishment and overnourishment conditions play a central role in the renal ACE/ACE2 balance, and that the role of RAAS is also different in overweight and undernutrition.

[Names] => Rafael Luzes ... Adalberto Vieyra [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00038 [Published] => April 30, 2021 [Viewed] => 2064 [Downloaded] => 103 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00038 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 37 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:135–145 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Angiotensin-(3-4), angiotensin converting enzymes 2, COVID-19, overweight and undernutrition, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system [DetailTitle] => Angiotensins—A Century of Progress [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/37 [Id] => 100138 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100138/78f2b77a0e2c5082fdfad9626fa90299.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100138/583ab4f1749d0ca86fec66129b9a372b.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Luzes R, Muzi-Filho H, Pereira-Acácio A, Crisóstomo T, Vieyra A. Angiotensin-(3-4) modulates the overweight- and undernutrition-induced ACE2 downregulation in renal proximal tubule cells: implications for COVID-19? Explor Med. 2021;2:135–45. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00038 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => AdalbertoVieyra, [CEmail] => avieyra@biof.ufrj.br, [Ris_Time] => 2023-02-10 09:21:22 [Bib_Time] => 2023-02-10 09:21:22 [KeysWordContens] => Angiotensin-(3-4) modulates the overweight- and undernutrition-induced ACE2 downregulation in renal proximal tubule cells: implications for COVID-19?, Angiotensin-(3-4), angiotensin converting enzymes 2, COVID-19, overweight and undernutrition, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, Aim: The renal lesions–including severe acute kidney injury–are severe outcomes in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections. There are no reports regarding the influence of the nutritional status on the severity and progress of these lesions. Ageing is also an important risk factor. Methods: In the present study we compared the influence of overweight and undernutrition on the levels of renal angiotensin converting enzymes 1 and 2 (ACE and ACE2), which were evaluated by Western blotting. Since the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been implicated in the progress of kidney failure during coronavirus disease 2019, the influence of Angiotensin-(3-4) [Ang-(3-4)] was investigated. Ang-(3-4) is the shortest angiotensin-derived peptide, which is considered the physiological antagonist of several Ang II effects. Results: Both overweight and undernutrition downregulate the levels of ACE2 without influence on the levels of ACE in proximal tubules from kidney rats. Administration of Ang-(3-4) upregulates ACE2 to levels above the control in overweight but not in undernourished rats. Conclusions: Chronic undernourishment and overnourishment conditions play a central role in the renal ACE/ACE2 balance, and that the role of RAAS is also different in overweight and undernutrition. ,Rafael Luzes ... Adalberto Vieyra [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [38] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 129 [Create_Time] => 2021-04-30 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202104/20210430083709.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100139/100139.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100139/100139.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100139/100139_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => AS1411-functionalized delivery nanosystems for targeted cancer therapy [Abstract] => Nucleolin (NCL) is a multifunctional nucleolar phosphoprotein harboring critical roles in cells such as cell proliferation, survival, and growth. The dysregulation and overexpression of NCL are related to various pathologic and oncological indications. These characteristics of NCL make it an ideal target for the treatment of various cancers. AS1411 is a synthetic quadruplex-forming nuclease-resistant DNA oligonucleotide aptamer which shows a considerably high affinity for NCL, therefore, being capable of inducing growth inhibition in a variety of tumor cells. [AbstractComplete] =>

Nucleolin (NCL) is a multifunctional nucleolar phosphoprotein harboring critical roles in cells such as cell proliferation, survival, and growth. The dysregulation and overexpression of NCL are related to various pathologic and oncological indications. These characteristics of NCL make it an ideal target for the treatment of various cancers. AS1411 is a synthetic quadruplex-forming nuclease-resistant DNA oligonucleotide aptamer which shows a considerably high affinity for NCL, therefore, being capable of inducing growth inhibition in a variety of tumor cells. The high affinity and specificity of AS1411 towards NCL make it a suitable targeting tool, which can be used for the functionalization of therapeutic payload-delivery nanosystems to selectively target tumor cells. This review explores the advances in NCL-targeting cancer therapy through AS1411-functionalized delivery nanosystems for the selective delivery of a broad spectrum of therapeutic agents.

[Names] => Pooria Safarzadeh Kozani ... Mohammad Tariq Malik [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00039 [Published] => April 30, 2021 [Viewed] => 2587 [Downloaded] => 70 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00039 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 36 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:146–166 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Nucleolin, AS1411, aptamer, cancer, nanoparticles, drug delivery [DetailTitle] => Nanomedicine and Cancer Immunotherapy [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/36 [Id] => 100139 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100139/1963ac62095a0d863703625e38c47bc6.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100139/aa1ebf4566fa4ea27034c88b60c4b2c6.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 2 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Safarzadeh Kozani P, Safarzadeh Kozani P, Malik MT. AS1411-functionalized delivery nanosystems for targeted cancer therapy. Explor Med. 2021;2:146–66. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00039 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Mohammad TariqMalik, [CEmail] => tariq.malik@louisville.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-20 06:41:19 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-20 06:41:19 [KeysWordContens] => AS1411-functionalized delivery nanosystems for targeted cancer therapy, Nucleolin, AS1411, aptamer, cancer, nanoparticles, drug delivery, Nucleolin (NCL) is a multifunctional nucleolar phosphoprotein harboring critical roles in cells such as cell proliferation, survival, and growth. The dysregulation and overexpression of NCL are related to various pathologic and oncological indications. These characteristics of NCL make it an ideal target for the treatment of various cancers. AS1411 is a synthetic quadruplex-forming nuclease-resistant DNA oligonucleotide aptamer which shows a considerably high affinity for NCL, therefore, being capable of inducing growth inhibition in a variety of tumor cells. The high affinity and specificity of AS1411 towards NCL make it a suitable targeting tool, which can be used for the functionalization of therapeutic payload-delivery nanosystems to selectively target tumor cells. This review explores the advances in NCL-targeting cancer therapy through AS1411-functionalized delivery nanosystems for the selective delivery of a broad spectrum of therapeutic agents. ,Pooria Safarzadeh Kozani ... Mohammad Tariq Malik [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [39] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 130 [Create_Time] => 2021-04-30 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202104/20210430082441.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100140/100140.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100140/100140.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100140/100140_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Nanomedicine in cancer therapy: promises and hurdles of polymeric nanoparticles [Abstract] => The limitations of current cancer treatments have stimulated the application of nanotechnology to develop more effective and safer cancer therapies. Remarkable progress has been made in the development of nanomedicine to overcome issues associated with conventional cancer treatment, including low drug solubility, insufficient targeting, and drug resistance. [AbstractComplete] =>

The limitations of current cancer treatments have stimulated the application of nanotechnology to develop more effective and safer cancer therapies. Remarkable progress has been made in the development of nanomedicine to overcome issues associated with conventional cancer treatment, including low drug solubility, insufficient targeting, and drug resistance. The modulation of nanoparticles allows the improvement of drug pharmacokinetics, leading to improved targeting and reduced side effects. In addition, nanoparticles can be conjugated to ligands that specifically target cancer cells. Furthermore, strategies that exploit tumor characteristics to locally trigger drug release have shown to increase targeted drug delivery. However, although some clinical successes have been achieved, most nanomedicines fail to reach the clinic. Factors that hinder clinical translation vary from the complexity of design, incomplete understanding of biological mechanisms, and high demands during the manufacturing process. Clinical translation might be improved by combining knowledge from different disciplines such as cell biology, chemistry, and tumor pathophysiology. An increased understanding on how nanoparticle modifications affect biological systems is pivotal to improve design, eventually aiding development of more effective nanomedicines. This review summarizes the key successes that have been made in nanomedicine, including improved drug delivery and release by polymeric nanoparticles as well as the introduction of strategies that overcome drug resistance. In addition, the application of nanomedicine in immunotherapy is discussed, and several remaining challenges addressed.

[Names] => Carmen Paus ... Alessandra Cambi [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00040 [Published] => April 30, 2021 [Viewed] => 2353 [Downloaded] => 69 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00040 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 36 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:167–185 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Nanomedicine, cancer therapy, drug delivery, targeting, controlled drug release, clinical translation [DetailTitle] => Nanomedicine and Cancer Immunotherapy [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/36 [Id] => 100140 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100140/83e215a9f601f34c86da0e2c2ae0453c.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100140/bb24c943e151e55e8a7cffa6b410d620.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 4 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Paus C, van der Voort R, Cambi A. Nanomedicine in cancer therapy: promises and hurdles of polymeric nanoparticles. Explor Med. 2021;2:167–85. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00040 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => AlessandraCambi, [CEmail] => alessandra.cambi@radboudumc.nl, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-20 06:42:17 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-20 06:42:17 [KeysWordContens] => Nanomedicine in cancer therapy: promises and hurdles of polymeric nanoparticles, Nanomedicine, cancer therapy, drug delivery, targeting, controlled drug release, clinical translation, The limitations of current cancer treatments have stimulated the application of nanotechnology to develop more effective and safer cancer therapies. Remarkable progress has been made in the development of nanomedicine to overcome issues associated with conventional cancer treatment, including low drug solubility, insufficient targeting, and drug resistance. The modulation of nanoparticles allows the improvement of drug pharmacokinetics, leading to improved targeting and reduced side effects. In addition, nanoparticles can be conjugated to ligands that specifically target cancer cells. Furthermore, strategies that exploit tumor characteristics to locally trigger drug release have shown to increase targeted drug delivery. However, although some clinical successes have been achieved, most nanomedicines fail to reach the clinic. Factors that hinder clinical translation vary from the complexity of design, incomplete understanding of biological mechanisms, and high demands during the manufacturing process. Clinical translation might be improved by combining knowledge from different disciplines such as cell biology, chemistry, and tumor pathophysiology. An increased understanding on how nanoparticle modifications affect biological systems is pivotal to improve design, eventually aiding development of more effective nanomedicines. This review summarizes the key successes that have been made in nanomedicine, including improved drug delivery and release by polymeric nanoparticles as well as the introduction of strategies that overcome drug resistance. In addition, the application of nanomedicine in immunotherapy is discussed, and several remaining challenges addressed. ,Carmen Paus ... Alessandra Cambi [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [40] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 132 [Create_Time] => 2021-05-20 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202201/20220117053952.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100141/100141.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100141/100141.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100141/100141_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Vascular aging, the vascular cytoskeleton and aortic stiffness [Abstract] => Vascular aging, aortic stiffness and hypertension are mechanistically interrelated. The perspective presented here will focus mainly on the molecular mechanisms of age-associated increases in the stiffness of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC). This review will highlight the mechanisms by which the VSMC contributes to disorders of vascular aging. Distinct functional sub-components of the vascular cell and the molecular mechanisms of the protein-protein interactions, signaling mechanisms and intracellular trafficking processes in the setting of the aging aorta will be detailed. [AbstractComplete] =>

Vascular aging, aortic stiffness and hypertension are mechanistically interrelated. The perspective presented here will focus mainly on the molecular mechanisms of age-associated increases in the stiffness of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC). This review will highlight the mechanisms by which the VSMC contributes to disorders of vascular aging. Distinct functional sub-components of the vascular cell and the molecular mechanisms of the protein-protein interactions, signaling mechanisms and intracellular trafficking processes in the setting of the aging aorta will be detailed.

[Names] => Lova Prasadareddy Kajuluri ... Kathleen G Morgan [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00041 [Published] => June 30, 2021 [Viewed] => 1906 [Downloaded] => 67 [Subject] => Perspective [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00041 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 38 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:186–197 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Vascular aging, cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, aortic stiffness [DetailTitle] => Exploring Aortic Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/38 [Id] => 100141 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100141/a903d91f21db3c8ce5fed4583a344e69.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100141/5d01b07d0b6dea683f64c1cf6201cabc.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 3 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Kajuluri LP, Singh K, Morgan KG. Vascular aging, the vascular cytoskeleton and aortic stiffness. Explor Med. 2021;2:186–97. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00041 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Kathleen GMorgan, [CEmail] => kmorgan@bu.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-20 06:43:17 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-20 06:43:17 [KeysWordContens] => Vascular aging, the vascular cytoskeleton and aortic stiffness, Vascular aging, cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, aortic stiffness, Vascular aging, aortic stiffness and hypertension are mechanistically interrelated. The perspective presented here will focus mainly on the molecular mechanisms of age-associated increases in the stiffness of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC). This review will highlight the mechanisms by which the VSMC contributes to disorders of vascular aging. Distinct functional sub-components of the vascular cell and the molecular mechanisms of the protein-protein interactions, signaling mechanisms and intracellular trafficking processes in the setting of the aging aorta will be detailed. ,Lova Prasadareddy Kajuluri ... Kathleen G Morgan [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [41] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 144 [Create_Time] => 2021-07-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202306/20230619085426.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100142/100142.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100142/100142.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100142/100142_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Wave propagation and reflection in the aorta and implications of the aortic Windkessel [Abstract] => Some have said that it is inappropriate and perhaps impossible to consider wave and Windkessel phenomena simultaneously. For 50 years, arterial hemodynamics has been dominated by the frequency-domain “impedance analysis” in which it was assumed that all variations in aortic pressure and flow were caused only by forward- and backward-going waves. [AbstractComplete] =>

Some have said that it is inappropriate and perhaps impossible to consider wave and Windkessel phenomena simultaneously. For 50 years, arterial hemodynamics has been dominated by the frequency-domain “impedance analysis” in which it was assumed that all variations in aortic pressure and flow were caused only by forward- and backward-going waves. This paper is a review of the results of incorporating the effects of Frank’s Windkessel. We have taken the view that measured aortic pressure is the sum of a Windkessel component and forward-going and backward-going wave components. When the Windkessel component is initially subtracted out, the pattern of propagation and reflection of wave components becomes clear. Furthermore, this analysis obviates the implications of impedance analysis that have not been explained satisfactorily.

[Names] => John V. Tyberg [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00042 [Published] => June 30, 2021 [Viewed] => 1403 [Downloaded] => 51 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00042 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 38 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:198–207 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Hemodynamics, aorta, waves, Windkessel [DetailTitle] => Exploring Aortic Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/38 [Id] => 100142 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100142/98102dca8099b25279186b2aed3b326d.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100142/fa798165057763f2b83b424540b3d079.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Tyberg JV. Wave propagation and reflection in the aorta and implications of the aortic windkessel. Explor Med. 2021;2:198–207. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00042 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => John V.Tyberg, [CEmail] => jtyberg@ucalgary.ca, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-20 06:44:12 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-20 06:44:12 [KeysWordContens] => Wave propagation and reflection in the aorta and implications of the aortic Windkessel, Hemodynamics, aorta, waves, Windkessel, Some have said that it is inappropriate and perhaps impossible to consider wave and Windkessel phenomena simultaneously. For 50 years, arterial hemodynamics has been dominated by the frequency-domain “impedance analysis” in which it was assumed that all variations in aortic pressure and flow were caused only by forward- and backward-going waves. This paper is a review of the results of incorporating the effects of Frank’s Windkessel. We have taken the view that measured aortic pressure is the sum of a Windkessel component and forward-going and backward-going wave components. When the Windkessel component is initially subtracted out, the pattern of propagation and reflection of wave components becomes clear. Furthermore, this analysis obviates the implications of impedance analysis that have not been explained satisfactorily. ,John V. Tyberg [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [42] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 146 [Create_Time] => 2021-07-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202110/20211027031046.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100143/100143.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100143/100143.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100143/100143_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Emerging nanomaterials for cancer immunotherapy [Abstract] => Immunotherapy is a unique approach to treat cancer that targets tumours besides triggering the immune cells. It attempts to harness the supremacy and specificity of immune cells for the regression of malignancy. The key strategy of immunotherapy is that it boosts the natural defence and manipulates the immune system at both cellular and molecular levels. [AbstractComplete] =>

Immunotherapy is a unique approach to treat cancer that targets tumours besides triggering the immune cells. It attempts to harness the supremacy and specificity of immune cells for the regression of malignancy. The key strategy of immunotherapy is that it boosts the natural defence and manipulates the immune system at both cellular and molecular levels. Long-lasting anti-tumour response, reduced metastasis, and recurrence can be achieved with immunotherapy than conventional treatments. For example, targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) by monoclonal antibody is reported as an effective strategy against cancer progression in vivo and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T-cells are known to express a stronger anti-tumour activity. CTLA4 and CAR are, therefore, beneficial in cancer immunotherapy; however, in clinical settings, both are expensive and cause adverse side effects. Nanomaterials have augmented advantages in cancer immunotherapy, besides their utility in effective delivery and diagnostics. In particular, materials based on lipids, polymers, and metals have been sought-after for delivery technologies. Moreover, the surface of nanomaterials can be engineered using ligands, antigens, and antibodies to target immune cells. In this sense, checkpoint inhibitors, cytokines, agonistic antibodies, surface receptors, and engineered T-cells are promising to regulate the immune system against tumours. Therefore, emerging nanomaterials that can be used for the treatment of cancer is the prime focus of this review. The correlation of mode of administration and biodistribution of various nanomaterials is reviewed here. Besides, the acute and chronic side effects and outcome of clinical trials in the context of cancer immunotherapy are discussed.

[Names] => Sureshbabu Ram Kumar Pandian ... Krishnan Sundar [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00043 [Published] => June 30, 2021 [Viewed] => 1969 [Downloaded] => 73 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00043 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 36 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:208–231 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Nanomaterials, cancer, immunotherapy, receptors, antigen [DetailTitle] => Nanomedicine and Cancer Immunotherapy [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/36# [Id] => 100143 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100143/95aa0d8de65c30875f0b8c8fc2dc2815.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100143/2e832eb4dea48f8c88bc5f656c05a3a3.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Ram Kumar Pandian S, Rencilin CF, Sundar K. Emerging nanomaterials for cancer immunotherapy. Explor Med. 2021;2:208–31. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00043 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => KrishnanSundar, [CEmail] => sundarkr@klu.ac.in, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-20 06:57:11 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-20 06:45:06 [KeysWordContens] => Emerging nanomaterials for cancer immunotherapy, Nanomaterials, cancer, immunotherapy, receptors, antigen, Immunotherapy is a unique approach to treat cancer that targets tumours besides triggering the immune cells. It attempts to harness the supremacy and specificity of immune cells for the regression of malignancy. The key strategy of immunotherapy is that it boosts the natural defence and manipulates the immune system at both cellular and molecular levels. Long-lasting anti-tumour response, reduced metastasis, and recurrence can be achieved with immunotherapy than conventional treatments. For example, targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) by monoclonal antibody is reported as an effective strategy against cancer progression in vivo and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T-cells are known to express a stronger anti-tumour activity. CTLA4 and CAR are, therefore, beneficial in cancer immunotherapy; however, in clinical settings, both are expensive and cause adverse side effects. Nanomaterials have augmented advantages in cancer immunotherapy, besides their utility in effective delivery and diagnostics. In particular, materials based on lipids, polymers, and metals have been sought-after for delivery technologies. Moreover, the surface of nanomaterials can be engineered using ligands, antigens, and antibodies to target immune cells. In this sense, checkpoint inhibitors, cytokines, agonistic antibodies, surface receptors, and engineered T-cells are promising to regulate the immune system against tumours. Therefore, emerging nanomaterials that can be used for the treatment of cancer is the prime focus of this review. The correlation of mode of administration and biodistribution of various nanomaterials is reviewed here. Besides, the acute and chronic side effects and outcome of clinical trials in the context of cancer immunotherapy are discussed. ,Sureshbabu Ram Kumar Pandian ... Krishnan Sundar [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [43] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 147 [Create_Time] => 2021-07-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230303055816.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100144/100144.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100144/100144.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100144/100144_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Neuropsychological test validation of speech markers of cognitive impairment in the Framingham Cognitive Aging Cohort [Abstract] => Aim: Although clinicians primarily diagnose dementia based on a combination of metrics such as medical history and formal neuropsychological tests, recent work using linguistic analysis of narrative speech to identify dementia has shown promising results. We aim to build upon research by Thomas JA & Burkardt HA et al. (J Alzheimers Dis. 2020;76:905–2) and Alhanai et al. (arXiv:1710.07551v1. 2020) on the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) Cognitive Aging Cohort by 1) demonstrating the predictive capability of linguistic analysis in differentiating cognitively normal from cognitively impaired participants and 2) comparing the performance of the original linguistic features with the performance of expanded features. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Although clinicians primarily diagnose dementia based on a combination of metrics such as medical history and formal neuropsychological tests, recent work using linguistic analysis of narrative speech to identify dementia has shown promising results. We aim to build upon research by Thomas JA & Burkardt HA et al. (J Alzheimers Dis. 2020;76:905–2) and Alhanai et al. (arXiv:1710.07551v1. 2020) on the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) Cognitive Aging Cohort by 1) demonstrating the predictive capability of linguistic analysis in differentiating cognitively normal from cognitively impaired participants and 2) comparing the performance of the original linguistic features with the performance of expanded features.

Methods:

Data were derived from a subset of the FHS Cognitive Aging Cohort. We analyzed a sub-selection of 98 participants, which provided 127 unique audio files and clinical observations (n = 127, female = 47%, cognitively impaired = 43%). We built on previous work which extracted original linguistic features from transcribed audio files by extracting expanded features. We used both feature sets to train logistic regression classifiers to distinguish cognitively normal from cognitively impaired participants and compared the predictive power of the original and expanded linguistic feature sets, and participants’ Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores.

Results:

Based on the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC) of the models, both the original (AUC = 0.882) and expanded (AUC = 0.883) feature sets outperformed MMSE (AUC = 0.870) in classifying cognitively impaired and cognitively normal participants. Although the original and expanded feature sets had similar AUC, the expanded feature set showed better positive and negative predictive value [expanded: positive predictive value (PPV) = 0.738, negative predictive value (NPV) = 0.889; original: PPV = 0.701, NPV = 0.869].

Conclusions:

Linguistic analysis has been shown to be a potentially powerful tool for clinical use in classifying cognitive impairment. This study expands the work of several others, but further studies into the plausibility of speech analysis in clinical use are vital to ensure the validity of speech analysis for clinical classification of cognitive impairment.

[Names] => Larry Zhang ... Reza Hosseini Ghomi [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00044 [Published] => June 30, 2021 [Viewed] => 2016 [Downloaded] => 64 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00044 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 25 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:232–252 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Digital biomarkers, cognitive impairment, dementia, automated speech analysis, neurocognitive testing [DetailTitle] => Digital Biomarkers: The New Frontier for Medicine and Research [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/25 [Id] => 100144 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100144/45a8a18f97974d4395d929b49f9f3eb6.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100144/22e07ebf1e58dfd7eb2585506d8b76b1.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 3 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Zhang L, Ngo A, Thomas JA, Burkhardt HA, Parsey CM, Au R, et al. Neuropsychological test validation of speech markers of cognitive impairment in the Framingham Cognitive Aging Cohort. Explor Med. 2021;2:232–52. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00044 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Reza HosseiniGhomi, [CEmail] => rezahg@uw.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-20 06:46:24 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-20 06:46:24 [KeysWordContens] => Neuropsychological test validation of speech markers of cognitive impairment in the Framingham Cognitive Aging Cohort, Digital biomarkers, cognitive impairment, dementia, automated speech analysis, neurocognitive testing, Aim: Although clinicians primarily diagnose dementia based on a combination of metrics such as medical history and formal neuropsychological tests, recent work using linguistic analysis of narrative speech to identify dementia has shown promising results. We aim to build upon research by Thomas JA & Burkardt HA et al. (J Alzheimers Dis. 2020;76:905–2) and Alhanai et al. (arXiv:1710.07551v1. 2020) on the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) Cognitive Aging Cohort by 1) demonstrating the predictive capability of linguistic analysis in differentiating cognitively normal from cognitively impaired participants and 2) comparing the performance of the original linguistic features with the performance of expanded features. Methods: Data were derived from a subset of the FHS Cognitive Aging Cohort. We analyzed a sub-selection of 98 participants, which provided 127 unique audio files and clinical observations (n = 127, female = 47%, cognitively impaired = 43%). We built on previous work which extracted original linguistic features from transcribed audio files by extracting expanded features. We used both feature sets to train logistic regression classifiers to distinguish cognitively normal from cognitively impaired participants and compared the predictive power of the original and expanded linguistic feature sets, and participants’ Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores. Results: Based on the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC) of the models, both the original (AUC = 0.882) and expanded (AUC = 0.883) feature sets outperformed MMSE (AUC = 0.870) in classifying cognitively impaired and cognitively normal participants. Although the original and expanded feature sets had similar AUC, the expanded feature set showed better positive and negative predictive value [expanded: positive predictive value (PPV) = 0.738, negative predictive value (NPV) = 0.889; original: PPV = 0.701, NPV = 0.869]. Conclusions: Linguistic analysis has been shown to be a potentially powerful tool for clinical use in classifying cognitive impairment. This study expands the work of several others, but further studies into the plausibility of speech analysis in clinical use are vital to ensure the validity of speech analysis for clinical classification of cognitive impairment. ,Larry Zhang ... Reza Hosseini Ghomi [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [44] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 148 [Create_Time] => 2021-07-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202305/20230520022817.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100145/100145.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100145/100145.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100145/100145_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Digital sleep measures and white matter health in the Framingham Heart Study [Abstract] => Aim: Impaired sleep quality and sleep oxygenation are common sleep pathologies. This study assessed the impact of these abnormalities on white matter (WM) integrity in an epidemiological cohort. Methods: The target population was the Framingham Heart Study Generation-2/Omni-1 Cohorts. Magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion tensor imaging) was used to assess WM integrity. Wearable digital devices were used to assess sleep quality: the (M1-SleepImageTM system) and the Nonin WristOx for nocturnal oxygenation. The M1 device collects trunk actigraphy and the electrocardiogram (ECG); sleep stability indices were computed using cardiopulmonary coupling using the ECG. Two nights of recording were averaged. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Impaired sleep quality and sleep oxygenation are common sleep pathologies. This study assessed the impact of these abnormalities on white matter (WM) integrity in an epidemiological cohort.

Methods:

The target population was the Framingham Heart Study Generation-2/Omni-1 Cohorts. Magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion tensor imaging) was used to assess WM integrity. Wearable digital devices were used to assess sleep quality: the (M1-SleepImageTM system) and the Nonin WristOx for nocturnal oxygenation. The M1 device collects trunk actigraphy and the electrocardiogram (ECG); sleep stability indices were computed using cardiopulmonary coupling using the ECG. Two nights of recording were averaged.

Results:

Stable sleep was positively associated with WM health. Actigraphic periods of wake during the sleep period were associated with increased mean diffusivity. One marker of sleep fragmentation which covaries with respiratory chemoreflex activation was associated with reduced fractional anisotropy and increased mean diffusivity. Both oxygen desaturation index and oxygen saturation time under 90% were associated with pathological directions of diffusion tensor imaging signals. Gender differences were noted across most variables, with female sex showing the larger and significant impact.

Conclusions:

Sleep quality assessed by a novel digital analysis and sleep hypoxia was associated with WM injury, especially in women.

[Names] => Robert Joseph Thomas ... Rhoda Au [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00045 [Published] => June 30, 2021 [Viewed] => 1972 [Downloaded] => 49 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00045 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 25 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:253–267 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Sleep, cardiopulmonary coupling, hypoxia, white matter, diffusion tensor imaging [DetailTitle] => Digital Biomarkers: The New Frontier for Medicine and Research [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/25 [Id] => 100145 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100145/570bdfedae7142dd52a116794f5f4b17.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100145/03287e7a43f8cafeb106c898f36fbbdb.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 6 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Thomas RJ, Kim H, Maillard P, DeCarli CS, Heckman EJ, Karjadi C, et al. Digital sleep measures and white matter health in the Framingham Heart Study. Explor Med. 2021;2:253–67. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00045 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Robert JosephThomas, [CEmail] => rthomas1@bidmc.harvard.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-20 06:47:38 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-20 06:47:38 [KeysWordContens] => Digital sleep measures and white matter health in the Framingham Heart Study, Sleep, cardiopulmonary coupling, hypoxia, white matter, diffusion tensor imaging, Aim: Impaired sleep quality and sleep oxygenation are common sleep pathologies. This study assessed the impact of these abnormalities on white matter (WM) integrity in an epidemiological cohort. Methods: The target population was the Framingham Heart Study Generation-2/Omni-1 Cohorts. Magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion tensor imaging) was used to assess WM integrity. Wearable digital devices were used to assess sleep quality: the (M1-SleepImageTM system) and the Nonin WristOx for nocturnal oxygenation. The M1 device collects trunk actigraphy and the electrocardiogram (ECG); sleep stability indices were computed using cardiopulmonary coupling using the ECG. Two nights of recording were averaged. Results: Stable sleep was positively associated with WM health. Actigraphic periods of wake during the sleep period were associated with increased mean diffusivity. One marker of sleep fragmentation which covaries with respiratory chemoreflex activation was associated with reduced fractional anisotropy and increased mean diffusivity. Both oxygen desaturation index and oxygen saturation time under 90% were associated with pathological directions of diffusion tensor imaging signals. Gender differences were noted across most variables, with female sex showing the larger and significant impact. Conclusions: Sleep quality assessed by a novel digital analysis and sleep hypoxia was associated with WM injury, especially in women. ,Robert Joseph Thomas ... Rhoda Au [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [45] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 149 [Create_Time] => 2021-07-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202107/20210701093717.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100146/100146.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100146/100146.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100146/100146_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Angiotensin-(1-7) and Mas receptor in the brain [Abstract] => The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key regulator of blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis. Besides its importance as regulator of the cardiovascular function, the RAS has also been associated to the modulation of higher brain functions, including cognition, memory, depression and anxiety. For many years, angiotensin II (Ang II) has been considered the major bioactive component of the RAS. However, the existence of many other biologically active RAS components has currently been recognized, with similar, opposite, or distinct effects to those exerted by Ang II. [AbstractComplete] =>

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key regulator of blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis. Besides its importance as regulator of the cardiovascular function, the RAS has also been associated to the modulation of higher brain functions, including cognition, memory, depression and anxiety. For many years, angiotensin II (Ang II) has been considered the major bioactive component of the RAS. However, the existence of many other biologically active RAS components has currently been recognized, with similar, opposite, or distinct effects to those exerted by Ang II. Today, it is considered that the RAS is primarily constituted by two opposite arms. The pressor arm is composed by Ang II and the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor (AT1R), which mediates the vasoconstrictor, proliferative, hypertensive, oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects of the RAS. The depressor arm is mainly composed by Ang-(1-7), its Mas receptor (MasR) which mediates the depressor, vasodilatory, antiproliferative, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Ang-(1-7) and the AT2 receptor (AT2R), which opposes to the effects mediated by AT1R activation. Central Ang-(1-7) is implicated in the control of the cardiovascular function, thus participating in the regulation of blood pressure. Ang-(1-7) also exerts neuroprotective actions through MasR activation by opposing to the harmful effects of the Ang II/AT1R axis. This review is focused on the expression and regulation of the Ang-(1-7)/MasR axis in the brain, its main neuroprotective effects and the evidence regarding its involvement in the pathophysiology of several diseases at cardiovascular and neurological level.

[Names] => Natalia L. Rukavina Mikusic ... Mariela M. Gironacci [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00046 [Published] => June 30, 2021 [Viewed] => 3814 [Downloaded] => 204 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00046 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 37 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:268–293 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Angiotensin-(1-7), Mas receptor, brain, neuroprotection [DetailTitle] => Angiotensins—A Century of Progress [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/37 [Id] => 100146 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100146/30de618da42512cf5aa121f036a906c3.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100146/35d4faf67e430bfb2b91f99641756fa4.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 11 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Rukavina Mikusic NL, Pineda AM, Gironacci MM. Angiotensin-(1-7) and Mas receptor in the brain. Explor Med. 2021;2:268–93. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00046 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Natalia L.Rukavina Mikusic, [CEmail] => nlucia.rukavina@gmail.com, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-20 06:48:36 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-20 06:48:36 [KeysWordContens] => Angiotensin-(1-7) and Mas receptor in the brain, Angiotensin-(1-7), Mas receptor, brain, neuroprotection, The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key regulator of blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis. Besides its importance as regulator of the cardiovascular function, the RAS has also been associated to the modulation of higher brain functions, including cognition, memory, depression and anxiety. For many years, angiotensin II (Ang II) has been considered the major bioactive component of the RAS. However, the existence of many other biologically active RAS components has currently been recognized, with similar, opposite, or distinct effects to those exerted by Ang II. Today, it is considered that the RAS is primarily constituted by two opposite arms. The pressor arm is composed by Ang II and the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor (AT1R), which mediates the vasoconstrictor, proliferative, hypertensive, oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects of the RAS. The depressor arm is mainly composed by Ang-(1-7), its Mas receptor (MasR) which mediates the depressor, vasodilatory, antiproliferative, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Ang-(1-7) and the AT2 receptor (AT2R), which opposes to the effects mediated by AT1R activation. Central Ang-(1-7) is implicated in the control of the cardiovascular function, thus participating in the regulation of blood pressure. Ang-(1-7) also exerts neuroprotective actions through MasR activation by opposing to the harmful effects of the Ang II/AT1R axis. This review is focused on the expression and regulation of the Ang-(1-7)/MasR axis in the brain, its main neuroprotective effects and the evidence regarding its involvement in the pathophysiology of several diseases at cardiovascular and neurological level. ,Natalia L. Rukavina Mikusic ... Mariela M. Gironacci [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [46] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 150 [Create_Time] => 2021-07-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202107/20210701033022.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100147/100147.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100147/100147.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100147/100147_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Angiotensin peptides in the regulation of adrenal cortical function [Abstract] => The adrenal cortex plays a key role in the regulation of metabolism, salt and water homeostasis and sex differentiation by synthesizing glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid and androgen hormones. Evidence exists that angiotensin II regulates adrenocortical function and it has been contended that angiotensin peptides of the non-canonical branch of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) might also modulate steroidogenesis in adrenals. Thus, the aim of this review is to examine the role of the RAS, and particularly of the angiotensin peptides and their receptors, in the regulation of adrenocortical hormones with particular focus on aldosterone production. [AbstractComplete] =>

The adrenal cortex plays a key role in the regulation of metabolism, salt and water homeostasis and sex differentiation by synthesizing glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid and androgen hormones. Evidence exists that angiotensin II regulates adrenocortical function and it has been contended that angiotensin peptides of the non-canonical branch of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) might also modulate steroidogenesis in adrenals. Thus, the aim of this review is to examine the role of the RAS, and particularly of the angiotensin peptides and their receptors, in the regulation of adrenocortical hormones with particular focus on aldosterone production.

[Names] => Gian Paolo Rossi ... Teresa Maria Seccia [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00047 [Published] => June 30, 2021 [Viewed] => 2142 [Downloaded] => 116 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00047 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 37 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:294–304 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Angiotensin, peptides, regulations, adrenal, cortical, function [DetailTitle] => Angiotensins—A Century of Progress [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/37 [Id] => 100147 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100147/2c8fbe0052d418660e3e19ad9d93b33b.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100147/673d66d9a08b9d993af48dd974ce02e0.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 2 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Rossi GP, Lenzini L, Caroccia B, Rossitto G, Seccia TM. Angiotensin peptides in the regulation of adrenal cortical function. Explor Med. 2021;2:294–304. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00047 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Gian PaoloRossi, [CEmail] => gianpaolo.rossi@unipd.it, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-20 06:49:34 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-20 06:49:34 [KeysWordContens] => Angiotensin peptides in the regulation of adrenal cortical function, Angiotensin, peptides, regulations, adrenal, cortical, function, The adrenal cortex plays a key role in the regulation of metabolism, salt and water homeostasis and sex differentiation by synthesizing glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid and androgen hormones. Evidence exists that angiotensin II regulates adrenocortical function and it has been contended that angiotensin peptides of the non-canonical branch of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) might also modulate steroidogenesis in adrenals. Thus, the aim of this review is to examine the role of the RAS, and particularly of the angiotensin peptides and their receptors, in the regulation of adrenocortical hormones with particular focus on aldosterone production. ,Gian Paolo Rossi ... Teresa Maria Seccia [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [47] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 154 [Create_Time] => 2021-07-19 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202111/20211118065145.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100148/100148.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100148/100148.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100148/100148_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => An engineered mayhem: YAP/TAZ mechanosignaling and hepatocarcinogenesis in NAFLD [Abstract] => [AbstractComplete] => [Names] => Gyorgy Baffy [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00048 [Published] => August 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1522 [Downloaded] => 47 [Subject] => Commentary [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00048 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 39 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:305–310 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Mechanocrine signaling, mechanotransduction, hepatocellular carcinoma, Hippo signaling, liver regeneration [DetailTitle] => Exploring Chronic Liver Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/39 [Id] => 100148 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100148/a6342c3d2f6c9c515b599a2e6b46dfba.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100148/aadc9bdc3ad85e28fab7d541188328df.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Baffy G. An engineered mayhem: YAP/TAZ mechanosignaling and hepatocarcinogenesis in NAFLD. Explor Med. 2021;2:305–10. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00048 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => GyorgyBaffy, [CEmail] => gbaffy@bwh.harvard.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 08:41:58 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 08:45:19 [KeysWordContens] => An engineered mayhem: YAP/TAZ mechanosignaling and hepatocarcinogenesis in NAFLD, Mechanocrine signaling, mechanotransduction, hepatocellular carcinoma, Hippo signaling, liver regeneration,,Gyorgy Baffy [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [48] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 155 [Create_Time] => 2021-07-20 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202305/20230520063457.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100149/100149.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100149/100149.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100149/100149_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Sex hormones abnormalities in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: pathophysiological and clinical implications [Abstract] => Obesity and metabolic syndrome are conditions at high risk for the development of complications such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The growing prevalence of NAFLD has recently raised attention in the clinical practice, due to the worsening prognosis observed in the affected patients. Sex hormones abnormalities, commonly found in subjects suffering from obesity and metabolic syndrome, have been recently hypothesized to be directly involved in the physiopathology of obesity-related comorbidites; [AbstractComplete] =>

Obesity and metabolic syndrome are conditions at high risk for the development of complications such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The growing prevalence of NAFLD has recently raised attention in the clinical practice, due to the worsening prognosis observed in the affected patients. Sex hormones abnormalities, commonly found in subjects suffering from obesity and metabolic syndrome, have been recently hypothesized to be directly involved in the physiopathology of obesity-related comorbidites; however, their role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD remains unclear. In this review of the available literature, a summary of the knowledge about the role of sex steroids abnormalities in the risk of developing NAFLD was performed, mentioning the possible clinical implications for therapy.

[Names] => Angelo Di Vincenzo ... Marco Rossato [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00049 [Published] => August 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 2237 [Downloaded] => 71 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00049 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 22 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:311–323 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, sex hormones, testosterone, obesity, metabolism [DetailTitle] => Exploring NAFLD/NASH [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/22 [Id] => 100149 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100149/39c45d6d89471b75a445e974155e2f0c.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100149/e34fd48a5f0a30dd41545e03c727b1cc.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Di Vincenzo A, Russo L, Doroldi CG, Vettor R, Rossato M. Sex hormones abnormalities in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: pathophysiological and clinical implications. Explor Med. 2021;2:311–23. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00049 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => AngeloDi Vincenzo, [CEmail] => divincenzoang@gmail.com, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 08:46:58 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 08:46:58 [KeysWordContens] => Sex hormones abnormalities in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: pathophysiological and clinical implications, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, sex hormones, testosterone, obesity, metabolism, Obesity and metabolic syndrome are conditions at high risk for the development of complications such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The growing prevalence of NAFLD has recently raised attention in the clinical practice, due to the worsening prognosis observed in the affected patients. Sex hormones abnormalities, commonly found in subjects suffering from obesity and metabolic syndrome, have been recently hypothesized to be directly involved in the physiopathology of obesity-related comorbidites; however, their role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD remains unclear. In this review of the available literature, a summary of the knowledge about the role of sex steroids abnormalities in the risk of developing NAFLD was performed, mentioning the possible clinical implications for therapy. ,Angelo Di Vincenzo ... Marco Rossato [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [49] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 160 [Create_Time] => 2021-08-17 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230302065143.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100150/100150.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100150/100150.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100150/100150_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Central pontine myelinolysis secondary to glycemic variability in type 1 diabetes: a case report and a systematic review of the literature [Abstract] => Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a rare manifestation of osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) which involves the pons and causes significant morbidity and mortality. CPM usually occurs in the setting of rapid correction of severe chronic hyponatremia. A rare case of CPM due to hyperglycemia in a 27-year-old man with type 1 diabetes is reported. [AbstractComplete] =>

Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a rare manifestation of osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) which involves the pons and causes significant morbidity and mortality. CPM usually occurs in the setting of rapid correction of severe chronic hyponatremia. A rare case of CPM due to hyperglycemia in a 27-year-old man with type 1 diabetes is reported. During the patient’s hospitalization, his plasma glucose level showed a wide variability ranging from 38 mg/dL to 530 mg/dL; while plasma sodium level was constantly normal. At computed tomography (CT) scans, areas of hypodensity with a hyperdense ring were identified in the anterior part of the pons. At magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, pontine abnormalities compatible with CPM were observed. According to laboratory tests, we concluded that CPM resulted from rapid and wide shifts in osmolar gradient owing to variability in plasma glucose levels. While universally recognized in several clinical settings, CPM is rarely observed in diabetic patients. Our report supports the notion that hyperosmolarity per se plays a key role in the pathogenesis of CPM, which may occur independently of sodium abnormalities.

[Names] => Stefania Di Agostino ... Mauro Maurantonio [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00050 [Published] => August 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1555 [Downloaded] => 45 [Subject] => Case Report [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00050 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:324–332 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Central pontine myelinolysis, hyponatremia, hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100150 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100150/56ed399462e125fdca4e55f4f4a2c43e.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100150/98cdda0d2f7577c00cc0d5c5a9bbfeb5.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Di Agostino S, Costanzo AAC, Andreone P, Maurantonio M. Central pontine myelinolysis secondary to glycemic variability in type 1 diabetes: a case report and a systematic review of the literature. Explor Med. 2021;2:324–332. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00050 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => MauroMaurantonio, [CEmail] => maurantonio.mauro@aou.mo.it, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 08:48:59 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 08:48:59 [KeysWordContens] => Central pontine myelinolysis secondary to glycemic variability in type 1 diabetes: a case report and a systematic review of the literature, Central pontine myelinolysis, hyponatremia, hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus, Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a rare manifestation of osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) which involves the pons and causes significant morbidity and mortality. CPM usually occurs in the setting of rapid correction of severe chronic hyponatremia. A rare case of CPM due to hyperglycemia in a 27-year-old man with type 1 diabetes is reported. During the patient’s hospitalization, his plasma glucose level showed a wide variability ranging from 38 mg/dL to 530 mg/dL; while plasma sodium level was constantly normal. At computed tomography (CT) scans, areas of hypodensity with a hyperdense ring were identified in the anterior part of the pons. At magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, pontine abnormalities compatible with CPM were observed. According to laboratory tests, we concluded that CPM resulted from rapid and wide shifts in osmolar gradient owing to variability in plasma glucose levels. While universally recognized in several clinical settings, CPM is rarely observed in diabetic patients. Our report supports the notion that hyperosmolarity per se plays a key role in the pathogenesis of CPM, which may occur independently of sodium abnormalities. ,Stefania Di Agostino ... Mauro Maurantonio [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [50] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 162 [Create_Time] => 2021-08-17 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202109/20210906080458.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100151/100151.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100151/100151.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100151/100151_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Pediatric vs. adult NAFLD to MAFLD transition: a welcome but tangled path [Abstract] => The term non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) appears unfitting both in adults and in children. As obesity and metabolic syndrome play a relevant pathogenic role, an international group of adults’ liver disease experts has proposed to rename this condition metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). While this new more appropriate and useful definition has mostly been met with good reactions in adults, it may present a tangled path in pediatrics. [AbstractComplete] =>

The term non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) appears unfitting both in adults and in children. As obesity and metabolic syndrome play a relevant pathogenic role, an international group of adults’ liver disease experts has proposed to rename this condition metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). While this new more appropriate and useful definition has mostly been met with good reactions in adults, it may present a tangled path in pediatrics. Here we further stress the recommendations of the North American and the European Societies for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition that a hyperechogenic liver in a child affected by obesity or overweight with chronically elevated liver enzymes should not be assumed to have NAFLD only. Especially in those patients who are not in the classic age range or who have particularly severe laboratory anomalies, other genetic, metabolic (inborn errors of metabolism, IEM), endocrine, intestinal and hepatic pediatric-onset conditions, should in fact be excluded, particularly when response to a weight loss trial is not available. The term pediatric fatty liver disease (PeFLD) with three subtypes [1. contextual diagnosis of an IEM; 2. metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver; 3. unknown cause of fatty liver] has recently been proposed aiming to separate true MAFLD from IEM and/or the other above mentioned conditions, which may be rare when considered individually but represent a large group when considered collectively. Although the cost-effectiveness ratio of this attitude is still indeterminate, it is likely that the advantage of the early identification of a specifically treatable pediatric-onset liver disease associated to/mimicking MAFLD would be rewarding.

[Names] => Angelo Colucci ... Claudia Mandato [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00051 [Published] => August 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1899 [Downloaded] => 80 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00051 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 22 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:333–342 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver disease, children, inborn errors of metabolism, pediatric fatty liver disease [DetailTitle] => Exploring NAFLD/NASH [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/22 [Id] => 100151 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100151/a6a735745d10a85d31af9c03a4d89377.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100151/8a48be03ae61c543894f33f5f1c090cf.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 2 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Colucci A, Rocco MC, De Anseris AGE, Nazzaro L, Vajro P, Mandato C. Pediatric vs. adult NAFLD to MAFLD transition: a welcome but tangled path. Explor Med. 2021;2:333–42. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00051 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => PietroVajro, [CEmail] => pvajro@unisa.it, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 08:50:40 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 08:50:40 [KeysWordContens] => Pediatric vs. adult NAFLD to MAFLD transition: a welcome but tangled path, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver disease, children, inborn errors of metabolism, pediatric fatty liver disease, The term non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) appears unfitting both in adults and in children. As obesity and metabolic syndrome play a relevant pathogenic role, an international group of adults’ liver disease experts has proposed to rename this condition metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). While this new more appropriate and useful definition has mostly been met with good reactions in adults, it may present a tangled path in pediatrics. Here we further stress the recommendations of the North American and the European Societies for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition that a hyperechogenic liver in a child affected by obesity or overweight with chronically elevated liver enzymes should not be assumed to have NAFLD only. Especially in those patients who are not in the classic age range or who have particularly severe laboratory anomalies, other genetic, metabolic (inborn errors of metabolism, IEM), endocrine, intestinal and hepatic pediatric-onset conditions, should in fact be excluded, particularly when response to a weight loss trial is not available. The term pediatric fatty liver disease (PeFLD) with three subtypes [1. contextual diagnosis of an IEM; 2. metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver; 3. unknown cause of fatty liver] has recently been proposed aiming to separate true MAFLD from IEM and/or the other above mentioned conditions, which may be rare when considered individually but represent a large group when considered collectively. Although the cost-effectiveness ratio of this attitude is still indeterminate, it is likely that the advantage of the early identification of a specifically treatable pediatric-onset liver disease associated to/mimicking MAFLD would be rewarding. ,Angelo Colucci ... Claudia Mandato [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [51] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 163 [Create_Time] => 2021-08-20 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202109/20210927093241.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100152/100152.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100152/100152.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100152/100152_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Submucosal esophageal hematomas in a critically ill patient on anticoagulation [Abstract] => Submucosal esophageal hematoma is an uncommon clinical complication of anticoagulation. Current literature is scarce regarding presentation and management in acute submucosal hematomas in critically ill patients. Patients often present with retrosternal chest pain, making the diagnosis challenging due to overlap with common presentations of cardiopulmonary disorders. [AbstractComplete] =>

Submucosal esophageal hematoma is an uncommon clinical complication of anticoagulation. Current literature is scarce regarding presentation and management in acute submucosal hematomas in critically ill patients. Patients often present with retrosternal chest pain, making the diagnosis challenging due to overlap with common presentations of cardiopulmonary disorders. A high degree of suspicion is necessary in sedated patients. Several factors contribute to its etiology, and diagnosis often requires invasive techniques like endoscopy. However, management is usually supportive and aimed at its underlying cause. This is a case of a 68-year-old female who developed submucosal esophageal hematomas following anticoagulation for subarachnoid hemorrhage-related delayed neurological deficits in the intensive care unit.

[Names] => Hassam Ali, Maliha Naseer [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00052 [Published] => August 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1022 [Downloaded] => 23 [Subject] => Case Report [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00052 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:343–347 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Submucosal esophageal hematoma, anticoagulation, subarachnoid hemorrhage, delayed neurological deficits [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100152 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100152/9e02ea3b035a428d42c6004228623c30.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100152/9557e451bac10a2db8c6ca9b4da3ab90.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Ali H, Naseer M. Submucosal esophageal hematomas in a critically ill patient on anticoagulation. Explor Med. 2021;2:343–7. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00052 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => HassamAli, [CEmail] => Alih20@ecu.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 08:52:22 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 08:52:22 [KeysWordContens] => Submucosal esophageal hematomas in a critically ill patient on anticoagulation, Submucosal esophageal hematoma, anticoagulation, subarachnoid hemorrhage, delayed neurological deficits, Submucosal esophageal hematoma is an uncommon clinical complication of anticoagulation. Current literature is scarce regarding presentation and management in acute submucosal hematomas in critically ill patients. Patients often present with retrosternal chest pain, making the diagnosis challenging due to overlap with common presentations of cardiopulmonary disorders. A high degree of suspicion is necessary in sedated patients. Several factors contribute to its etiology, and diagnosis often requires invasive techniques like endoscopy. However, management is usually supportive and aimed at its underlying cause. This is a case of a 68-year-old female who developed submucosal esophageal hematomas following anticoagulation for subarachnoid hemorrhage-related delayed neurological deficits in the intensive care unit. ,Hassam Ali, Maliha Naseer [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [52] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 167 [Create_Time] => 2021-08-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202109/20210906074736.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100154/100154.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100154/100154.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100154/100154_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Role of angiotensin II in the development of subcellular remodeling in heart failure [Abstract] => The development of heart failure under various pathological conditions such as myocardial infarction (MI), hypertension and diabetes are accompanied by adverse cardiac remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Since heart function is mainly determined by coordinated activities of different subcellular organelles including sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and myofibrils for regulating the intracellular concentration of Ca2+, it has been suggested that the occurrence of heart failure is a consequence of subcellular remodeling, metabolic alterations and Ca2+-handling abnormalities in cardiomyocytes. [AbstractComplete] =>

The development of heart failure under various pathological conditions such as myocardial infarction (MI), hypertension and diabetes are accompanied by adverse cardiac remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Since heart function is mainly determined by coordinated activities of different subcellular organelles including sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and myofibrils for regulating the intracellular concentration of Ca2+, it has been suggested that the occurrence of heart failure is a consequence of subcellular remodeling, metabolic alterations and Ca2+-handling abnormalities in cardiomyocytes. Because of the elevated plasma levels of angiotensin II (ANG II) due to activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in heart failure, we have evaluated the effectiveness of treatments with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and ANG II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonists in different experimental models of heart failure. Attenuation of marked alterations in subcellular activities, protein content and gene expression were associated with improvement in cardiac function in MI-induced heart failure by treatment with enalapril (an ACE inhibitor) or losartan (an AT1R antagonist). Similar beneficial effects of ANG II blockade on subcellular remodeling and cardiac performance were also observed in failing hearts due to pressure overload, volume overload or chronic diabetes. Treatments with enalapril and losartan were seen to reduce the degree of RAS activation as well as the level of oxidative stress in failing hearts. These observations provide evidence which further substantiate to support the view that activation of RAS and high level of plasma ANG II play a critical role in inducing subcellular defects and cardiac dysfunction during the progression of heart failure.

[Names] => Sukhwinder K. Bhullar ... Naranjan S. Dhalla [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00054 [Published] => August 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1904 [Downloaded] => 52 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00054 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 37 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:352–371 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Angiotensin II, heart failure, subcellular remodeling, oxidative stress, ACE inhibitors, AT1R antagonists, cardiac function [DetailTitle] => Angiotensins—A Century of Progress [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/37 [Id] => 100154 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100154/940e62fb8f81f9177c472ea779ff571c.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100154/2f34607af0e77b4bd7438fbf0ea2e99e.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 13 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Bhullar SK, Shah AK, Dhalla NS. Role of angiotensin II in the development of subcellular remodeling in heart failure. Explor Med. 2021;2:352–71. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00054 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Naranjan S.Dhalla, [CEmail] => nsdhalla@sbrc.ca, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 08:55:30 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 08:55:30 [KeysWordContens] => Role of angiotensin II in the development of subcellular remodeling in heart failure, Angiotensin II, heart failure, subcellular remodeling, oxidative stress, ACE inhibitors, AT1R antagonists, cardiac function, The development of heart failure under various pathological conditions such as myocardial infarction (MI), hypertension and diabetes are accompanied by adverse cardiac remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Since heart function is mainly determined by coordinated activities of different subcellular organelles including sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and myofibrils for regulating the intracellular concentration of Ca2+, it has been suggested that the occurrence of heart failure is a consequence of subcellular remodeling, metabolic alterations and Ca2+-handling abnormalities in cardiomyocytes. Because of the elevated plasma levels of angiotensin II (ANG II) due to activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in heart failure, we have evaluated the effectiveness of treatments with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and ANG II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonists in different experimental models of heart failure. Attenuation of marked alterations in subcellular activities, protein content and gene expression were associated with improvement in cardiac function in MI-induced heart failure by treatment with enalapril (an ACE inhibitor) or losartan (an AT1R antagonist). Similar beneficial effects of ANG II blockade on subcellular remodeling and cardiac performance were also observed in failing hearts due to pressure overload, volume overload or chronic diabetes. Treatments with enalapril and losartan were seen to reduce the degree of RAS activation as well as the level of oxidative stress in failing hearts. These observations provide evidence which further substantiate to support the view that activation of RAS and high level of plasma ANG II play a critical role in inducing subcellular defects and cardiac dysfunction during the progression of heart failure. ,Sukhwinder K. Bhullar ... Naranjan S. Dhalla [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [53] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 168 [Create_Time] => 2021-08-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202201/20220111021405.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100155/100155.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100155/100155.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100155/100155_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => High prevalence of false positive SARS-CoV2 serology in a cohort of patients with liver autoimmune diseases [Abstract] => Aim: Monitoring the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) immunization in patients with autoimmune diseases is of particular concern to understand their response to the infection and to the vaccine. In fact, the immunological disorder and the immunosuppressive therapies could affect the serological response. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Monitoring the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) immunization in patients with autoimmune diseases is of particular concern to understand their response to the infection and to the vaccine. In fact, the immunological disorder and the immunosuppressive therapies could affect the serological response. SARS-CoV2 serological tests potentially provide this information, although they were rapidly commercialized with internal verifications. Here, we analysed the seroprevalence to SARS-CoV2 in a cohort of patients with liver autoimmune diseases.

Methods:

From May to December 2020, a cohort of patients affected by primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and PBC/AIH overlap syndrome were screened with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of nasopharyngeal swabs, rapid antigenic test and chemiluminescent serological test during routine follow-up.

Results:

The analysis of 42 patients was carried out: 18 (42.85%) PBC, 12 (28.57%) AIH and 12 (28.57%) PBC/AIH overlap syndromes. Only 2 patients (4.76%) resulted positive to the RNA, antigen and antibody detection tests, hence affected by SARS-CoV2 infection. 14 subjects out of 40 negative cases presented a positive serology for SARS-CoV2 antibodies, hence with a false positivity in the 35% of cases without infection. Notably, among these, 6 (42.86%) patients presented only immunoglobulin (Ig)M positivity, 6 (42.86%) patients presented positivity for only IgG and 2 (14.28%) patients were positive to both IgM and IgG. Notably, the presence of autoantibodies did not correlate with the serological false positivity, highlighting that there is no cross-reactivity with autoantibodies. Moreover, the presence of polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia did not interfere with the serological test as its prevalence is not different between negative and false positive cases. Interestingly, the patients with false positive serology showed higher levels of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and C-reactive protein (CRP).

Conclusions:

Patients with liver autoimmune diseases present a high rate of false positive SARS-CoV2 serology. Therefore, new strategies are needed to study the serological response in this patient category.

[Names] => Maria Giulia Cornacchia ... Gaetano Serviddio [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00055 [Published] => August 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1932 [Downloaded] => 42 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00055 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 39 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:372–377 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Chronic liver disease, liver autoimmune disease, SARS-CoV2, COVID-19, serology, autoantibodies [DetailTitle] => Exploring Chronic Liver Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/39 [Id] => 100155 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100155/d40b7fee5a25b9ee760f8a1347df07a6.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100155/39e78f1a543c4c678ab3e1cc41d73e31.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Cornacchia MG, Sangineto M, Villani R, Cavallone F, Di Gioia G, Cicciomessere P, et al. High prevalence of false positive SARS-CoV2 serology in a cohort of patients with liver autoimmune diseases. Explor Med. 2021;2:372–7. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00055 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => MorisSangineto, [CEmail] => moris.sangineto@unifg.it, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 08:57:19 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 08:57:19 [KeysWordContens] => High prevalence of false positive SARS-CoV2 serology in a cohort of patients with liver autoimmune diseases, Chronic liver disease, liver autoimmune disease, SARS-CoV2, COVID-19, serology, autoantibodies, Aim: Monitoring the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) immunization in patients with autoimmune diseases is of particular concern to understand their response to the infection and to the vaccine. In fact, the immunological disorder and the immunosuppressive therapies could affect the serological response. SARS-CoV2 serological tests potentially provide this information, although they were rapidly commercialized with internal verifications. Here, we analysed the seroprevalence to SARS-CoV2 in a cohort of patients with liver autoimmune diseases. Methods: From May to December 2020, a cohort of patients affected by primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and PBC/AIH overlap syndrome were screened with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of nasopharyngeal swabs, rapid antigenic test and chemiluminescent serological test during routine follow-up. Results: The analysis of 42 patients was carried out: 18 (42.85%) PBC, 12 (28.57%) AIH and 12 (28.57%) PBC/AIH overlap syndromes. Only 2 patients (4.76%) resulted positive to the RNA, antigen and antibody detection tests, hence affected by SARS-CoV2 infection. 14 subjects out of 40 negative cases presented a positive serology for SARS-CoV2 antibodies, hence with a false positivity in the 35% of cases without infection. Notably, among these, 6 (42.86%) patients presented only immunoglobulin (Ig)M positivity, 6 (42.86%) patients presented positivity for only IgG and 2 (14.28%) patients were positive to both IgM and IgG. Notably, the presence of autoantibodies did not correlate with the serological false positivity, highlighting that there is no cross-reactivity with autoantibodies. Moreover, the presence of polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia did not interfere with the serological test as its prevalence is not different between negative and false positive cases. Interestingly, the patients with false positive serology showed higher levels of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Conclusions: Patients with liver autoimmune diseases present a high rate of false positive SARS-CoV2 serology. Therefore, new strategies are needed to study the serological response in this patient category. ,Maria Giulia Cornacchia ... Gaetano Serviddio [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [54] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 169 [Create_Time] => 2021-08-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202109/20210901022324.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100153/100153.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100153/100153.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100153/100153_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Why the aortic dissection detection risk score is problematic in emergency departments [Abstract] => Acute aortic syndromes, including aortic dissection (AD), are rare. The AD detection risk score (ADDRS) and associated investigation pathway were developed to reduce missed diagnosis of AD. The methodology for its development was sub-optimal and it has not been robustly validated in the emergency department chest pain population. [AbstractComplete] =>

Acute aortic syndromes, including aortic dissection (AD), are rare. The AD detection risk score (ADDRS) and associated investigation pathway were developed to reduce missed diagnosis of AD. The methodology for its development was sub-optimal and it has not been robustly validated in the emergency department chest pain population. Recent research suggests that it will drive over-investigation and that the risks of missed diagnosis may not be in balance with the risks of the testing strategy. There are serious doubts about whether the score and investigation pathway are fit for purpose.

[Names] => Anne-Maree Kelly [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00053 [Published] => August 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1623 [Downloaded] => 31 [Subject] => Perspective [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00053 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 38 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:348–351 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Risk score, aortic dissection, clinical decision rule [DetailTitle] => Exploring Aortic Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/38 [Id] => 100153 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100153/d1979e1a3af6b8aa1aa296e24a32f448.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100153/97daceca1602512f9120a99ce8d269d4.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 2 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Kelly AM. Why the aortic dissection detection risk score is problematic in emergency departments. Explor Med. 2021;2:348–51. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00053 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Anne-MareeKelly, [CEmail] => Anne-Maree.Kelly@wh.org.au, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 08:53:52 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 08:53:52 [KeysWordContens] => Why the aortic dissection detection risk score is problematic in emergency departments, Risk score, aortic dissection, clinical decision rule, Acute aortic syndromes, including aortic dissection (AD), are rare. The AD detection risk score (ADDRS) and associated investigation pathway were developed to reduce missed diagnosis of AD. The methodology for its development was sub-optimal and it has not been robustly validated in the emergency department chest pain population. Recent research suggests that it will drive over-investigation and that the risks of missed diagnosis may not be in balance with the risks of the testing strategy. There are serious doubts about whether the score and investigation pathway are fit for purpose. ,Anne-Maree Kelly [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [55] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 175 [Create_Time] => 2021-09-18 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202111/20211101035728.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100156/100156.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100156/100156.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100156/100156_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Breastfeeding duration and reduced risk of NAFLD in midlife of parous women [Abstract] => [AbstractComplete] => [Names] => Alessandro Mantovani ... Andrea Dalbeni [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00056 [Published] => October 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1046 [Downloaded] => 15 [Subject] => Commentary [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00056 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 39 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:378–381 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Breastfeeding, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic associated fatty liver disease [DetailTitle] => Exploring Chronic Liver Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/39 [Id] => 100156 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100156/af158473540cbf5c19912f1b2da9673a.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100156/1ec0cabca4494f188adb49099918bcd3.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Mantovani A, Beatrice G, Zusi C, Dalbeni A. Breastfeeding duration and reduced risk of NAFLD in midlife of parous women. Explor Med. 2021;2:378–81. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00056 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => AlessandroMantovani, [CEmail] => alessandro.mantovani@univr.it, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:08:11 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:08:11 [KeysWordContens] => Breastfeeding duration and reduced risk of NAFLD in midlife of parous women, Breastfeeding, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic associated fatty liver disease,,Alessandro Mantovani ... Andrea Dalbeni [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [56] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 177 [Create_Time] => 2021-09-27 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202111/20211105054152.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100157/100157.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100157/100157.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100157/100157_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Objective measurement of sleep by smartphone application: comparison with actigraphy and relation to self-reported sleep [Abstract] => Aim: Smartphone technology is increasingly used by the public to assess sleep. Specific features of some sleep-tracking applications are comparable to actigraphy in objectively monitoring sleep. The clinical utility of smartphone apps should be investigated further to increase access to convenient means of monitoring sleep. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Smartphone technology is increasingly used by the public to assess sleep. Specific features of some sleep-tracking applications are comparable to actigraphy in objectively monitoring sleep. The clinical utility of smartphone apps should be investigated further to increase access to convenient means of monitoring sleep.

Methods:

Smartphone and subjective sleep measures were administered to 29 community-dwelling healthy adults [aged 20–67, Mean (M) = 26.8; 18 women, 11 men], and actigraphy to 19 of them. Total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency were measured with actigraphy and the Sleep Time App (Azumio Inc.). Sleep diaries captured subjective TST and sleep efficiency, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index provided self-report data. An exit questionnaire was administered to examine App feasibility and likelihood of future use.

Results:

The App significantly overestimated TST when compared to actigraphy. There was no significant difference in sleep efficiency between methodologies. There was also no significant difference between TST recorded through the App and through sleep diaries. Participants’ self-reported ease of use of the smartphone App positively correlated with likelihood of future use.

Conclusions:

Based on the current findings, future research is needed to investigate the utility and feasibility of multiple smartphone applications in monitoring sleep in healthy and clinical populations.

[Names] => Taylor Maynard ... Sandy Neargarder [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00057 [Published] => October 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1689 [Downloaded] => 41 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00057 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 25 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:382–391 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Sleep-tracking, smartphone, technology, actigraphy, wearables, Mhealth [DetailTitle] => Digital Biomarkers: The New Frontier for Medicine and Research [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/25 [Id] => 100157 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100157/a30a1e1786d363cfdd6f7d1bc596c7e9.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100157/1e225ddad842075318b97ce0e0ecfd47.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Maynard T, Appleman E, Cronin-Golomb A, Neargarder S. Objective measurement of sleep by smartphone application: comparison with actigraphy and relation to self-reported sleep. Explor Med. 2021;2:382–91. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00057 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => SandyNeargarder, [CEmail] => sneargarder@bridgew.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:15:03 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:15:03 [KeysWordContens] => Objective measurement of sleep by smartphone application: comparison with actigraphy and relation to self-reported sleep, Sleep-tracking, smartphone, technology, actigraphy, wearables, Mhealth, Aim: Smartphone technology is increasingly used by the public to assess sleep. Specific features of some sleep-tracking applications are comparable to actigraphy in objectively monitoring sleep. The clinical utility of smartphone apps should be investigated further to increase access to convenient means of monitoring sleep. Methods: Smartphone and subjective sleep measures were administered to 29 community-dwelling healthy adults [aged 20–67, Mean (M) = 26.8; 18 women, 11 men], and actigraphy to 19 of them. Total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency were measured with actigraphy and the Sleep Time App (Azumio Inc.). Sleep diaries captured subjective TST and sleep efficiency, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index provided self-report data. An exit questionnaire was administered to examine App feasibility and likelihood of future use. Results: The App significantly overestimated TST when compared to actigraphy. There was no significant difference in sleep efficiency between methodologies. There was also no significant difference between TST recorded through the App and through sleep diaries. Participants’ self-reported ease of use of the smartphone App positively correlated with likelihood of future use. Conclusions: Based on the current findings, future research is needed to investigate the utility and feasibility of multiple smartphone applications in monitoring sleep in healthy and clinical populations. ,Taylor Maynard ... Sandy Neargarder [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [57] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 178 [Create_Time] => 2021-09-30 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202305/20230520054227.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100158/100158.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100158/100158.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100158/100158_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Exploring evidence-based innovative therapy for the treatment of chronic HBV infection: experimental and clinical [Abstract] => With the advent of various vaccines and antimicrobial agents during the 20th century, the control and containment of infectious diseases appeared to be a matter of time. However, studies unveiled the diverse natures of microbes, their lifestyle, and pathogenetic potentials. Since the ground-breaking discovery of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) by Baruch Blumberg and the subsequent development of a vaccine in the early 1980s, the main task of the scientific community has been to develop a proper management strategy for HBV-induced chronic liver diseases. In the early 1980’s, standard interferon (IFN) induced a reduction of HBV DNA levels, followed by the normalization of serum transaminases (alanine aminotransferase, ALT), in some chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. [AbstractComplete] =>

With the advent of various vaccines and antimicrobial agents during the 20th century, the control and containment of infectious diseases appeared to be a matter of time. However, studies unveiled the diverse natures of microbes, their lifestyle, and pathogenetic potentials. Since the ground-breaking discovery of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) by Baruch Blumberg and the subsequent development of a vaccine in the early 1980s, the main task of the scientific community has been to develop a proper management strategy for HBV-induced chronic liver diseases. In the early 1980’s, standard interferon (IFN) induced a reduction of HBV DNA levels, followed by the normalization of serum transaminases (alanine aminotransferase, ALT), in some chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. However, in the course of time, the limitations of standard IFN became evident, and the search for an alternative began. In the late 1980’s, nucleoside analogs entered the arena of CHB treatment as oral drugs with potent antiviral capacities. At the beginning of the 21st century, insights were developed into the scope and limitations of standard IFN, pegylated-IFN as well as nucleoside analogs for treating CHB. Considering the non-cytopathic nature of the HBV, the presence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nucleus of the infected hepatocytes and HBV-induced immune-mediated liver damages, a new field of CHB management was initiated by modulating the hosts’ immune system through immune therapy. This review will discuss the nature and design of innovative immune therapy for CHB.

[Names] => Sheikh Mohammad Fazle Akbar ... Yoichi Hiasa [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00058 [Published] => October 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1127 [Downloaded] => 26 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00058 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 39 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:392–409 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Chronic hepatitis B, antiviral drugs, immune therapy, therapeutic vaccine [DetailTitle] => Exploring Chronic Liver Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/39 [Id] => 100158 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100158/481166e07d94d50e3eb700f9cd51c99b.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100158/dd0272b327f094d2bf6e07e532b186d6.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Akbar SMF, Al Mahtab M, Cesar Aguilar J, Uddin MH, Khan SI, Yoshida O, et al. Exploring evidence-based innovative therapy for the treatment of chronic HBV infection: experimental and clinical. Explor Med. 2021;2:392–409. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00058 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Sheikh Mohammad FazleAkbar, [CEmail] => sheikhmohammadfazle@gmail.com, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:22:12 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:22:12 [KeysWordContens] => Exploring evidence-based innovative therapy for the treatment of chronic HBV infection: experimental and clinical, Chronic hepatitis B, antiviral drugs, immune therapy, therapeutic vaccine, With the advent of various vaccines and antimicrobial agents during the 20th century, the control and containment of infectious diseases appeared to be a matter of time. However, studies unveiled the diverse natures of microbes, their lifestyle, and pathogenetic potentials. Since the ground-breaking discovery of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) by Baruch Blumberg and the subsequent development of a vaccine in the early 1980s, the main task of the scientific community has been to develop a proper management strategy for HBV-induced chronic liver diseases. In the early 1980’s, standard interferon (IFN) induced a reduction of HBV DNA levels, followed by the normalization of serum transaminases (alanine aminotransferase, ALT), in some chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. However, in the course of time, the limitations of standard IFN became evident, and the search for an alternative began. In the late 1980’s, nucleoside analogs entered the arena of CHB treatment as oral drugs with potent antiviral capacities. At the beginning of the 21st century, insights were developed into the scope and limitations of standard IFN, pegylated-IFN as well as nucleoside analogs for treating CHB. Considering the non-cytopathic nature of the HBV, the presence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nucleus of the infected hepatocytes and HBV-induced immune-mediated liver damages, a new field of CHB management was initiated by modulating the hosts’ immune system through immune therapy. This review will discuss the nature and design of innovative immune therapy for CHB. ,Sheikh Mohammad Fazle Akbar ... Yoichi Hiasa [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [58] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 188 [Create_Time] => 2021-10-09 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202111/20211105083323.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100159/100159.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100159/100159.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100159/100159_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => A review of aortic thrombosis in COVID-19 infection [Abstract] => Aim: As the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic impacts the global healthcare system, evolving data show increased frequency of arterial and venous thromboembolism among patients with COVID-19 infection. Aortic thrombus is a rare thrombotic event with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and potential catastrophic complications. This study aimed to elucidate the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment dilemmas of aortic thrombus with COVID-19 infection and raise awareness among frontline medical providers. Aortic thrombosis is rare, but if not considered early in the course of COVID-19 infection, the data suggest that the diagnosis will probably not be made until potentially serious complications arise. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

As the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic impacts the global healthcare system, evolving data show increased frequency of arterial and venous thromboembolism among patients with COVID-19 infection. Aortic thrombus is a rare thrombotic event with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and potential catastrophic complications. This study aimed to elucidate the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment dilemmas of aortic thrombus with COVID-19 infection and raise awareness among frontline medical providers. Aortic thrombosis is rare, but if not considered early in the course of COVID-19 infection, the data suggest that the diagnosis will probably not be made until potentially serious complications arise.

Methods:

Literature review was conducted between November 1, 2019, and November 14, 2020, on PubMed and Embase to identify publications regarding aortic thrombosis among COVID-19 cases.

Results:

Most of the patients were male with a median age of 67 years, and had comorbidities (most commonly hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus). In our study, underlying atherosclerosis, a common risk factor for aortic thrombus, was identified among 56% of the patients. Aortic thrombus was symptomatic in 62% of these patients and most commonly manifested itself as acute limb ischemia (46%), whereas 30% of cases were found incidentally during the investigation of elevated inflammatory markers or increased oxygen requirement. Treatment was individualized given the lack of established guidelines for aortic thrombus, including anticoagulation, systemic and catheter directed thrombolysis, and surgical thrombectomy. Overall mortality was found to be 30% in our study.

Conclusions:

Although rare, aortic thrombus has high morbidity and mortality, and can present without any symptoms or underlying aortic disease. Aortic thrombosis is rare, but if not considered early in the course of COVID-19 infection, the data suggest that the diagnosis will probably not be made until potentially serious complications arise.

[Names] => Korin Karabulut ... James Morgan [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00059 [Published] => October 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1590 [Downloaded] => 29 [Subject] => Meta-Analysis [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00059 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 38 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:410–422 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Thrombolysis, thrombectomy, outcomes, surgical, aortic, COVID-19, anticoagulation [DetailTitle] => Exploring Aortic Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/38 [Id] => 100159 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100159/ffd69eaec475841162ca909dfa95e929.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100159/8099d13aa90a8c59dedd006f6c820bee.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Karabulut K, Kapici A, Andronikashvili A, Morgan J. A review of aortic thrombosis in COVID-19 infection. Explor Med. 2021;2:410–22. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00059 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => JamesMorgan, [CEmail] => James.Morgan@steward.org, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:24:20 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:24:20 [KeysWordContens] => A review of aortic thrombosis in COVID-19 infection, Thrombolysis, thrombectomy, outcomes, surgical, aortic, COVID-19, anticoagulation, Aim: As the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic impacts the global healthcare system, evolving data show increased frequency of arterial and venous thromboembolism among patients with COVID-19 infection. Aortic thrombus is a rare thrombotic event with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and potential catastrophic complications. This study aimed to elucidate the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment dilemmas of aortic thrombus with COVID-19 infection and raise awareness among frontline medical providers. Aortic thrombosis is rare, but if not considered early in the course of COVID-19 infection, the data suggest that the diagnosis will probably not be made until potentially serious complications arise. Methods: Literature review was conducted between November 1, 2019, and November 14, 2020, on PubMed and Embase to identify publications regarding aortic thrombosis among COVID-19 cases. Results: Most of the patients were male with a median age of 67 years, and had comorbidities (most commonly hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus). In our study, underlying atherosclerosis, a common risk factor for aortic thrombus, was identified among 56% of the patients. Aortic thrombus was symptomatic in 62% of these patients and most commonly manifested itself as acute limb ischemia (46%), whereas 30% of cases were found incidentally during the investigation of elevated inflammatory markers or increased oxygen requirement. Treatment was individualized given the lack of established guidelines for aortic thrombus, including anticoagulation, systemic and catheter directed thrombolysis, and surgical thrombectomy. Overall mortality was found to be 30% in our study. Conclusions: Although rare, aortic thrombus has high morbidity and mortality, and can present without any symptoms or underlying aortic disease. Aortic thrombosis is rare, but if not considered early in the course of COVID-19 infection, the data suggest that the diagnosis will probably not be made until potentially serious complications arise. ,Korin Karabulut ... James Morgan [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [59] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 191 [Create_Time] => 2021-11-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202201/20220111015230.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100160/100160.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100160/100160.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100160/100160_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Aortic complications in pregnancy: the less remembered chapter—a narrative review [Abstract] => Pregnancy increases the risk of common vascular events and also the rarer events like aortic dissection (AD)/aortic rupture and this is even more pronounced in patients with predisposing aortopathies. AD was found to occur in 0.0004% of all pregnancies, and it is more pronounced in patients with underlying connective tissue disorders. The normal hemodynamic changes on a weak aorta will lead to AD and/or rupture, more so with increase in the period of gestation. [AbstractComplete] =>

Pregnancy increases the risk of common vascular events and also the rarer events like aortic dissection (AD)/aortic rupture and this is even more pronounced in patients with predisposing aortopathies. AD was found to occur in 0.0004% of all pregnancies, and it is more pronounced in patients with underlying connective tissue disorders. The normal hemodynamic changes on a weak aorta will lead to AD and/or rupture, more so with increase in the period of gestation. Hence the haemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy make pregnancy itself a risk factor for AD. It is advised that women with Marfan syndrome who are planning pregnancy should go through prophylactic aortic repair if the diameter of the ascending aorta exceeds 4 cm. Pre-pregnancy counselling is very important in these patients and must include complete history taking, including family history, physical examination and advanced aortic imaging. There is a general consensus among various authors advising against surgery during pregnancy in stable patients due to increased maternal and fetal morbidity but it is justified if the condition is refractory to medical management or in life threatening stage like acute AD. Though the incidence of aortopathy in pregnancy is rare, there is a high maternal and fetal mortality associated with this condition.

[Names] => Preetha Rajasekaran ... Bashi V. Velayudhan [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00060 [Published] => October 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1210 [Downloaded] => 58 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00060 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 38 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:423–434 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Aorta, aortic dissection, pregnancy, congenital heart disease, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, cardiopulmonary bypass [DetailTitle] => Exploring Aortic Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/38 [Id] => 100160 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100160/717c3387154ee84735877616d5e8b691.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100160/4acbdb9e64ec667dbb470810ac9470d3.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Rajasekaran P, Gandhi P, Idhrees M, Velayudhan BV. Aortic complications in pregnancy: the less remembered chapter—a narrative review. Explor Med. 2021;2:423–34. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00060 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => MohammedIdhrees, [CEmail] => a.m.idhrees@gmail.com, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:26:19 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:26:19 [KeysWordContens] => Aortic complications in pregnancy: the less remembered chapter—a narrative review, Aorta, aortic dissection, pregnancy, congenital heart disease, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, cardiopulmonary bypass, Pregnancy increases the risk of common vascular events and also the rarer events like aortic dissection (AD)/aortic rupture and this is even more pronounced in patients with predisposing aortopathies. AD was found to occur in 0.0004% of all pregnancies, and it is more pronounced in patients with underlying connective tissue disorders. The normal hemodynamic changes on a weak aorta will lead to AD and/or rupture, more so with increase in the period of gestation. Hence the haemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy make pregnancy itself a risk factor for AD. It is advised that women with Marfan syndrome who are planning pregnancy should go through prophylactic aortic repair if the diameter of the ascending aorta exceeds 4 cm. Pre-pregnancy counselling is very important in these patients and must include complete history taking, including family history, physical examination and advanced aortic imaging. There is a general consensus among various authors advising against surgery during pregnancy in stable patients due to increased maternal and fetal morbidity but it is justified if the condition is refractory to medical management or in life threatening stage like acute AD. Though the incidence of aortopathy in pregnancy is rare, there is a high maternal and fetal mortality associated with this condition. ,Preetha Rajasekaran ... Bashi V. Velayudhan [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [60] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 192 [Create_Time] => 2021-11-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230302063449.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100161/100161.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100161/100161.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100161/100161_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Separating the apples from the oranges: from NAFLD heterogeneity to personalized medicine [Abstract] => Recently, Arrese and Colleagues have published a review article entitled, “Insights into Nonalcoholic Fatty-Liver Disease (NAFLD) Heterogeneity” (Semin Liver Dis. 2021;41:421–34. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1730927). This milestone publication clearly and exhaustively explains the multitude of pathogenic pathways involved in the development and progression of disease eventually conducive to heterogeneous clinical phenotypes and different disease outcomes. [AbstractComplete] =>

Recently, Arrese and Colleagues have published a review article entitled, “Insights into Nonalcoholic Fatty-Liver Disease (NAFLD) Heterogeneity” (Semin Liver Dis. 2021;41:421–34. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1730927). This milestone publication clearly and exhaustively explains the multitude of pathogenic pathways involved in the development and progression of disease eventually conducive to heterogeneous clinical phenotypes and different disease outcomes. The present commentary first briefly discusses the biological grounds of NAFLD heterogeneity and then illustrates the work by Arrese et al. In conclusion, the presently adopted nomenclatures appear inadequate in rendering the complexity of disease in the individual patient. In order to adopt the principles of personalized care, what remains to be done is to propose and validate a simple and accurate classification system. This should give full consideration to the principal disease modifiers and should shape a scheme to be adopted in both clinical practice and in the research arena. Care should be taken to not neglect the systemic nature of disease.

[Names] => Amedeo Lonardo [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00061 [Published] => October 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1212 [Downloaded] => 74 [Subject] => Commentary [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00061 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 39 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:435–442 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Clinical phenotypes, diagnosis, disease outcomes, heterogeneity, management, natural course, personalized medicine, precision medicine, variability [DetailTitle] => Exploring Chronic Liver Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/39 [Id] => 100161 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100161/8e758fbfcc844e2156cd22c15a3615e1.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100161/85e0d2e40057732af3a447cae2b6c23b.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Lonardo A. Separating the apples from the oranges: from NAFLD heterogeneity to personalized medicine. Explor Med. 2021;2:435–442. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00061 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => AmedeoLonardo, [CEmail] => a.lonardo@libero.it, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:28:37 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:28:37 [KeysWordContens] => Separating the apples from the oranges: from NAFLD heterogeneity to personalized medicine, Clinical phenotypes, diagnosis, disease outcomes, heterogeneity, management, natural course, personalized medicine, precision medicine, variability, Recently, Arrese and Colleagues have published a review article entitled, “Insights into Nonalcoholic Fatty-Liver Disease (NAFLD) Heterogeneity” (Semin Liver Dis. 2021;41:421–34. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1730927). This milestone publication clearly and exhaustively explains the multitude of pathogenic pathways involved in the development and progression of disease eventually conducive to heterogeneous clinical phenotypes and different disease outcomes. The present commentary first briefly discusses the biological grounds of NAFLD heterogeneity and then illustrates the work by Arrese et al. In conclusion, the presently adopted nomenclatures appear inadequate in rendering the complexity of disease in the individual patient. In order to adopt the principles of personalized care, what remains to be done is to propose and validate a simple and accurate classification system. This should give full consideration to the principal disease modifiers and should shape a scheme to be adopted in both clinical practice and in the research arena. Care should be taken to not neglect the systemic nature of disease. ,Amedeo Lonardo [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [61] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 199 [Create_Time] => 2021-11-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202111/20211105034003.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100162/100162.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100162/100162.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100162/100162_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Reactive oxygen species may influence on the crossroads of stemness, senescence, and carcinogenesis in a cell via the roles of APRO family proteins [Abstract] => Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause oxidative stress which is involved in aging and in the pathogenesis of various human diseases. Whereas unregulated levels of the ROS may be harmful, regulated basal level of ROS is even necessary to support cellular functions as a second messenger for homeostasis under physiological conditions. Therefore, redox medicine could develop as a new therapeutic concept for human health-benefits. [AbstractComplete] =>

Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause oxidative stress which is involved in aging and in the pathogenesis of various human diseases. Whereas unregulated levels of the ROS may be harmful, regulated basal level of ROS is even necessary to support cellular functions as a second messenger for homeostasis under physiological conditions. Therefore, redox medicine could develop as a new therapeutic concept for human health-benefits. Here, we introduce the involvement of ROS on the crossroads of stemness, senescence, and carcinogenesis in a stem cell and cancer cell biology. Amazingly, the anti-proliferative (APRO) family anti-proliferative proteins characterized by immediate early growth responsive genes may also be involved in the crossroads machinery. The biological functions of APRO proteins (APROs) seem to be quite intricate, however, which might be a key modulator of microRNAs (miRNAs). Given the crucial roles of ROS and APROs for pathophysiological functions, upcoming novel therapeutics should include vigilant modulation of the redox state. Next generation of medicine including regenerative medicine and/or cancer therapy will likely comprise strategies for altering the redox environment with the APROs via the modulation of miRNAs as well as with the regulation of ROS of cells in a sustainable manner.

[Names] => Yuka Ikeda ... Satoru Matsuda [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00062 [Published] => October 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 4157 [Downloaded] => 1697 [Subject] => Perspective [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00062 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 54 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:443–454 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => APRO family, stem cell, cancer, stemness, senescence, carcinogenesis, reactive oxygen species [DetailTitle] => Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Pathophysiological Conditions [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/54 [Id] => 100162 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100162/c525ba3fdb2e9334a5d491acc82fddbb.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100162/835a631e2fbcb92c1c5e65be9b90565b.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 5 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Ikeda Y, Taniguchi K, Nagase N, Tsuji A, Kitagishi Y, Matsuda S. Reactive oxygen species may influence on the crossroads of stemness, senescence, and carcinogenesis in a cell via the roles of APRO family proteins. Explor Med. 2021;2:443–54. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00062 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => SatoruMatsuda, [CEmail] => smatsuda@cc.nara-wu.ac.jp, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:30:12 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:30:12 [KeysWordContens] => Reactive oxygen species may influence on the crossroads of stemness, senescence, and carcinogenesis in a cell via the roles of APRO family proteins, APRO family, stem cell, cancer, stemness, senescence, carcinogenesis, reactive oxygen species, Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause oxidative stress which is involved in aging and in the pathogenesis of various human diseases. Whereas unregulated levels of the ROS may be harmful, regulated basal level of ROS is even necessary to support cellular functions as a second messenger for homeostasis under physiological conditions. Therefore, redox medicine could develop as a new therapeutic concept for human health-benefits. Here, we introduce the involvement of ROS on the crossroads of stemness, senescence, and carcinogenesis in a stem cell and cancer cell biology. Amazingly, the anti-proliferative (APRO) family anti-proliferative proteins characterized by immediate early growth responsive genes may also be involved in the crossroads machinery. The biological functions of APRO proteins (APROs) seem to be quite intricate, however, which might be a key modulator of microRNAs (miRNAs). Given the crucial roles of ROS and APROs for pathophysiological functions, upcoming novel therapeutics should include vigilant modulation of the redox state. Next generation of medicine including regenerative medicine and/or cancer therapy will likely comprise strategies for altering the redox environment with the APROs via the modulation of miRNAs as well as with the regulation of ROS of cells in a sustainable manner. ,Yuka Ikeda ... Satoru Matsuda [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [62] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 204 [Create_Time] => 2021-11-23 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202112/20211231063728.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100163/100163.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100163/100163.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100163/100163_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Future incidence and mortality of colorectal carcinoma in the United States: an updated overview of risk factors and preventative measures [Abstract] => According to the Global Cancer Observatory (GLOBOCAN) 2020, colorectal carcinoma (CRC) was the second leading cause of cancer death globally. Current literature utilizes reported databases such as Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) to better understand the epidemiology of CRC. The global cancer observatory’s “Cancer Tomorrow” data visualization tools were used to predict the future incidence and mortality of colorectal cancers until 2030 as a guided tool to look over ways to reduce incidence by controlling risk factors of CRC. The total number of CRC is expected to rise by 2030, with a percent change of 17.3%. [AbstractComplete] =>

According to the Global Cancer Observatory (GLOBOCAN) 2020, colorectal carcinoma (CRC) was the second leading cause of cancer death globally. Current literature utilizes reported databases such as Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) to better understand the epidemiology of CRC. The global cancer observatory’s “Cancer Tomorrow” data visualization tools were used to predict the future incidence and mortality of colorectal cancers until 2030 as a guided tool to look over ways to reduce incidence by controlling risk factors of CRC. The total number of CRC is expected to rise by 2030, with a percent change of 17.3%. The expected percent change in colon cancer is more than rectal cancer (19.8% vs. 11.6%). The estimated number of deaths secondary to CRC is expected to increase in 2030, an estimated percent change of 22.2%. The incidence and mortality rate was higher in men vs. women; however, the gap seems to be closing on trend analysis. Major risk factors for CRC include familial syndromes, family history, race, gender, obesity, diet, alcohol, and smoking. Risk can be reduced by exercise and dietary changes, fiber intake, vitamin D, calcium, and minerals. Individualized screening based on age, gender, and additional risk factors could be an option that needs further comparative data to propose a definitive benefit over established screening guidelines.

[Names] => Hassam Ali [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00063 [Published] => December 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1049 [Downloaded] => 36 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00063 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:455–467 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Colorectal carcinoma incidence, colorectal carcinoma mortality, colorectal carcinoma risk, CRC, GLOBOCAN [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100163 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100163/f1402da4bd0947a2262430c7ddbf4794.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100163/5871720a6a85560289d2ad652e1c7c56.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 2 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Ali H. Future incidence and mortality of colorectal carcinoma in the United States: an updated overview of risk factors and preventative measures. Explor Med. 2021;2:455–67. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00063 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => HassamAli, [CEmail] => alih20@ecu.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:32:17 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:32:17 [KeysWordContens] => Future incidence and mortality of colorectal carcinoma in the United States: an updated overview of risk factors and preventative measures, Colorectal carcinoma incidence, colorectal carcinoma mortality, colorectal carcinoma risk, CRC, GLOBOCAN, According to the Global Cancer Observatory (GLOBOCAN) 2020, colorectal carcinoma (CRC) was the second leading cause of cancer death globally. Current literature utilizes reported databases such as Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) to better understand the epidemiology of CRC. The global cancer observatory’s “Cancer Tomorrow” data visualization tools were used to predict the future incidence and mortality of colorectal cancers until 2030 as a guided tool to look over ways to reduce incidence by controlling risk factors of CRC. The total number of CRC is expected to rise by 2030, with a percent change of 17.3%. The expected percent change in colon cancer is more than rectal cancer (19.8% vs. 11.6%). The estimated number of deaths secondary to CRC is expected to increase in 2030, an estimated percent change of 22.2%. The incidence and mortality rate was higher in men vs. women; however, the gap seems to be closing on trend analysis. Major risk factors for CRC include familial syndromes, family history, race, gender, obesity, diet, alcohol, and smoking. Risk can be reduced by exercise and dietary changes, fiber intake, vitamin D, calcium, and minerals. Individualized screening based on age, gender, and additional risk factors could be an option that needs further comparative data to propose a definitive benefit over established screening guidelines. ,Hassam Ali [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [63] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 205 [Create_Time] => 2021-11-30 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202112/20211231064008.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100164/100164.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100164/100164.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100164/100164_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Obstetric implications of maternal chronic hepatitis B virus infection [Abstract] => Antenatal screening for hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity is widely adopted to identify pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in order to target their newborn infants for combined passive-active neonatal immunization to prevent the maternal-to-child transmission of HBV. It is less certain whether the presence of chronic HBV infection in these largely asymptomatic women could impact their pregnancy outcome. There is now gathering [AbstractComplete] =>

Antenatal screening for hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity is widely adopted to identify pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in order to target their newborn infants for combined passive-active neonatal immunization to prevent the maternal-to-child transmission of HBV. It is less certain whether the presence of chronic HBV infection in these largely asymptomatic women could impact their pregnancy outcome. There is now gathering information in the literature, though sometimes conflicting, on the obstetric implications of chronic HBV infection. The conflicting data is most probably related to confounding factors such as the immunological phase of chronic HBV infection, viral genotype and activity, presence of hepatic inflammation and other co-existing liver disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and coinfection with other virus such as hepatitis C virus and micro-organisms, which are usually not examined, but which could have made significant influence on the occurrence of many of the pregnancy complications and adverse fetal and neonatal outcome. For pregnancy complications, the evidence suggests association with increased gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm birth, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, caesarean delivery, and postpartum haemorrhage, probably increased placental abruption and prelabour rupture of the membranes, and no effect or a reduction in the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, especially preeclampsia. For perinatal outcome, there may be increased miscarriage and fetal malformations, and increase in both low birthweight and large-for-gestational age/macrosomic infants, as well as increased intrauterine fetal demise/stillbirth and fetal distress. However, most studies have not elaborated on the mechanisms or explanations of many of the adverse outcomes. Taken together, maternal chronic HBV infection increases the risk of adverse obstetric outcome overall, but further prospective studies are warranted to elucidate the reasons and mechanisms of, and with a view to mitigating, these adverse obstetric outcomes.

[Names] => Terence T. Lao [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00064 [Published] => December 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1059 [Downloaded] => 39 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00064 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:468–482 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Chronic hepatitis B virus infection, pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm birth, pre-eclampsia, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, birthweight, fetal loss [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100164 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100164/be8204877f5e196e558099a885cfda5b.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100164/b0438937f38e0ac6dbe0ed4763be0ee4.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Lao TT. Obstetric implications of maternal chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Explor Med. 2021;2:468–82. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00064 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Terence T.Lao, [CEmail] => lao-tt@cuhk.edu.hk, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:34:08 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:34:08 [KeysWordContens] => Obstetric implications of maternal chronic hepatitis B virus infection, Chronic hepatitis B virus infection, pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm birth, pre-eclampsia, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, birthweight, fetal loss, Antenatal screening for hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity is widely adopted to identify pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in order to target their newborn infants for combined passive-active neonatal immunization to prevent the maternal-to-child transmission of HBV. It is less certain whether the presence of chronic HBV infection in these largely asymptomatic women could impact their pregnancy outcome. There is now gathering information in the literature, though sometimes conflicting, on the obstetric implications of chronic HBV infection. The conflicting data is most probably related to confounding factors such as the immunological phase of chronic HBV infection, viral genotype and activity, presence of hepatic inflammation and other co-existing liver disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and coinfection with other virus such as hepatitis C virus and micro-organisms, which are usually not examined, but which could have made significant influence on the occurrence of many of the pregnancy complications and adverse fetal and neonatal outcome. For pregnancy complications, the evidence suggests association with increased gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm birth, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, caesarean delivery, and postpartum haemorrhage, probably increased placental abruption and prelabour rupture of the membranes, and no effect or a reduction in the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, especially preeclampsia. For perinatal outcome, there may be increased miscarriage and fetal malformations, and increase in both low birthweight and large-for-gestational age/macrosomic infants, as well as increased intrauterine fetal demise/stillbirth and fetal distress. However, most studies have not elaborated on the mechanisms or explanations of many of the adverse outcomes. Taken together, maternal chronic HBV infection increases the risk of adverse obstetric outcome overall, but further prospective studies are warranted to elucidate the reasons and mechanisms of, and with a view to mitigating, these adverse obstetric outcomes. ,Terence T. Lao [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [64] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 208 [Create_Time] => 2021-12-07 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202305/20230524065830.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100165/100165.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100165/100165.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100165/100165_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Cross-cultural adaptation of Delphi definitions of low back pain prevalence in French (Delphi DOLBaPP-F) [Abstract] => Aim: The high heterogeneity in the definitions of low back pain encountered in the literature has led to the development of standardized definitions of this condition called “Delphi definitions of low back pain prevalence (Delphi DOLBaPP)” by a group of international researchers. In order to be widely used, these definitions need to be adapted according to the cultural and linguistic context. The aim of this work was to perform the cross-cultural adaptation of the Delphi DOLBaPP definitions in Quebec French and to pre-test them among French-speaking adults. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

The high heterogeneity in the definitions of low back pain encountered in the literature has led to the development of standardized definitions of this condition called “Delphi definitions of low back pain prevalence (Delphi DOLBaPP)” by a group of international researchers. In order to be widely used, these definitions need to be adapted according to the cultural and linguistic context. The aim of this work was to perform the cross-cultural adaptation of the Delphi DOLBaPP definitions in Quebec French and to pre-test them among French-speaking adults.

Methods:

In order to enable practical use of the Delphi DOLBaPP definitions in different contexts, their presentation was adapted in the form of a questionnaire (referred to as the “Delphi DOLBaPP questionnaire”). The process of cross-cultural adaptation of the Delphi DOLBaPP questionnaire in French was conducted according to the most recognized recommendations for the cultural adaptation of measuring instruments. The resulting questionnaire and an evaluation form were then submitted to a sample of 82 adults.

Results:

A total of 41 participants (50.0%) reported low back pain. A high proportion of participants (89.0%) stated that it took them less than 5 minutes to complete the questionnaire. More than 62.0% of them did not find any question poorly worded or confusing. Nearly 80.0% of the participants found the questionnaire easy to understand. The cross-cultural adaptation process suggested minor modifications to the original Delphi DOLBaPP questionnaire.

Conclusions:

This study has produced a cross-cultural adaptation of the Delphi DOLBaPP questionnaire in Quebec French that will enable French-speaking populations to share the benefits of using standardized definitions of low back pain in epidemiological studies.

[Names] => Antarou Ly ... Clermont E. Dionne [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00065 [Published] => December 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 937 [Downloaded] => 44 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00065 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:483–493 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Definition, low back pain, cross-cultural adaptation, prevalence [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100165 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100165/bfc883a602184bb949f2983117890375.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100165/dd032fa817a9aa59c2a320dc1696ae98.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Ly A, Pelletier S, Dionne CE. Cross-cultural adaptation of Delphi definitions of low back pain prevalence in French (Delphi DOLBaPP-F). Explor Med. 2021;2:483–93. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00065 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Clermont E.Dionne, [CEmail] => clermont.dionne@crchudequebec.ulaval.ca, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:36:24 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:36:24 [KeysWordContens] => Cross-cultural adaptation of Delphi definitions of low back pain prevalence in French (Delphi DOLBaPP-F), Definition, low back pain, cross-cultural adaptation, prevalence, Aim: The high heterogeneity in the definitions of low back pain encountered in the literature has led to the development of standardized definitions of this condition called “Delphi definitions of low back pain prevalence (Delphi DOLBaPP)” by a group of international researchers. In order to be widely used, these definitions need to be adapted according to the cultural and linguistic context. The aim of this work was to perform the cross-cultural adaptation of the Delphi DOLBaPP definitions in Quebec French and to pre-test them among French-speaking adults. Methods: In order to enable practical use of the Delphi DOLBaPP definitions in different contexts, their presentation was adapted in the form of a questionnaire (referred to as the “Delphi DOLBaPP questionnaire”). The process of cross-cultural adaptation of the Delphi DOLBaPP questionnaire in French was conducted according to the most recognized recommendations for the cultural adaptation of measuring instruments. The resulting questionnaire and an evaluation form were then submitted to a sample of 82 adults. Results: A total of 41 participants (50.0%) reported low back pain. A high proportion of participants (89.0%) stated that it took them less than 5 minutes to complete the questionnaire. More than 62.0% of them did not find any question poorly worded or confusing. Nearly 80.0% of the participants found the questionnaire easy to understand. The cross-cultural adaptation process suggested minor modifications to the original Delphi DOLBaPP questionnaire. Conclusions: This study has produced a cross-cultural adaptation of the Delphi DOLBaPP questionnaire in Quebec French that will enable French-speaking populations to share the benefits of using standardized definitions of low back pain in epidemiological studies. ,Antarou Ly ... Clermont E. Dionne [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [65] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 213 [Create_Time] => 2021-12-08 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202305/20230520073359.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100166/100166.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100166/100166.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100166/100166_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Molecular targets regulating endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria crosstalk for NAFLD treatment [Abstract] => Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as the most common chronic liver disease poses a significant impact on public healthcare and economic risk worldwide. As a multifactorial disease, NAFLD is usually associated with many comorbidities such as obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Without effectively preventive intervention, the advanced stage of NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). [AbstractComplete] =>

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as the most common chronic liver disease poses a significant impact on public healthcare and economic risk worldwide. As a multifactorial disease, NAFLD is usually associated with many comorbidities such as obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Without effectively preventive intervention, the advanced stage of NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there is no approved therapeutic treatment. Excessive fat accumulation in the liver is the hallmark of NAFLD, which can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Dysfunction of two organelles also induces the upregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), and disruption of calcium transport, which promote NAFLD progression. Herein, this review summarized the current understanding of the roles of mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Specifically, this review focused on the key molecules associated with the ER-mitochondria communication and different treatment options by targeting ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction to treat NAFLD or NASH. Clinical trials to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of representative agents, such as natural products, metabolites, and modulators of stress, have been reviewed and analyzed. Overall, recent findings suggest that targeting ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction holds a promise for NAFLD treatment.

[Names] => Chunye Zhang, Ming Yang [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00066 [Published] => December 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1358 [Downloaded] => 64 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00066 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 39 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:494–510 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, ER-mitochondria crosstalk, clinical trials [DetailTitle] => Exploring Chronic Liver Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/39 [Id] => 100166 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100166/1f1bb50a56e0aa0a103c8fc7951b43f5.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100166/2af2f40ede992b76f4ed2b190913cbcc.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Zhang C, Yang M. Molecular targets regulating endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria crosstalk for NAFLD treatment. Explor Med. 2021;2:494–510. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00066 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => MingYang, [CEmail] => yangmin@health.missouri.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:38:20 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:38:20 [KeysWordContens] => Molecular targets regulating endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria crosstalk for NAFLD treatment, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, ER-mitochondria crosstalk, clinical trials, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as the most common chronic liver disease poses a significant impact on public healthcare and economic risk worldwide. As a multifactorial disease, NAFLD is usually associated with many comorbidities such as obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Without effectively preventive intervention, the advanced stage of NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there is no approved therapeutic treatment. Excessive fat accumulation in the liver is the hallmark of NAFLD, which can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Dysfunction of two organelles also induces the upregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), and disruption of calcium transport, which promote NAFLD progression. Herein, this review summarized the current understanding of the roles of mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Specifically, this review focused on the key molecules associated with the ER-mitochondria communication and different treatment options by targeting ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction to treat NAFLD or NASH. Clinical trials to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of representative agents, such as natural products, metabolites, and modulators of stress, have been reviewed and analyzed. Overall, recent findings suggest that targeting ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction holds a promise for NAFLD treatment. ,Chunye Zhang, Ming Yang [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [66] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 224 [Create_Time] => 2021-12-15 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202112/20211231065653.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100167/100167.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100167/100167.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100167/100167_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Functions of two distinct Kupffer cells in the liver [Abstract] => Tissue-resident macrophages play critically important roles in host homeostasis and pathogenesis of diseases, with the functions of phagocytosis, metabolism, and immune modulation. Recently, two research studies accomplished by a collaborated group of researchers showed that there are two populations of liver resident Kupffer cells (KCs), including a major cluster of differentiation 206 low expression (CD206low)endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule negative (ESAM−) population (KC1) and a minor CD206highESAM+ population (KC2). [AbstractComplete] =>

Tissue-resident macrophages play critically important roles in host homeostasis and pathogenesis of diseases, with the functions of phagocytosis, metabolism, and immune modulation. Recently, two research studies accomplished by a collaborated group of researchers showed that there are two populations of liver resident Kupffer cells (KCs), including a major cluster of differentiation 206 low expression (CD206low)endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule negative (ESAM) population (KC1) and a minor CD206highESAM+ population (KC2). Both KC1 and KC2 express KC markers, such as C-type lectin domain family 4 member F (CLEC4F) and T-cell membrane protein 4 (Tim4). In fatty liver, the frequency of KC2 was increased, and those KC2 expressed some markers like liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), such as CD31 and ESAM. In addition, KC2 population had a relatively higher expression of CD36, as fatty acid transporter, which was implicated in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, this collaborated group also showed that KC2 can cross-present hepatocellular antigens to prime antiviral function of CD8+ T cells by sensing interleukin-2 (IL-2) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication-competent transgenic mice. Increasing evidence shows that targeting hepatic macrophages can prevent and reverse non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), with a new suggested name metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) to include metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver diseases, such as viruses and alcohol. In summary, differentiating specific populations of hepatic macrophages is critically important for the treatment of MAFLD or NAFLD, and their overlaps. Markers specifically expressed on sub-types of hepatic macrophages may be applied for liver disease diagnosis.

[Names] => Chunye Zhang ... Ming Yang [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00067 [Published] => December 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1976 [Downloaded] => 107 [Subject] => Commentary [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00067 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 39 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:511–515 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Macrophage, Kupffer cell, heterogeneity, chronic liver disease, cytokine, treatment [DetailTitle] => Exploring Chronic Liver Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/39 [Id] => 100167 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100167/e7e684167c9f879a40e13ccba1c465d0.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100167/1e27a470e02e18c1f34d9c93f681639f.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Zhang C, Liu S, Yang M. Functions of two distinct Kupffer cells in the liver. Explor Med. 2021;2:511–5. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00067 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => MingYang, [CEmail] => yangmin@health.missouri.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:39:39 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:39:39 [KeysWordContens] => Functions of two distinct Kupffer cells in the liver, Macrophage, Kupffer cell, heterogeneity, chronic liver disease, cytokine, treatment, Tissue-resident macrophages play critically important roles in host homeostasis and pathogenesis of diseases, with the functions of phagocytosis, metabolism, and immune modulation. Recently, two research studies accomplished by a collaborated group of researchers showed that there are two populations of liver resident Kupffer cells (KCs), including a major cluster of differentiation 206 low expression (CD206low)endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule negative (ESAM−) population (KC1) and a minor CD206highESAM+ population (KC2). Both KC1 and KC2 express KC markers, such as C-type lectin domain family 4 member F (CLEC4F) and T-cell membrane protein 4 (Tim4). In fatty liver, the frequency of KC2 was increased, and those KC2 expressed some markers like liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), such as CD31 and ESAM. In addition, KC2 population had a relatively higher expression of CD36, as fatty acid transporter, which was implicated in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, this collaborated group also showed that KC2 can cross-present hepatocellular antigens to prime antiviral function of CD8+ T cells by sensing interleukin-2 (IL-2) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication-competent transgenic mice. Increasing evidence shows that targeting hepatic macrophages can prevent and reverse non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), with a new suggested name metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) to include metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver diseases, such as viruses and alcohol. In summary, differentiating specific populations of hepatic macrophages is critically important for the treatment of MAFLD or NAFLD, and their overlaps. Markers specifically expressed on sub-types of hepatic macrophages may be applied for liver disease diagnosis. ,Chunye Zhang ... Ming Yang [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [67] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 230 [Create_Time] => 2021-12-24 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202112/20211231065832.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100168/100168.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100168/100168.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100168/100168_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Key roles of CCCTC-binding factor in cancer evolution and development [Abstract] => The processes of cancer and embryonic development have a partially overlapping effect. Several transcription factor families, which are highly conserved in the evolutionary history of biology, play a key role in the development of cancer and are often responsible for the pivotal developmental processes such as cell survival, expansion, senescence, and differentiation. As an evolutionary conserved and ubiquitously expression protein, CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) has diverse regulatory functions, including gene regulation, imprinting, insulation, X chromosome inactivation, and the establishment of three-dimensional (3D) chromatin structure during human embryogenesis. [AbstractComplete] =>

The processes of cancer and embryonic development have a partially overlapping effect. Several transcription factor families, which are highly conserved in the evolutionary history of biology, play a key role in the development of cancer and are often responsible for the pivotal developmental processes such as cell survival, expansion, senescence, and differentiation. As an evolutionary conserved and ubiquitously expression protein, CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) has diverse regulatory functions, including gene regulation, imprinting, insulation, X chromosome inactivation, and the establishment of three-dimensional (3D) chromatin structure during human embryogenesis. In various cancers, CTCF is considered as a tumor suppressor gene and plays homeostatic roles in maintaining genome function and integrity. However, the mechanisms of CTCF in tumor development have not been fully elucidated. Here, this review will focus on the key roles of CTCF in cancer evolution and development (Cancer Evo-Dev) and embryogenesis.

[Names] => Zishuai Li ... Guangwen Cao [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00068 [Published] => December 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1141 [Downloaded] => 36 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00068 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:516–526 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => CCCTC-binding factor, cancer evolution and development, embryogenesis [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100168 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100168/f086fbcb00f18150e6a1b8679fb3382b.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100168/f3481525ecc57e768710e96f8b328417.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Li Z, Zhou X, Cai S, Fan J, Wei Z, Chen Y, et al. Key roles of CCCTC-binding factor in cancer evolution and development. Explor Med. 2021;2:516–26. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00068 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => GuangwenCao, [CEmail] => gcao@smmu.edu.cn, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:40:54 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:40:54 [KeysWordContens] => Key roles of CCCTC-binding factor in cancer evolution and development, CCCTC-binding factor, cancer evolution and development, embryogenesis, The processes of cancer and embryonic development have a partially overlapping effect. Several transcription factor families, which are highly conserved in the evolutionary history of biology, play a key role in the development of cancer and are often responsible for the pivotal developmental processes such as cell survival, expansion, senescence, and differentiation. As an evolutionary conserved and ubiquitously expression protein, CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) has diverse regulatory functions, including gene regulation, imprinting, insulation, X chromosome inactivation, and the establishment of three-dimensional (3D) chromatin structure during human embryogenesis. In various cancers, CTCF is considered as a tumor suppressor gene and plays homeostatic roles in maintaining genome function and integrity. However, the mechanisms of CTCF in tumor development have not been fully elucidated. Here, this review will focus on the key roles of CTCF in cancer evolution and development (Cancer Evo-Dev) and embryogenesis. ,Zishuai Li ... Guangwen Cao [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [68] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 232 [Create_Time] => 2021-12-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202201/20220106022829.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100169/100169.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100169/100169.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100169/100169_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => A global genetic epidemiological review of pseudoexfoliation syndrome [Abstract] => Pseudoexfoliation (PXF) syndrome is an important public health concern requiring individual population level analysis. Disease prevalence differs by geographic location and ethnicity, and has environmental, demographic, genetic, and molecular risk factors have been demonstrated. Epidemiological factors that have been associated with PXF include age, sex, environmental factors, and diet. Genetic and molecular components have also been identified that are associated with PXF. [AbstractComplete] =>

Pseudoexfoliation (PXF) syndrome is an important public health concern requiring individual population level analysis. Disease prevalence differs by geographic location and ethnicity, and has environmental, demographic, genetic, and molecular risk factors have been demonstrated. Epidemiological factors that have been associated with PXF include age, sex, environmental factors, and diet. Genetic and molecular components have also been identified that are associated with PXF. Underserved populations are often understudied within scientific research, including research about eye disease such as PXF, contributing to the persistence of health disparities within these populations. In each population, PXF needs may be different, and by having research that identifies individual population needs about PXF, the resources in that population can be more efficiently utilized. Otherwise, PXF intervention and care management based only on the broadest level of understanding may continue to exacerbate health disparities in populations disproportionally burdened by PXF.

[Names] => Patrice M. Hicks ... Margaret M. DeAngelis [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00069 [Published] => December 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1524 [Downloaded] => 62 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00069 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:527–543 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Global, genetic, epidemiological, review, pseudoexfoliation [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100169 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100169/243bd478d45bd304f8bc668bdbd38a6a.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100169/52e4835d564ba598fa73d47e814bc801.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Hicks PM, Siedlecki A, Haaland B, Owen LA, Au E, Feehan M, et al. A global genetic epidemiological review of pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Explor Med. 2021;2:527–43. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00069 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Margaret M.DeAngelis, [CEmail] => mmdeange@buffalo.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:42:44 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:42:44 [KeysWordContens] => A global genetic epidemiological review of pseudoexfoliation syndrome, Global, genetic, epidemiological, review, pseudoexfoliation, Pseudoexfoliation (PXF) syndrome is an important public health concern requiring individual population level analysis. Disease prevalence differs by geographic location and ethnicity, and has environmental, demographic, genetic, and molecular risk factors have been demonstrated. Epidemiological factors that have been associated with PXF include age, sex, environmental factors, and diet. Genetic and molecular components have also been identified that are associated with PXF. Underserved populations are often understudied within scientific research, including research about eye disease such as PXF, contributing to the persistence of health disparities within these populations. In each population, PXF needs may be different, and by having research that identifies individual population needs about PXF, the resources in that population can be more efficiently utilized. Otherwise, PXF intervention and care management based only on the broadest level of understanding may continue to exacerbate health disparities in populations disproportionally burdened by PXF. ,Patrice M. Hicks ... Margaret M. DeAngelis [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [69] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 233 [Create_Time] => 2021-12-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202201/20220105074141.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100170/100170.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100170/100170.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100170/100170_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Antioxidant enzymes and vascular diseases [Abstract] => Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a fundamental role in regulating endothelial function and vascular tone in the physiological conditions of a vascular system. However, oxidative stress has detrimental effects on human health, and numerous studies confirmed that high ROS/RNS production contributes to the initiation and progression of cardiovascular diseases. The antioxidant defense has an essential role in the homeostatic functioning of the vascular endothelial system. Endogenous antioxidative defense includes various molecules and enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase. [AbstractComplete] =>

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a fundamental role in regulating endothelial function and vascular tone in the physiological conditions of a vascular system. However, oxidative stress has detrimental effects on human health, and numerous studies confirmed that high ROS/RNS production contributes to the initiation and progression of cardiovascular diseases. The antioxidant defense has an essential role in the homeostatic functioning of the vascular endothelial system. Endogenous antioxidative defense includes various molecules and enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase. Together all these antioxidative enzymes are essential for defense against harmful ROS features. ROS are mainly generated from redox-active compounds involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Thus, targeting antioxidative enzymes and mitochondria oxidative balance may be a promising approach for vascular diseases occurrence and treatment. This review summarized the most recent research on the regulation of antioxidative enzymes in vascular diseases.

[Names] => Jelena Radovanovic ... Esma R. Isenovic [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2021.00070 [Published] => December 31, 2021 [Viewed] => 1650 [Downloaded] => 68 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2021 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2021.00070 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 54 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2021;2:544–555 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, vascular diseases [DetailTitle] => Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Pathophysiological Conditions [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/54 [Id] => 100170 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100170/14aeb9b97706b751c775ccf595bd9e4b.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100170/18212123b810ecd6844c8bafd2cbb449.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 6 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Radovanovic J, Banjac K, Obradovic M, Isenovic ER. Antioxidant enzymes and vascular diseases. Explor Med. 2021;2:544–55. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2021.00070 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => JelenaRadovanovic, [CEmail] => jelenarad89@gmail.com, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:45:38 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-13 09:45:38 [KeysWordContens] => Antioxidant enzymes and vascular diseases, Reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, vascular diseases, Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a fundamental role in regulating endothelial function and vascular tone in the physiological conditions of a vascular system. However, oxidative stress has detrimental effects on human health, and numerous studies confirmed that high ROS/RNS production contributes to the initiation and progression of cardiovascular diseases. The antioxidant defense has an essential role in the homeostatic functioning of the vascular endothelial system. Endogenous antioxidative defense includes various molecules and enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase. Together all these antioxidative enzymes are essential for defense against harmful ROS features. ROS are mainly generated from redox-active compounds involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Thus, targeting antioxidative enzymes and mitochondria oxidative balance may be a promising approach for vascular diseases occurrence and treatment. This review summarized the most recent research on the regulation of antioxidative enzymes in vascular diseases. ,Jelena Radovanovic ... Esma R. Isenovic [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [70] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 244 [Create_Time] => 2022-01-19 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202203/20220303005948.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100171/100171.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100171/100171.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100171/100171_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Preclinical toxicity test results of a new antiviral–immune-modulator compound consisting of flavonoid molecules (COVID-19 clinical trial preliminary data) [Abstract] => Aim: Isolated specific glycone–aglycone conjugated flavonoids which are investigated for their effect of bioavailability and molecular concentrations. The specific formula is then tested [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Isolated specific glycone–aglycone conjugated flavonoids which are investigated for their effect of bioavailability and molecular concentrations. The specific formula is then tested via in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity tests.

Methods:

Considering the higher affinity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), quercetin, quercetin 3-sambubioside-3’-glucoside, luteolin, apigenin-7-4’alloside, kaempferol-7-O-glucoside, epicatechin-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, and hesperetin were selected to investigate the effects of a new combination of the formula. Specific chemical analyses, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS), quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (QTOF–MS) analysis and ultraviolet–visible (UV–VIS) spectrophotometry, were performed for molecular qualification and quantification.

Results:

In silico molecular docking analyses have shown that flavonoids can bind strongly to the spike protein and main protease of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Flavonoids also have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating activity by inhibiting cytokines. Although flavonoids may be a treatment alternative for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an effective flavonoid compound has yet to be developed. The main problem here is that the absorption rate of flavonoids is very low (2–10%) in the intestines, and these compounds are metabolized rapidly. In contrast, according to recent literature, a conjugated flavonoid mixture is better absorbed in the small intestine, and its toxic effects are relatively fewer.

Conclusions:

It is found that the new formula has no cytotoxic or genotoxic effects. Furthermore, oral administrations of the new compound did not produce any toxicity symptoms or any mortality in male and female rats. The pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo toxicity test results indicated that the new flavonoid formula can be safely used for clinical trials.

[Names] => Gürer G. Budak ... Orkun Tarkun [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00071 [Published] => January 18, 2022 [Viewed] => 1207 [Downloaded] => 60 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00071 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:1–21 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, polyphenols, flavonoids, antiviral, immune-modulator, pre-clinical tests [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100171 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100171/26cdca517223ea5bf7b88712b5ca209c.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100171/24b9aa7cd6411b862a777a29d049ef77.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Budak GG, Özkan S, Budak M, Şeker T, Meryemoglu B, Miran ŞS, et al. Preclinical toxicity test results of a new antiviral–immune-modulator compound consisting of flavonoid molecules (COVID-19 clinical trial preliminary data). Explor Med. 2022;3:1–21. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00071 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => MehmetBudak, [CEmail] => memetics@mail.com, [Ris_Time] => 2022-01-20 09:09:09 [Bib_Time] => 2022-01-20 09:09:09 [KeysWordContens] => Preclinical toxicity test results of a new antiviral–immune-modulator compound consisting of flavonoid molecules (COVID-19 clinical trial preliminary data), SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, polyphenols, flavonoids, antiviral, immune-modulator, pre-clinical tests, Aim: Isolated specific glycone–aglycone conjugated flavonoids which are investigated for their effect of bioavailability and molecular concentrations. The specific formula is then tested via in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity tests. Methods: Considering the higher affinity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), quercetin, quercetin 3-sambubioside-3’-glucoside, luteolin, apigenin-7-4’alloside, kaempferol-7-O-glucoside, epicatechin-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, and hesperetin were selected to investigate the effects of a new combination of the formula. Specific chemical analyses, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS), quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (QTOF–MS) analysis and ultraviolet–visible (UV–VIS) spectrophotometry, were performed for molecular qualification and quantification. Results: In silico molecular docking analyses have shown that flavonoids can bind strongly to the spike protein and main protease of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Flavonoids also have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating activity by inhibiting cytokines. Although flavonoids may be a treatment alternative for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an effective flavonoid compound has yet to be developed. The main problem here is that the absorption rate of flavonoids is very low (2–10%) in the intestines, and these compounds are metabolized rapidly. In contrast, according to recent literature, a conjugated flavonoid mixture is better absorbed in the small intestine, and its toxic effects are relatively fewer. Conclusions: It is found that the new formula has no cytotoxic or genotoxic effects. Furthermore, oral administrations of the new compound did not produce any toxicity symptoms or any mortality in male and female rats. The pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo toxicity test results indicated that the new flavonoid formula can be safely used for clinical trials. ,Gürer G. Budak ... Orkun Tarkun [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [71] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 253 [Create_Time] => 2022-02-16 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202203/20220301021217.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100172/100172.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100172/100172.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100172/100172_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Nano-immunotherapeutics: targeting approach as strategic regulation at tumor microenvironment for cancer treatment [Abstract] => Cancer is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, which necessitates our consideration related to novel treatment approach. Tumor cells at the tumor microenvironment (TME), regulate a plethora of [AbstractComplete] =>

Cancer is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, which necessitates our consideration related to novel treatment approach. Tumor cells at the tumor microenvironment (TME), regulate a plethora of key mechanistic signaling pathways that obstruct antitumor immune responses by immune suppression, immune resistance or acquired immune tolerance. The present therapeutic regimes are provided independently or in combination, or as immunotherapies for cancer immune targeting. Immunotherapy has altered the arena of oncology and patient care. By using the host immune system, the immunostimulatory molecules can exert a robust, personalized response against the patient’s own tumors. Alternatively, tumors may exploit these strategies to escape immune recognition, and accordingly, such mechanisms represent chances for immunotherapy intervention. Nonetheless, despite promising outcomes from immunotherapies in recurrent and metastatic cancers, immune-therapeutics in clinics have been limited owing to unpredictability in the produced immune response and reported instances of immune-related adverse effects. The unrealized potential of immunotherapies in cancer management maybe due to the obstacles such as heterogeneous nature, multiple targets, patients’ immune response, specificity for cancer or variability in response generation in toxicity levels, delivery and cost related to therapeutics etc. Further revolutionary trends related to immunotherapies are noticeable with slower progress for cancer management. Recent advances in nanomedicine strategize to ameliorate the lacuna of immunotherapy as it relies on the inherent biophysical characteristics of nanocarriers: size, shape, surface charge and multifunctionality and exploiting them as first line therapy for delivery of biomolecules, single checkpoint inhibitors and for imaging of TME. Therefore, nano-assisted immunotherapies can boost the immunotherapeutic approach, overcoming factors that are with imminent potential risks related to it, thereby significantly improving the survival rate associated with it in cancer patients. Nanotechnology is anticipated to overcome the confines of existing cancer immunotherapy and to successfully combine various cancer treatment modes.

[Names] => Priyanka Singh ... Anita Kamra Verma [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00072 [Published] => February 16, 2022 [Viewed] => 1566 [Downloaded] => 46 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00072 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 36 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:22–42 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Nano-assisted immunotherapies, tumor microenvironment, nanomedicine [DetailTitle] => Nanomedicine and Cancer Immunotherapy [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/36 [Id] => 100172 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100172/09ab6b751ed82a5fdf3df06b01ff5e19.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100172/aa30b12d2e82ef3429d1bf9174094369.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Singh P, Yadav M, Niveria K, Verma AK. Nano-immunotherapeutics: targeting approach as strategic regulation at TME for cancer treatment. Explor Med. 2022;3:22–42. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00072 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-02-17 01:24:12 [Bib_Time] => 2022-02-15 03:15:59 [KeysWordContens] => Nano-immunotherapeutics: targeting approach as strategic regulation at tumor microenvironment for cancer treatment, Nano-assisted immunotherapies, tumor microenvironment, nanomedicine, Cancer is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, which necessitates our consideration related to novel treatment approach. Tumor cells at the tumor microenvironment (TME), regulate a plethora of key mechanistic signaling pathways that obstruct antitumor immune responses by immune suppression, immune resistance or acquired immune tolerance. The present therapeutic regimes are provided independently or in combination, or as immunotherapies for cancer immune targeting. Immunotherapy has altered the arena of oncology and patient care. By using the host immune system, the immunostimulatory molecules can exert a robust, personalized response against the patient’s own tumors. Alternatively, tumors may exploit these strategies to escape immune recognition, and accordingly, such mechanisms represent chances for immunotherapy intervention. Nonetheless, despite promising outcomes from immunotherapies in recurrent and metastatic cancers, immune-therapeutics in clinics have been limited owing to unpredictability in the produced immune response and reported instances of immune-related adverse effects. The unrealized potential of immunotherapies in cancer management maybe due to the obstacles such as heterogeneous nature, multiple targets, patients’ immune response, specificity for cancer or variability in response generation in toxicity levels, delivery and cost related to therapeutics etc. Further revolutionary trends related to immunotherapies are noticeable with slower progress for cancer management. Recent advances in nanomedicine strategize to ameliorate the lacuna of immunotherapy as it relies on the inherent biophysical characteristics of nanocarriers: size, shape, surface charge and multifunctionality and exploiting them as first line therapy for delivery of biomolecules, single checkpoint inhibitors and for imaging of TME. Therefore, nano-assisted immunotherapies can boost the immunotherapeutic approach, overcoming factors that are with imminent potential risks related to it, thereby significantly improving the survival rate associated with it in cancer patients. Nanotechnology is anticipated to overcome the confines of existing cancer immunotherapy and to successfully combine various cancer treatment modes. ,Priyanka Singh ... Anita Kamra Verma [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [72] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 257 [Create_Time] => 2022-02-22 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202202/20220222072425.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100173/100173.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100173/100173.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100173/100173_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Reactive oxygen species in cancer progression and its role in therapeutics [Abstract] => The redox status in pathogenesis is critically regulated by careful balance between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their elimination. Increased ROS level above the cellular tole [AbstractComplete] =>

The redox status in pathogenesis is critically regulated by careful balance between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their elimination. Increased ROS level above the cellular tolerability threshold results in apoptotic or necrotic cell death. ROS belongs to a group of highly reactive compounds that have evolved to play key roles in cellular signaling pathways. It’s widely assumed that a reasonable amount of ROS is essential for a variety of biological processes. Elevated levels of ROS are known to cause various pathologic conditions like neurological disorders, cardiovascular conditions, inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer. ROS is well known to initiate and assist in progression of tumor by promoting proliferation and survival of cancer cells and thus facilitates pro-tumorigenic signaling in tumor microenvironment. As cancer cells become more resilient to the effects of ROS manipulating drugs, increased antioxidant capacity attenuates their susceptibility to cancer treatment. Excessive environmental stress, on the other hand, can cause cancer cells to die. This review summarizes various molecular mechanisms including the role of checkpoint inhibitors that can be harnessed to develop effective therapeutic strategies for targeting ROS related signaling in cancer.

[Names] => Ranjeet Singh, Partha Pratim Manna [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00073 [Published] => February 22, 2022 [Viewed] => 3926 [Downloaded] => 181 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00073 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 54 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:43–57 [Recommend] => 1 [Keywords] => Redox homeostasis, reactive oxygen species signaling, cancer, metastasis, angiogenesis, checkpoint inhibitors, therapeutic relevance [DetailTitle] => Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Pathophysiological Conditions [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/54 [Id] => 100173 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100173/177f23b26c0f02ad760fe73c6700240e.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100173/14b490b25bc758dc747e701666f2e889.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 13 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Singh R, Manna PP. Reactive oxygen species in cancer progression and its role in therapeutics. Explor Med. 2022;3:43–57. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00073 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-02-22 07:25:10 [Bib_Time] => 2022-02-22 07:25:10 [KeysWordContens] => Reactive oxygen species in cancer progression and its role in therapeutics, Redox homeostasis, reactive oxygen species signaling, cancer, metastasis, angiogenesis, checkpoint inhibitors, therapeutic relevance, The redox status in pathogenesis is critically regulated by careful balance between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their elimination. Increased ROS level above the cellular tolerability threshold results in apoptotic or necrotic cell death. ROS belongs to a group of highly reactive compounds that have evolved to play key roles in cellular signaling pathways. It’s widely assumed that a reasonable amount of ROS is essential for a variety of biological processes. Elevated levels of ROS are known to cause various pathologic conditions like neurological disorders, cardiovascular conditions, inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer. ROS is well known to initiate and assist in progression of tumor by promoting proliferation and survival of cancer cells and thus facilitates pro-tumorigenic signaling in tumor microenvironment. As cancer cells become more resilient to the effects of ROS manipulating drugs, increased antioxidant capacity attenuates their susceptibility to cancer treatment. Excessive environmental stress, on the other hand, can cause cancer cells to die. This review summarizes various molecular mechanisms including the role of checkpoint inhibitors that can be harnessed to develop effective therapeutic strategies for targeting ROS related signaling in cancer. ,Ranjeet Singh, Partha Pratim Manna [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [73] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 262 [Create_Time] => 2022-02-23 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230303091232.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100174/100174.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100174/100174.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100174/100174_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Oxidative stress in obesity and insulin resistance [Abstract] => Since obesity is one of the main factors in the development of insulin resistance (IR) and is also associated with increased oxidative stress (OxS) rate, this study aims to review the published lite [AbstractComplete] =>

Since obesity is one of the main factors in the development of insulin resistance (IR) and is also associated with increased oxidative stress (OxS) rate, this study aims to review the published literature to collate and provide a comprehensive summary of the studies related to the status of the OxS in the pathogenesis of obesity and related IR. OxS represents an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and the capacity of the antioxidant defense system (AOS) to neutralize RONS. A steady-state of RONS level is maintained through endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic AOS components. Three crucial enzymes, which suppress the formation of free radicals, are superoxide dismutases, catalases, and glutathione peroxidases. The second line of AOS includes non-enzymatic components such as vitamins C and E, coenzyme Q, and glutathione which neutralizes free radicals by donating electrons to RONS. Emerging evidence suggests that high RONS levels contribute to the progression of OxS in obesity by activating inflammatory pathways and thus leading to the development of pathological states, including IR. In addition, decreased level of AOS components in obesity increases the susceptibility to oxidative tissue damage and further progression of its comorbidities. Increased OxS in accumulated adipose tissue should be an imperative target for developing new therapies in obesity-related IR.

[Names] => Anastasija Panic ... Esma R. Isenovic [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00074 [Published] => February 23, 2022 [Viewed] => 2415 [Downloaded] => 124 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00074 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 54 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:58–70 [Recommend] => 1 [Keywords] => Antioxidant defense system, inflammation, insulin resistance, obesity, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species [DetailTitle] => Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Pathophysiological Conditions [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/54 [Id] => 100174 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100174/beaa1ae7349d64765d0f89955dc963b3.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100174/942f91a12f42e365e5ceae9db96bbc8a.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 9 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Panic A, Stanimirovic J, Sudar-Milovanovic E, Isenovic ER. Oxidative stress in obesity and insulin resistance. Explor Med. 2022;3:58–70. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00074 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => EminaSudar-Milovanovic, [CEmail] => emma_crash@yahoo.com, [Ris_Time] => 2022-02-22 08:26:05 [Bib_Time] => 2022-02-23 07:26:08 [KeysWordContens] => Oxidative stress in obesity and insulin resistance, Antioxidant defense system, inflammation, insulin resistance, obesity, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, Since obesity is one of the main factors in the development of insulin resistance (IR) and is also associated with increased oxidative stress (OxS) rate, this study aims to review the published literature to collate and provide a comprehensive summary of the studies related to the status of the OxS in the pathogenesis of obesity and related IR. OxS represents an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and the capacity of the antioxidant defense system (AOS) to neutralize RONS. A steady-state of RONS level is maintained through endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic AOS components. Three crucial enzymes, which suppress the formation of free radicals, are superoxide dismutases, catalases, and glutathione peroxidases. The second line of AOS includes non-enzymatic components such as vitamins C and E, coenzyme Q, and glutathione which neutralizes free radicals by donating electrons to RONS. Emerging evidence suggests that high RONS levels contribute to the progression of OxS in obesity by activating inflammatory pathways and thus leading to the development of pathological states, including IR. In addition, decreased level of AOS components in obesity increases the susceptibility to oxidative tissue damage and further progression of its comorbidities. Increased OxS in accumulated adipose tissue should be an imperative target for developing new therapies in obesity-related IR. ,Anastasija Panic ... Esma R. Isenovic [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [74] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 265 [Create_Time] => 2022-02-25 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230302073844.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100175/100175.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100175/100175.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100175/100175_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Elimination of hepatitis C virus infection in Europe: targeting the obstacles [Abstract] => [AbstractComplete] => [Names] => Dante Romagnoli [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00075 [Published] => February 24, 2022 [Viewed] => 841 [Downloaded] => 22 [Subject] => Editorial [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00075 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 39 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:71–76 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => [DetailTitle] => Exploring Chronic Liver Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/39 [Id] => 100175 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100175/1fdee42eaad8f1858939e14c04a78391.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100175/ac8454fe14345c7823912b82cb1b948c.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Romagnoli D. Elimination of hepatitis C virus infection in Europe: targeting the obstacles. Explor Med. 2022;3:71–6. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00075 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => DanteRomagnoli, [CEmail] => dromagno@unimore.it, [Ris_Time] => 2022-02-24 01:38:11 [Bib_Time] => 2022-02-24 01:38:11 [KeysWordContens] => Elimination of hepatitis C virus infection in Europe: targeting the obstacles,,,Dante Romagnoli [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [75] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 266 [Create_Time] => 2022-02-25 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202202/20220224074303.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100176/100176.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100176/100176.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100176/100176_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Multi-faced roles of reactive oxygen species in anti-tumor T cell immune responses and combination immunotherapy [Abstract] => T cells play a central role in anti-tumor immunity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) lie at the crossroad on the anti-tumor T cell responses. To activate efficient T cell immunity, a moderate level [AbstractComplete] =>

T cells play a central role in anti-tumor immunity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) lie at the crossroad on the anti-tumor T cell responses. To activate efficient T cell immunity, a moderate level of ROS is needed, however, excessive ROS would cause toxicity to the T cells, because the improper level leads to the formation and maintenance of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Up to date, strategies that modulate ROS, either increasing or decreasing, have been widely investigated. Some of them are utilized in anti-tumor therapies, showing inevitable impacts on the anti-tumor T cell immunity with both obverse and reverse sides. Herein, the impacts of ROS-increasing and ROS-decreasing treatments on the T cell responses in the tumor microenvironment are reviewed and discussed. At the same time, outcomes of combination immunotherapies are introduced to put forward inspirations to unleash the potential of immunotherapies.

[Names] => Tao Wang, Haiyan Xu [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00076 [Published] => February 25, 2022 [Viewed] => 1702 [Downloaded] => 63 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00076 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 54 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:77–98 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Reactive oxygen species, T cells, tumor, therapy, immunotherapy [DetailTitle] => Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Pathophysiological Conditions [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/54 [Id] => 100176 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100176/85dc05fc7b8b21a2bc0aa7eeb13a5fee.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100176/84c5248b515a63539a73ea01be27d183.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 3 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Wang T, Xu H. Multi-faced roles of reactive oxygen species in anti-tumor T cell immune responses and combination immunotherapy. Explor Med. 2022;3:77–98. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00076 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-02-24 06:23:41 [Bib_Time] => 2022-02-24 06:23:41 [KeysWordContens] => Multi-faced roles of reactive oxygen species in anti-tumor T cell immune responses and combination immunotherapy, Reactive oxygen species, T cells, tumor, therapy, immunotherapy, T cells play a central role in anti-tumor immunity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) lie at the crossroad on the anti-tumor T cell responses. To activate efficient T cell immunity, a moderate level of ROS is needed, however, excessive ROS would cause toxicity to the T cells, because the improper level leads to the formation and maintenance of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Up to date, strategies that modulate ROS, either increasing or decreasing, have been widely investigated. Some of them are utilized in anti-tumor therapies, showing inevitable impacts on the anti-tumor T cell immunity with both obverse and reverse sides. Herein, the impacts of ROS-increasing and ROS-decreasing treatments on the T cell responses in the tumor microenvironment are reviewed and discussed. At the same time, outcomes of combination immunotherapies are introduced to put forward inspirations to unleash the potential of immunotherapies. ,Tao Wang, Haiyan Xu [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [76] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 269 [Create_Time] => 2022-02-25 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202202/20220225084239.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100177/100177.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100177/100177.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100177/100177_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Placental CD4+ T cells from preeclamptic patients cause autoantibodies to the angiotensin II type I receptor and hypertension in a pregnant rat model of preeclampsia [Abstract] => Aim: Preeclampsia (PE) is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy associated with activated CD4+ T cells and autoantibodies to angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-AA). We have previously [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Preeclampsia (PE) is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy associated with activated CD4+ T cells and autoantibodies to angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-AA). We have previously shown that CD4+ T cells isolated from women with PE cause hypertension, increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), endothelin-1, and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) when injected into pregnant nude-athymic rats compared to CD4+ T cells from normal pregnant (NP) women. However, the role of PE CD4+ T cells to cause AT1-AA as a mechanism of hypertension is not known. Our goal was to determine if PE CD4+ T cells stimulate AT1-AA in pregnant nude-athymic rats.

Methods:

CD4+ T cells were isolated from human NP and PE placentasand injected into nude-athymic rats on gestational day (GD) 12. In order to examine the role of the PE CD4+ T cells to stimulate B cell secretion of AT1-AA, a subset of the rats receiving PE CD4+ T cells were treated with rituximab on GD 14 or anti-CD40 ligand (anti-CD40L) on GD 12. On GD 19, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and tissues were obtained.

Results:

MAP [114 ± 1 mmHg (n = 9)] and AT1-AA [19.8 ± 0.9 beats per minute (bpm, n = 4)] were increased in NP nude + PE CD4+ T cells compared to NP nude + NP CD4+ T cells [98 ± 2 mmHg (n = 7, P < 0.05) and 1.3 ± 0.9 bpm (n = 5, P < 0.05)]. Rituximab (103 ± 2 mmHg, n = 3, P < 0.05) and anti-CD40L (102 ± 1 mmHg, n = 3, P < 0.05) lowered MAP compared to NP nude + PE CD4+ T cells. Circulating a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and placental angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) activity was increased in response to PE CD4+ T cells.

Conclusions:

These results show that placental CD4+ T cells play an important role in the pathophysiology of PE, by activating B cells secreting AT1-AA to cause hypertension during pregnancy.

[Names] => Kristin E. Reeve ... Babbette LaMarca [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00077 [Published] => February 25, 2022 [Viewed] => 1330 [Downloaded] => 62 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00077 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 37 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:99–111 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Adaptive immunity, hypertensions, pre-eclampsia, CD4+ T cells [DetailTitle] => Angiotensins—A Century of Progress [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/37 [Id] => 100177 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100177/c92858cd8a55e8064991f2dba72af107.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100177/a5a725be54279a6fc3df090f721dd4a9.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 6 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Reeve KE, Deer E, Amaral LM, Cornelius DC, Herrock O, Harmon AC, et al. Placental CD4+ T cells from preeclamptic patients cause autoantibodies to the angiotensin II type I receptor and hypertension in a pregnant rat model of preeclampsia. Explor Med. 2022;3:99–111. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00077 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-02-24 08:42:34 [Bib_Time] => 2022-02-24 06:09:05 [KeysWordContens] => Placental CD4+ T cells from preeclamptic patients cause autoantibodies to the angiotensin II type I receptor and hypertension in a pregnant rat model of preeclampsia, Adaptive immunity, hypertensions, pre-eclampsia, CD4+ T cells, Aim: Preeclampsia (PE) is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy associated with activated CD4+ T cells and autoantibodies to angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-AA). We have previously shown that CD4+ T cells isolated from women with PE cause hypertension, increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), endothelin-1, and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) when injected into pregnant nude-athymic rats compared to CD4+ T cells from normal pregnant (NP) women. However, the role of PE CD4+ T cells to cause AT1-AA as a mechanism of hypertension is not known. Our goal was to determine if PE CD4+ T cells stimulate AT1-AA in pregnant nude-athymic rats. Methods: CD4+ T cells were isolated from human NP and PE placentasand injected into nude-athymic rats on gestational day (GD) 12. In order to examine the role of the PE CD4+ T cells to stimulate B cell secretion of AT1-AA, a subset of the rats receiving PE CD4+ T cells were treated with rituximab on GD 14 or anti-CD40 ligand (anti-CD40L) on GD 12. On GD 19, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and tissues were obtained. Results: MAP [114 ± 1 mmHg (n = 9)] and AT1-AA [19.8 ± 0.9 beats per minute (bpm, n = 4)] were increased in NP nude + PE CD4+ T cells compared to NP nude + NP CD4+ T cells [98 ± 2 mmHg (n = 7, P < 0.05) and 1.3 ± 0.9 bpm (n = 5, P < 0.05)]. Rituximab (103 ± 2 mmHg, n = 3, P < 0.05) and anti-CD40L (102 ± 1 mmHg, n = 3, P < 0.05) lowered MAP compared to NP nude + PE CD4+ T cells. Circulating a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and placental angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) activity was increased in response to PE CD4+ T cells. Conclusions: These results show that placental CD4+ T cells play an important role in the pathophysiology of PE, by activating B cells secreting AT1-AA to cause hypertension during pregnancy. ,Kristin E. Reeve ... Babbette LaMarca [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [77] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 270 [Create_Time] => 2022-02-25 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202202/20220225141714.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100178/100178.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100178/100178.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100178/100178_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => The potential anti-cancer effects of melatonin on breast cancer [Abstract] => Melatonin is the primary hormone of the pineal gland that is secreted at night. It regulates many physiological functions, including the sleep-wake cycle, gonadal activity, free radical scavenging, [AbstractComplete] =>

Melatonin is the primary hormone of the pineal gland that is secreted at night. It regulates many physiological functions, including the sleep-wake cycle, gonadal activity, free radical scavenging, immunomodulation, neuro-protection, and cancer progression. The precise functions of melatonin are mediated by guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein (G-protein) coupled melatonin receptor 1 (MT1) and MT2 receptors. However, nuclear receptors are also associated with melatonin activity. Circadian rhythm disruption, shift work, and light exposure at night hamper melatonin production. Impaired melatonin level promotes various pathophysiological changes, including cancer. In our modern society, breast cancer is a serious problem throughout the world. Several studies have been indicated the link between low levels of melatonin and breast cancer development. Melatonin has oncostatic properties in breast cancer cells. This indolamine advances apoptosis, which arrests the cell cycle and regulates metabolic activity. Moreover, melatonin increases the treatment efficacy of cancer and can be used as an adjuvant with chemotherapeutic agents.

[Names] => Naba Kumar Das, Saptadip Samanta [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00078 [Published] => February 25, 2022 [Viewed] => 9125 [Downloaded] => 173 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00078 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:112–127 [Recommend] => 1 [Keywords] => Melatonin, breast cancer, cell cycle, apoptosis, chemotherapy [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100178 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100178/19e2acc4fa2a7fec740ada0ba8c231f4.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100178/b23c00e21d157d494e52284becc48d27.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Das NK, Samanta S. The potential anti-cancer effects of melatonin on breast cancer. Explor Med. 2022;3:112–27. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00078 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-02-25 02:26:52 [Bib_Time] => 2022-02-25 02:26:52 [KeysWordContens] => The potential anti-cancer effects of melatonin on breast cancer, Melatonin, breast cancer, cell cycle, apoptosis, chemotherapy, Melatonin is the primary hormone of the pineal gland that is secreted at night. It regulates many physiological functions, including the sleep-wake cycle, gonadal activity, free radical scavenging, immunomodulation, neuro-protection, and cancer progression. The precise functions of melatonin are mediated by guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein (G-protein) coupled melatonin receptor 1 (MT1) and MT2 receptors. However, nuclear receptors are also associated with melatonin activity. Circadian rhythm disruption, shift work, and light exposure at night hamper melatonin production. Impaired melatonin level promotes various pathophysiological changes, including cancer. In our modern society, breast cancer is a serious problem throughout the world. Several studies have been indicated the link between low levels of melatonin and breast cancer development. Melatonin has oncostatic properties in breast cancer cells. This indolamine advances apoptosis, which arrests the cell cycle and regulates metabolic activity. Moreover, melatonin increases the treatment efficacy of cancer and can be used as an adjuvant with chemotherapeutic agents. ,Naba Kumar Das, Saptadip Samanta [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [78] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 281 [Create_Time] => 2022-03-17 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202204/20220429065613.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100179/100179.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100179/100179.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100179/100179_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Time-varying serum uric acid predicts new-onset atrial fibrillation in treated hypertensive patients. The LIFE Study [Abstract] => Aim: The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study showed less new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in hypertensive patients receiving losartan- vs. atenolol-based t [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study showed less new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in hypertensive patients receiving losartan- vs. atenolol-based treatment. Because losartan reduces serum uric acid (SUA) levels, the aim of the present study was to investigate relations of SUA with new-onset AF in the study.

Methods:

Hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic (ECG) left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and no prior AF (n = 8,243) were treated for 5.0 ± 0.4 years with losartan- or atenolol-based therapy. Associations of SUA with new-onset AF documented by Minnesota coding were assessed by Cox models using SUA and systolic blood pressure as time-varying covariates to take into account changes of SUA related to losartan or diuretic treatment, changes in renal function, and aging.

Results:

Time-varying SUA was associated with new AF defined by Minnesota code [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19 per 16.8 μmol/L (1 mg/dL), (95% confidence intervals (CIs), 1.12–1.26), P < 0.0001], independent of losartan treatment [HR = 0.75 (95% CIs, 0.61–0.93), P = 0.007], older age [HR = 1.95 per 7.0 years (95% CIs, 1.73–2.20), P < 0.0001], male sex [HR = 1.46 (95% CIs, 1.09–1.94), P = 0.010] and higher Cornell voltage-duration product [HR = 1.10 per 1,023 ms·mm (95% CIs, 1.01–1.21), P = 0.034]. Similar results were obtained in Cox models with SUA levels partitioned according to baseline quartiles and in which AF was defined by physician reports or by both Minnesota coding and physician reports.

Conclusions:

In-treatment SUA is a strong predictor for new-onset AF in hypertensive patients, independent of effects of antihypertensive treatment, age, sex, and ECG-LVH. Further research is needed to clarify how uric acid may provoke AF (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00338260).

[Names] => Eran S. Zacks ... Richard B. Devereux [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00079 [Published] => March 17, 2022 [Viewed] => 1108 [Downloaded] => 40 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00079 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 37 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:128–138 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Atrial fibrillation, blood pressure, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, serum uric acid [DetailTitle] => Angiotensins—A Century of Progress [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/37 [Id] => 100179 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100179/3e1c649cee1d94123e5c2adb3e3106e2.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100179/3a27ac4842b865540703c6f8f34a7564.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 2 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Zacks ES, Stokke IM, Wachtell K, Hille DA, Høieggen A, Kjeldsen SE, et al. Time-varying serum uric acid predicts new-onset atrial fibrillation in treated hypertensive patients. The LIFE Study. Explor Med. 2022;3:128–38. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00079 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Richard B.Devereux, [CEmail] => rbdevere@med.cornell.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-29 02:32:23 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-29 02:32:23 [KeysWordContens] => Time-varying serum uric acid predicts new-onset atrial fibrillation in treated hypertensive patients. The LIFE Study, Atrial fibrillation, blood pressure, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, serum uric acid, Aim: The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study showed less new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in hypertensive patients receiving losartan- vs. atenolol-based treatment. Because losartan reduces serum uric acid (SUA) levels, the aim of the present study was to investigate relations of SUA with new-onset AF in the study. Methods: Hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic (ECG) left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and no prior AF (n = 8,243) were treated for 5.0 ± 0.4 years with losartan- or atenolol-based therapy. Associations of SUA with new-onset AF documented by Minnesota coding were assessed by Cox models using SUA and systolic blood pressure as time-varying covariates to take into account changes of SUA related to losartan or diuretic treatment, changes in renal function, and aging. Results: Time-varying SUA was associated with new AF defined by Minnesota code [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19 per 16.8 μmol/L (1 mg/dL), (95% confidence intervals (CIs), 1.12–1.26), P < 0.0001], independent of losartan treatment [HR = 0.75 (95% CIs, 0.61–0.93), P = 0.007], older age [HR = 1.95 per 7.0 years (95% CIs, 1.73–2.20), P < 0.0001], male sex [HR = 1.46 (95% CIs, 1.09–1.94), P = 0.010] and higher Cornell voltage-duration product [HR = 1.10 per 1,023 ms·mm (95% CIs, 1.01–1.21), P = 0.034]. Similar results were obtained in Cox models with SUA levels partitioned according to baseline quartiles and in which AF was defined by physician reports or by both Minnesota coding and physician reports. Conclusions: In-treatment SUA is a strong predictor for new-onset AF in hypertensive patients, independent of effects of antihypertensive treatment, age, sex, and ECG-LVH. Further research is needed to clarify how uric acid may provoke AF (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00338260). ,Eran S. Zacks ... Richard B. Devereux [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [79] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 284 [Create_Time] => 2022-03-24 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202204/20220401103258.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100180/100180.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100180/100180.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100180/100180_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Incident atrial fibrillation and heart failure in treated hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. The LIFE Study [Abstract] => Aim: The present study investigated the appearance and severity of atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) in 8,702 hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) receiving [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

The present study investigated the appearance and severity of atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) in 8,702 hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) receiving antihypertensive treatment in a prospective trial.

Methods:

Patients who had a history of AF or HF were not included, and the participants had sinus rhythm when they were randomly allocated to blinded study medication. Endpoints were adjudicated.

Results:

Incident AF occurred in 679 patients (7.8%) and HF in 246 patients (2.8%) during 4.7 ± 1.1 years mean follow-up. Incident AF was associated with a > 4-fold increased risk of developing subsequent HF [hazards ratios (HRs) = 4.7; 95% confidence intervals (CIs), 3.1–7.0; P < 0.001] in multivariable Cox analyses adjusting for age, sex, race, randomized treatment, standard cardiovascular risk factors and incident myocardial infarction. The development of HF as a time-dependent variable was associated with a multivariable-adjusted 3-fold increase of the primary study endpoint (HRs = 3.11; 95% CIs, 1.52–6.39; P < 0.001) which was a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death. Incident HF was associated with a > 3-fold increased risk of developing subsequent AF (HRs = 3.3; 95% CIs, 2.3–4.9; P < 0.001). This development of AF was associated with a > 2-fold increase of the composite primary study endpoint in multivariable Cox analysis (HRs = 2.26; 95% CIs, 1.09–4.67; P = 0.028).

Conclusions:

Incident atrial fibrillation and heart failure are associated with increased risk of the other in treated hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. Such high-risk hypertensive patients who subsequently develop both atrial fibrillation and heart failure have particular high risk of composite myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00338260).

[Names] => Casper N. Bang ... Peter M. Okin [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00080 [Published] => March 23, 2022 [Viewed] => 1047 [Downloaded] => 33 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00080 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 37 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:139–148 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Atrial fibrillation, blood pressure, hypertension, heart failure, the LIFE study [DetailTitle] => Angiotensins—A Century of Progress [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/37 [Id] => 100180 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100180/25ff6bd225fc1d53667f124b4bf673e7.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100180/1e0daf5f32d12b4c85a2fa37cfa72309.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 2 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Bang CN, Greve AM, Køber L, Muthiah A, Kjeldsen SE, Julius S, et al. Incident atrial fibrillation and heart failure in treated hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. The LIFE Study. Explor Med. 2022;3:139–48. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00080 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-03-24 00:33:08 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-29 03:13:01 [KeysWordContens] => Incident atrial fibrillation and heart failure in treated hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. The LIFE Study, Atrial fibrillation, blood pressure, hypertension, heart failure, the LIFE study, Aim: The present study investigated the appearance and severity of atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) in 8,702 hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) receiving antihypertensive treatment in a prospective trial. Methods: Patients who had a history of AF or HF were not included, and the participants had sinus rhythm when they were randomly allocated to blinded study medication. Endpoints were adjudicated. Results: Incident AF occurred in 679 patients (7.8%) and HF in 246 patients (2.8%) during 4.7 ± 1.1 years mean follow-up. Incident AF was associated with a > 4-fold increased risk of developing subsequent HF [hazards ratios (HRs) = 4.7; 95% confidence intervals (CIs), 3.1–7.0; P < 0.001] in multivariable Cox analyses adjusting for age, sex, race, randomized treatment, standard cardiovascular risk factors and incident myocardial infarction. The development of HF as a time-dependent variable was associated with a multivariable-adjusted 3-fold increase of the primary study endpoint (HRs = 3.11; 95% CIs, 1.52–6.39; P < 0.001) which was a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death. Incident HF was associated with a > 3-fold increased risk of developing subsequent AF (HRs = 3.3; 95% CIs, 2.3–4.9; P < 0.001). This development of AF was associated with a > 2-fold increase of the composite primary study endpoint in multivariable Cox analysis (HRs = 2.26; 95% CIs, 1.09–4.67; P = 0.028). Conclusions: Incident atrial fibrillation and heart failure are associated with increased risk of the other in treated hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. Such high-risk hypertensive patients who subsequently develop both atrial fibrillation and heart failure have particular high risk of composite myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00338260). ,Casper N. Bang ... Peter M. Okin [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [80] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 285 [Create_Time] => 2022-03-30 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202204/20220401102209.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100181/100181.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100181/100181.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100181/100181_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Incident left bundle branch block predicts cardiovascular events and death in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. The LIFE Study [Abstract] => Aim: Whether incident left bundle branch block (LBBB) is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in treated hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy ( [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Whether incident left bundle branch block (LBBB) is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in treated hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is unknown. Thus, the present study aimed to examine CV outcomes of incident LBBB in treated hypertensive patients with LVH.

Methods:

In the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study, 9,193 hypertensive patients with LVH on screening electrocardiogram (ECG) were randomized to losartan or atenolol based treatment. Participants (n = 8,567) did not have LBBB (Minnesota code 7.1) on baseline ECG. Cox regression models controlling for significant covariates assessed independent associations of incident LBBB with CV events and all-cause mortality during 4.8 years mean follow-up.

Results:

Annual follow-up ECGs identified 295 patients (3.4%) with incident LBBB associated with male gender (P < 0.05), older age, higher Cornell voltage (both P < 0.005) and history of diabetes, isolated systolic hypertension and prevalent CV disease. When adjusted for the history of previous CV disease, diabetes, isolated systolic hypertension, the Framingham risk score, ECG-LVH and randomized study treatment, Cox regression models showed that incident LBBB predicted higher risk of the composite endpoint CV death, myocardial infarction and stroke [hazard ratio (HR) 1.9, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.3–2.9, P < 0.001], CV death (HR 3.0, 95% CIs 1.84–5.0, P < 0.001), heart failure (HR 3.6, 95% CIs 1.9–6.6, P < 0.001) and all-cause mortality (HR 3.0, 95% CIs 2.0–4.3, P < 0.001).

Conclusions:

These data suggest that among hypertensive patients with ECG-LVH receiving aggressive antihypertensive therapy, incident LBBB independently predicts increased risk of subsequent CV events including congestive heart failure and CV and all-cause mortality (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00338260).

[Names] => Casper N. Bang ... Peter M. Okin [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00081 [Published] => March 29, 2022 [Viewed] => 1216 [Downloaded] => 30 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00081 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 37 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:149–159 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Blood pressure, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, congestive heart failure, hypertension, left bundle branch block, myocardial infarction [DetailTitle] => Angiotensins—A Century of Progress [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/37 [Id] => 100181 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100181/69cc518879cbc6a8f0ea3605eaf17786.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100181/bc5b1d7a8fc359f25b5606688607bfde.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Bang CN, Li Z, Stokke IM, Kjeldsen SE, Julius S, Hille DA, et al. Incident left bundle branch block predicts cardiovascular events and death in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. The LIFE Study. Explor Med. 2022;3:149–59. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00081 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-29 08:36:14 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-29 08:36:14 [KeysWordContens] => Incident left bundle branch block predicts cardiovascular events and death in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. The LIFE Study, Blood pressure, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, congestive heart failure, hypertension, left bundle branch block, myocardial infarction, Aim: Whether incident left bundle branch block (LBBB) is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in treated hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is unknown. Thus, the present study aimed to examine CV outcomes of incident LBBB in treated hypertensive patients with LVH. Methods: In the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study, 9,193 hypertensive patients with LVH on screening electrocardiogram (ECG) were randomized to losartan or atenolol based treatment. Participants (n = 8,567) did not have LBBB (Minnesota code 7.1) on baseline ECG. Cox regression models controlling for significant covariates assessed independent associations of incident LBBB with CV events and all-cause mortality during 4.8 years mean follow-up. Results: Annual follow-up ECGs identified 295 patients (3.4%) with incident LBBB associated with male gender (P < 0.05), older age, higher Cornell voltage (both P < 0.005) and history of diabetes, isolated systolic hypertension and prevalent CV disease. When adjusted for the history of previous CV disease, diabetes, isolated systolic hypertension, the Framingham risk score, ECG-LVH and randomized study treatment, Cox regression models showed that incident LBBB predicted higher risk of the composite endpoint CV death, myocardial infarction and stroke [hazard ratio (HR) 1.9, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.3–2.9, P < 0.001], CV death (HR 3.0, 95% CIs 1.84–5.0, P < 0.001), heart failure (HR 3.6, 95% CIs 1.9–6.6, P < 0.001) and all-cause mortality (HR 3.0, 95% CIs 2.0–4.3, P < 0.001). Conclusions: These data suggest that among hypertensive patients with ECG-LVH receiving aggressive antihypertensive therapy, incident LBBB independently predicts increased risk of subsequent CV events including congestive heart failure and CV and all-cause mortality (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00338260). ,Casper N. Bang ... Peter M. Okin [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [81] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 286 [Create_Time] => 2022-04-02 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202204/20220418054100.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100182/100182.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100182/100182.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100182/100182_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Development of systolic dysfunction unrelated to myocardial infarction in treated hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. The LIFE Study [Abstract] => Aim: While it is commonly thought that left ventricular (LV) systolic function may insidiously deteriorate in hypertensive patients, few prospective data are available to support this notion. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

While it is commonly thought that left ventricular (LV) systolic function may insidiously deteriorate in hypertensive patients, few prospective data are available to support this notion.

Methods:

We evaluated 680 hypertensive patients (66 ± 7 years; 45% women) with electrocardiographic (ECG)-LV hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) enrolled in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) echo-sub-study free of prevalent cardiovascular disease and with baseline ejection fraction (EF) ≥ 55%. Echocardiographic examinations were performed annually for 5 years during anti-hypertensive treatment. Development of reduced systolic function was defined as incident EF < 50%.

Results:

During a mean follow-up of 4.8 ± 1 years, 37 patients developed reduced EF without an inter-current myocardial infarction (5.4%). In analysis of covariance, patients who developed reduced EF were more often men, had greater baseline LV diameter and LV mass, lower mean EF (all P < 0.05), and similar diastolic function indices. At the last available examination before EF reduction, independently of covariates, patients with reduced EF showed a significant increase in left atrium (LA) size, LV diameter, end-systolic stress and mitral E/A ratio, as compared to those who did not develop reduced EF (all P < 0.05). In time-varying Cox regression analysis, also controlling for baseline EF, predictors of developing reduced EF were higher in-treatment LV diameter [hazard ratio (HR) = 5.19 per cm; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.58–10.41] and higher in-treatment mitral E/A ratio (HR = 2.37 per unit; 95% CI: 1.58–3.56; both P < 0.0001).

Conclusions:

In treated hypertensive patients with ECG-LVH at baseline, incident reduced EF is associated with the development of dilated LV chamber and signs of increased LV filling pressure (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00338260).

[Names] => Marcello Chinali ... Richard B. Devereux [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00082 [Published] => April 02, 2022 [Viewed] => 1083 [Downloaded] => 34 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00082 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 37 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:160–172 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Blood pressure, hypertension, ejection fraction, left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic dysfunction [DetailTitle] => Angiotensins—A Century of Progress [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/37 [Id] => 100182 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100182/b647cf03f0a2f8634d4f914aa67dc8f6.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100182/2648b3e1695d848d1166399a29a36cc6.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 2 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Chinali M, Aurigemma GP, Gerdts E, Wachtell K, Okin PM, Muthiah A, et al. Development of systolic dysfunction unrelated to myocardial infarction in treated hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. The LIFE Study. Explor Med. 2022;3:160–72. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00082 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-02 09:26:22 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-02 09:26:22 [KeysWordContens] => Development of systolic dysfunction unrelated to myocardial infarction in treated hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. The LIFE Study, Blood pressure, hypertension, ejection fraction, left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic dysfunction, Aim: While it is commonly thought that left ventricular (LV) systolic function may insidiously deteriorate in hypertensive patients, few prospective data are available to support this notion. Methods: We evaluated 680 hypertensive patients (66 ± 7 years; 45% women) with electrocardiographic (ECG)-LV hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) enrolled in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) echo-sub-study free of prevalent cardiovascular disease and with baseline ejection fraction (EF) ≥ 55%. Echocardiographic examinations were performed annually for 5 years during anti-hypertensive treatment. Development of reduced systolic function was defined as incident EF < 50%. Results: During a mean follow-up of 4.8 ± 1 years, 37 patients developed reduced EF without an inter-current myocardial infarction (5.4%). In analysis of covariance, patients who developed reduced EF were more often men, had greater baseline LV diameter and LV mass, lower mean EF (all P < 0.05), and similar diastolic function indices. At the last available examination before EF reduction, independently of covariates, patients with reduced EF showed a significant increase in left atrium (LA) size, LV diameter, end-systolic stress and mitral E/A ratio, as compared to those who did not develop reduced EF (all P < 0.05). In time-varying Cox regression analysis, also controlling for baseline EF, predictors of developing reduced EF were higher in-treatment LV diameter [hazard ratio (HR) = 5.19 per cm; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.58–10.41] and higher in-treatment mitral E/A ratio (HR = 2.37 per unit; 95% CI: 1.58–3.56; both P < 0.0001). Conclusions: In treated hypertensive patients with ECG-LVH at baseline, incident reduced EF is associated with the development of dilated LV chamber and signs of increased LV filling pressure (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00338260). ,Marcello Chinali ... Richard B. Devereux [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [82] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 291 [Create_Time] => 2022-04-19 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202204/20220419064312.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100183/100183.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100183/100183.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100183/100183_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Semaglutide: a game changer for metabolic diseases? [Abstract] => Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) molecule approved for the treatment of both type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. Semaglutide has a greater impact on glycated haemo [AbstractComplete] =>

Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) molecule approved for the treatment of both type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. Semaglutide has a greater impact on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction, compared to other GLP-1 RAs, and is the first molecule of this class available in oral formulation for T2D therapy, representing a useful option for subjects and physicians less prone to start an injective drug. Interestingly, due to its remarkable effects on weight reduction, higher than other GLP-1 RAs and very close to bariatric surgery, semaglutide is designated to change the approach to obesity therapy also in the subject not affected by diabetes. In addition to these favorable features, semaglutide, similarly to other GLP-1 RAs, offers beneficial effects on cardio-vascular (CV), renal, and liver protection, making this molecule an advantageous choice in the therapeutic management of “diabesity” (coexistence of both diabetes and obesity) and its co-morbidity.

[Names] => Agostino Milluzzo ... Laura Sciacca [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00083 [Published] => April 19, 2022 [Viewed] => 2119 [Downloaded] => 75 [Subject] => Commentary [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00083 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:173–180 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists, type 2 diabetes, obesity, major adverse cardiovascular events, renal disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes retinopathy [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100183 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100183/22600d170eb80a7c70d3155fb8fa9c47.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100183/1ef2be8a69590fbecf4b7469f8adf791.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Milluzzo A, Manuella L, Sciacca L. Semaglutide: a game changer for metabolic diseases? Explor Med. 2022;3:173–80. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00083 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-19 06:50:44 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-19 06:50:44 [KeysWordContens] => Semaglutide: a game changer for metabolic diseases?, Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists, type 2 diabetes, obesity, major adverse cardiovascular events, renal disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes retinopathy, Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) molecule approved for the treatment of both type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. Semaglutide has a greater impact on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction, compared to other GLP-1 RAs, and is the first molecule of this class available in oral formulation for T2D therapy, representing a useful option for subjects and physicians less prone to start an injective drug. Interestingly, due to its remarkable effects on weight reduction, higher than other GLP-1 RAs and very close to bariatric surgery, semaglutide is designated to change the approach to obesity therapy also in the subject not affected by diabetes. In addition to these favorable features, semaglutide, similarly to other GLP-1 RAs, offers beneficial effects on cardio-vascular (CV), renal, and liver protection, making this molecule an advantageous choice in the therapeutic management of “diabesity” (coexistence of both diabetes and obesity) and its co-morbidity. ,Agostino Milluzzo ... Laura Sciacca [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [83] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 294 [Create_Time] => 2022-04-24 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202204/20220424010128.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100184/100184.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100184/100184.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100184/100184_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Complex liver injury induced by combined Aloe Vera and vitamin A oral supplements, as assessed by histology and the updated RUCAM [Abstract] => A case of combined acute and chronic liver injury related to consumption of multi-ingredient nutritional oral supplements containing Aloe Vera gel and vitamin A among other vitamins, minerals and di [AbstractComplete] =>

A case of combined acute and chronic liver injury related to consumption of multi-ingredient nutritional oral supplements containing Aloe Vera gel and vitamin A among other vitamins, minerals and dietary elements such as fish and calamari oil in a 59-year-old female with unexplained hypertransaminasemia is reported. A unique complex liver injury was diagnosed on liver biopsy combining histological features of protracted acute hepatitis, mild manifestation of hypervitaminosis A and lipogranulomatous reaction attributed to Aloe Vera, vitamin A and lipids, respectively. Normalization of liver tests was achieved after discontinuation of all nutritional supplements. Updated Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) score (+8, probable) further supported herb-induced liver injury. The present case highlights the increasing incidence of complex histological liver injury linked to the constantly growing consumption of multi-ingredient dietary supplements and alternative medications.

[Names] => Katerina Delladetsima ... Stratigoula Sakellariou [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00084 [Published] => April 24, 2022 [Viewed] => 2230 [Downloaded] => 49 [Subject] => Case Report [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00084 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 39 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:181–187 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, drug-induced liver injury, Aloe Vera, vitamin A, lipogranuloma, updated Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method [DetailTitle] => Exploring Chronic Liver Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/39 [Id] => 100184 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100184/b8c788c7f00467d27aa6b063a02b6266.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100184/d7e9d53ab6c811220c7d88dfd8e8b82c.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Delladetsima K, Manesis E, Tiniakos D, Sakellariou S. Complex liver injury induced by combined Aloe Vera and vitamin A oral supplements, as assessed by histology and the updated RUCAM. Explor Med. 2022;3:181–7. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00084 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-21 05:47:02 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-21 05:47:02 [KeysWordContens] => Complex liver injury induced by combined Aloe Vera and vitamin A oral supplements, as assessed by histology and the updated RUCAM, Acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, drug-induced liver injury, Aloe Vera, vitamin A, lipogranuloma, updated Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method, A case of combined acute and chronic liver injury related to consumption of multi-ingredient nutritional oral supplements containing Aloe Vera gel and vitamin A among other vitamins, minerals and dietary elements such as fish and calamari oil in a 59-year-old female with unexplained hypertransaminasemia is reported. A unique complex liver injury was diagnosed on liver biopsy combining histological features of protracted acute hepatitis, mild manifestation of hypervitaminosis A and lipogranulomatous reaction attributed to Aloe Vera, vitamin A and lipids, respectively. Normalization of liver tests was achieved after discontinuation of all nutritional supplements. Updated Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) score (+8, probable) further supported herb-induced liver injury. The present case highlights the increasing incidence of complex histological liver injury linked to the constantly growing consumption of multi-ingredient dietary supplements and alternative medications. ,Katerina Delladetsima ... Stratigoula Sakellariou [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 1 [AccountId] => 0 ) [84] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 304 [Create_Time] => 2022-04-27 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202205/20220513064229.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100185/100185.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100185/100185.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100185/100185_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular diseases: an update [Abstract] => Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of death worldwide, imposing major health threats. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are one of the most important products from the process of redox [AbstractComplete] =>

Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of death worldwide, imposing major health threats. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are one of the most important products from the process of redox reactions. In the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases, ROS are believed to heavily influence homeostasis of lipids, proteins, DNA, mitochondria, and energy metabolism. As ROS production increases, the heart is damaged, leading to further production of ROS. The vicious cycle continues on as additional ROS are generated. For example, recent evidence indicated that connexin 43 (Cx43) deficiency and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) activation led to a loss of protection in cardiomyocytes. In this context, a better understanding of the mechanisms behind ROS production is vital in determining effective treatment and management strategies for cardiovascular diseases.

[Names] => Juanjuan Fei ... Jun Ren [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00085 [Published] => April 26, 2022 [Viewed] => 907 [Downloaded] => 48 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00085 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 54 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:188–204 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Reactive oxygen species, cardiovascular diseases, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, xanthine oxidase, monoamine oxidases, nitric oxide synthase [DetailTitle] => Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Pathophysiological Conditions [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/54 [Id] => 100185 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100185/e397558466aaac9f99f18a021b08f048.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100185/def2b81493b28e641a67e7e7e2991414.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Fei J, Demillard LJ, Ren J. Reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular diseases: an update. Explor Med. 2022;3:188–204. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00085 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => JunRen, [CEmail] => jren_aldh2@outlook.com, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-27 05:26:46 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-27 05:26:46 [KeysWordContens] => Reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular diseases: an update, Reactive oxygen species, cardiovascular diseases, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, xanthine oxidase, monoamine oxidases, nitric oxide synthase, Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of death worldwide, imposing major health threats. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are one of the most important products from the process of redox reactions. In the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases, ROS are believed to heavily influence homeostasis of lipids, proteins, DNA, mitochondria, and energy metabolism. As ROS production increases, the heart is damaged, leading to further production of ROS. The vicious cycle continues on as additional ROS are generated. For example, recent evidence indicated that connexin 43 (Cx43) deficiency and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) activation led to a loss of protection in cardiomyocytes. In this context, a better understanding of the mechanisms behind ROS production is vital in determining effective treatment and management strategies for cardiovascular diseases. ,Juanjuan Fei ... Jun Ren [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [85] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 305 [Create_Time] => 2022-04-27 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230302073957.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100186/100186.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100186/100186.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100186/100186_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => High salt induced augmentation of angiotensin II mediated hypertension is associated with differential expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptors in the kidney [Abstract] => Aim: Chronic high salt (HS) intake causes minimal changes in blood pressure (BP) but it induces augmented hypertensive response to angiotensin II (AngII) administration in rodents. The mechanism [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Chronic high salt (HS) intake causes minimal changes in blood pressure (BP) but it induces augmented hypertensive response to angiotensin II (AngII) administration in rodents. The mechanism of this augmentation is not clearly understood. As tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) induces natriuresis by activating TNF-α receptor type 1 (TNFR1) but not type 2 (TNFR2), we hypothesize that TNFR1 activity is reduced when HS is given in combination of AngII that leads to enhanced sodium retention and thus, causing augmented hypertension. The aim of this study is to examine the responses to chronic HS intake and AngII administration on the renal tissue protein expressions of TNFR1 and TNFR2 in mice.

Methods:

Different groups of mice (n = 6–7 in each group) chronically treated with or without AngII (25 ng/min; implanted minipump) for 4 weeks which were fed either normal salt (NS; 0.4% NaCl) or high salt (HS; 4% NaCl) diets. Systemic BP was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. At the end of treatment period, kidneys were harvested after sacrificing the mice with euthanasia. Immuno-histochemical analysis of TNFR1 and TNFR2 proteins in renal tissues was performed by measuring the staining area and the intensity of receptors’ immunoreactivities using NIS-Elements software. The results were expressed in percent area of positive staining and the relative intensity.

Results:

HS intake alone did not alter mean BP (HS; 77 ± 1 vs. NS; 76 ± 3 vs. mmHg; tail-cuff plethysmography) but AngII induced increases in BP were augmented in HS group (104 ± 2 vs. 95 ± 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). The area of TNFR1 staining was higher in HS than NS group (6.0 ± 0.9% vs. 3.2 ± 0.7%; P < 0.05) but it was lower in AngII + HS than in AngII + NS group (5.0 ± 0.7% vs. 6.3 ± 0.7%; P = 0.068). TNFR2 immunoreactivity was minimal in NS and HS groups but it was high in AngII + NS and even higher in AngII + HS group.

Conclusions:

These data suggest that the HS induced increased TNFR1 activity that facilitates enhanced sodium excretion is compromised in elevated AngII condition leading to salt retention and augmented hypertension.

[Names] => Dewan S. A. Majid ... L. Gabriel Navar [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00086 [Published] => April 26, 2022 [Viewed] => 1088 [Downloaded] => 60 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00086 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 37 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:205–218 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Angiotensin II, hypertension, high salt intake, tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptors, renal injury [DetailTitle] => Angiotensins—A Century of Progress [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/37 [Id] => 100186 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100186/fe6c25dfe93ed07c3e5c4ea06a4788e8.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100186/d8e1b884661035307dbd50a404cf9b24.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Majid DSA, Castillo A, Prieto MC, Navar LG. High salt induced augmentation of angiotensin II mediated hypertension is associated with differential expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptors in the kidney. Explor Med. 2022;3:205–18. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00086 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Dewan S. A.Majid, [CEmail] => majid@tulane.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-04-27 05:27:16 [Bib_Time] => 2022-04-27 05:27:16 [KeysWordContens] => High salt induced augmentation of angiotensin II mediated hypertension is associated with differential expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptors in the kidney, Angiotensin II, hypertension, high salt intake, tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptors, renal injury, Aim: Chronic high salt (HS) intake causes minimal changes in blood pressure (BP) but it induces augmented hypertensive response to angiotensin II (AngII) administration in rodents. The mechanism of this augmentation is not clearly understood. As tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) induces natriuresis by activating TNF-α receptor type 1 (TNFR1) but not type 2 (TNFR2), we hypothesize that TNFR1 activity is reduced when HS is given in combination of AngII that leads to enhanced sodium retention and thus, causing augmented hypertension. The aim of this study is to examine the responses to chronic HS intake and AngII administration on the renal tissue protein expressions of TNFR1 and TNFR2 in mice. Methods: Different groups of mice (n = 6–7 in each group) chronically treated with or without AngII (25 ng/min; implanted minipump) for 4 weeks which were fed either normal salt (NS; 0.4% NaCl) or high salt (HS; 4% NaCl) diets. Systemic BP was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. At the end of treatment period, kidneys were harvested after sacrificing the mice with euthanasia. Immuno-histochemical analysis of TNFR1 and TNFR2 proteins in renal tissues was performed by measuring the staining area and the intensity of receptors’ immunoreactivities using NIS-Elements software. The results were expressed in percent area of positive staining and the relative intensity. Results: HS intake alone did not alter mean BP (HS; 77 ± 1 vs. NS; 76 ± 3 vs. mmHg; tail-cuff plethysmography) but AngII induced increases in BP were augmented in HS group (104 ± 2 vs. 95 ± 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). The area of TNFR1 staining was higher in HS than NS group (6.0 ± 0.9% vs. 3.2 ± 0.7%; P < 0.05) but it was lower in AngII + HS than in AngII + NS group (5.0 ± 0.7% vs. 6.3 ± 0.7%; P = 0.068). TNFR2 immunoreactivity was minimal in NS and HS groups but it was high in AngII + NS and even higher in AngII + HS group. Conclusions: These data suggest that the HS induced increased TNFR1 activity that facilitates enhanced sodium excretion is compromised in elevated AngII condition leading to salt retention and augmented hypertension. ,Dewan S. A. Majid ... L. Gabriel Navar [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [86] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 315 [Create_Time] => 2022-06-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202207/20220713085121.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100187/100187.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100187/100187.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100187/100187_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => The gut microbiome and the immune system [Abstract] => The human body contains trillions of microbes which generally live in symbiosis with the host. The interaction of the gut microbiome with elements of the host immune system has far-reaching effects [AbstractComplete] =>

The human body contains trillions of microbes which generally live in symbiosis with the host. The interaction of the gut microbiome with elements of the host immune system has far-reaching effects in the development of normal gut and systemic immune responses. Disturbances to this intricate relationship may be responsible for a multitude of gastrointestinal and systemic immune mediated diseases. This review describes the development of the gut microbiome and its interaction with host immune cells in both health and disease states.

[Names] => Tenzin Choden, Nathaniel Aviv Cohen [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00087 [Published] => May 31, 2022 [Viewed] => 3105 [Downloaded] => 173 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00087 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:219–233 [Recommend] => 1 [Keywords] => Microbiome, immune, development [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100187 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100187/d9c82f4da9fbe05bded29127e810c457.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100187/db58e50f7bcb1623f25c06ae6ec75340.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 3 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Choden T, Cohen NA. The gut microbiome and the immune system. Explor Med. 2022;3:219–33. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00087 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Nathaniel AvivCohen, [CEmail] => Nathaniel.cohen@uchospitals.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-05-27 05:15:01 [Bib_Time] => 2022-05-27 05:15:01 [KeysWordContens] => The gut microbiome and the immune system, Microbiome, immune, development, The human body contains trillions of microbes which generally live in symbiosis with the host. The interaction of the gut microbiome with elements of the host immune system has far-reaching effects in the development of normal gut and systemic immune responses. Disturbances to this intricate relationship may be responsible for a multitude of gastrointestinal and systemic immune mediated diseases. This review describes the development of the gut microbiome and its interaction with host immune cells in both health and disease states. ,Tenzin Choden, Nathaniel Aviv Cohen [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [87] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 320 [Create_Time] => 2022-06-09 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202206/20220610004128.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100188/100188.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100188/100188.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100188/100188_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Early taurine administration as a means for halting the cytokine storm progression in COVID-19 patients [Abstract] => Around the world, more than 6.2 million individuals have died as a result of COVID-19. According to a recent survey conducted among immunologists, epidemiologists, and virologists, this disease is expected to become endemic. This implies that the disease could have a continuous presence and/or normal frequency in the population. [AbstractComplete] =>

Around the world, more than 6.2 million individuals have died as a result of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). According to a recent survey conducted among immunologists, epidemiologists, and virologists, this disease is expected to become endemic. This implies that the disease could have a continuous presence and/or normal frequency in the population. Pharmacological interventions to prevent infection, as well as to treat the patients at an early phase of illness to avoid hospitalization are essential additions to the vaccines. Taurine is known to inhibit the generation of all inflammatory mediators linked to the cytokine storm. It can also protect against lung injury by suppressing increased oxidants production and promoting the resolution of the inflammatory process. Neutrophil lactoferrin degranulation stimulated by taurine may have antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2, limiting viral replication. It is hypothesized that if taurine is administered early in the onset of COVID-19 disease, it may stop the cytokine storm from progressing, lowering morbidity and mortality.

[Names] => Alberto Rubio-Casillas ... Raied Badierah [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00088 [Published] => June 08, 2022 [Viewed] => 2254 [Downloaded] => 61 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00088 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 54 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:234–248 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => COVID-19, cytokine storm, efferocytosis, hypochlorous acid, macrophage polarization, myeloperoxidase, SARS-CoV-2, taurine [DetailTitle] => Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Pathophysiological Conditions [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/54 [Id] => 100188 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100188/844852a47e9a3644068975168a8888be.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100188/9a2bc5e722528a84cfe58d62d083cc41.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Rubio-Casillas A, Gupta RC, Redwan EM, Uversky VN, Badierah R. Early taurine administration as a means for halting the cytokine storm progression in COVID-19 patients. Explor Med. 2022;3:234–48. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00088 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-06-09 02:02:37 [Bib_Time] => 2022-06-09 02:02:37 [KeysWordContens] => Early taurine administration as a means for halting the cytokine storm progression in COVID-19 patients, COVID-19, cytokine storm, efferocytosis, hypochlorous acid, macrophage polarization, myeloperoxidase, SARS-CoV-2, taurine, Around the world, more than 6.2 million individuals have died as a result of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). According to a recent survey conducted among immunologists, epidemiologists, and virologists, this disease is expected to become endemic. This implies that the disease could have a continuous presence and/or normal frequency in the population. Pharmacological interventions to prevent infection, as well as to treat the patients at an early phase of illness to avoid hospitalization are essential additions to the vaccines. Taurine is known to inhibit the generation of all inflammatory mediators linked to the cytokine storm. It can also protect against lung injury by suppressing increased oxidants production and promoting the resolution of the inflammatory process. Neutrophil lactoferrin degranulation stimulated by taurine may have antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2, limiting viral replication. It is hypothesized that if taurine is administered early in the onset of COVID-19 disease, it may stop the cytokine storm from progressing, lowering morbidity and mortality. ,Alberto Rubio-Casillas ... Raied Badierah [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [88] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 329 [Create_Time] => 2022-06-23 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202207/20220701020016.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100189/100189.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100189/100189.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100189/100189_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Hyperuricemia—a serious complication among patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis [Abstract] => Aim: Hyperuricemia as a putative risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression remains controversial and debatable. This systematic review aims to explore the prevalence of hyperuricem [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Hyperuricemia as a putative risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression remains controversial and debatable. This systematic review aims to explore the prevalence of hyperuricemia among CKD patients worldwide.

Methods:

This study was conducted in accordance with the Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines by using the existing literature from online databases such as MEDLINE/PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Cochrane library and grey literature. The effect size with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to assess the pooled prevalence of hyperuricemia in chronic kidney patients. The subgroup analysis based on gender and geography was also carried out by utilizing comprehensive meta-analysis, version 2.0.

Results:

Twenty-three studies containing 212,740 participants were eligible for quantitative synthesis. The pooled prevalence of 43.6% (35.2–52.4%) hyperuricemia was reported in patients with CKD globally. In India, 38.4% of prevalence was observed. The gender specific prevalence (9 studies) was reported as 67.4% (60.9–73.3%) in case of male patients and 32.6% (26.7–39.1%) in female patients with 95% CI.

Conclusions:

The prevalence of hyperuricemia was reported to be reasonably high among CKD patients worldwide. During the management of CKD, this high prevalence demands more prudent attention for this clinical complication which possibly can lead to positive renal outcomes.

[Names] => Ishfaq Rashid ... Gautam Sahu [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00089 [Published] => June 23, 2022 [Viewed] => 1737 [Downloaded] => 52 [Subject] => Meta-Analysis [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00089 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 67 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:249–259 [Recommend] => 1 [Keywords] => Hyperuricemia, chronic kidney disease, prevalence, geography, uric acid [DetailTitle] => Disease Diagnosis, Molecular Mechanism and Therapeutic Strategies in Kidney Injury and Fibrosis [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/67 [Id] => 100189 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100189/7c9d74fac3e7fffe583aa004fd3c445f.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100189/dceeb73babe06ada16bb9f3b47652d9f.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 19 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Rashid I, Katravath P, Tiwari P, D’Cruz S, Jaswal S, Sahu G. Hyperuricemia—a serious complication among patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Explor Med. 2022;3:249–59. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00089 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => PramilTiwari, [CEmail] => ptiwari@niper.ac.in, [Ris_Time] => 2022-06-22 00:56:08 [Bib_Time] => 2022-06-22 00:56:08 [KeysWordContens] => Hyperuricemia—a serious complication among patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Hyperuricemia, chronic kidney disease, prevalence, geography, uric acid, Aim: Hyperuricemia as a putative risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression remains controversial and debatable. This systematic review aims to explore the prevalence of hyperuricemia among CKD patients worldwide. Methods: This study was conducted in accordance with the Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines by using the existing literature from online databases such as MEDLINE/PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Cochrane library and grey literature. The effect size with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to assess the pooled prevalence of hyperuricemia in chronic kidney patients. The subgroup analysis based on gender and geography was also carried out by utilizing comprehensive meta-analysis, version 2.0. Results: Twenty-three studies containing 212,740 participants were eligible for quantitative synthesis. The pooled prevalence of 43.6% (35.2–52.4%) hyperuricemia was reported in patients with CKD globally. In India, 38.4% of prevalence was observed. The gender specific prevalence (9 studies) was reported as 67.4% (60.9–73.3%) in case of male patients and 32.6% (26.7–39.1%) in female patients with 95% CI. Conclusions: The prevalence of hyperuricemia was reported to be reasonably high among CKD patients worldwide. During the management of CKD, this high prevalence demands more prudent attention for this clinical complication which possibly can lead to positive renal outcomes. ,Ishfaq Rashid ... Gautam Sahu [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [89] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 330 [Create_Time] => 2022-06-23 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202206/20220624004637.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100190/100190.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100190/100190.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100190/100190_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Recent advances of gut microbiota in chronic kidney disease patients [Abstract] => Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health issue and has ultimately progressed to an end-stage renal disease that requires life-long dialysis or renal transplantation. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of these pathological development and progression remains to be fully understood. [AbstractComplete] =>

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health issue and has ultimately progressed to an end-stage renal disease that requires life-long dialysis or renal transplantation. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of these pathological development and progression remains to be fully understood. The human gut microbiota is made up of approximately 100 trillion microbial cells including anaerobic and aerobic species. In recent years, more and more evidence has indicated a clear association between dysbiosis of gut microbiota and CKD including immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, diabetic kidney disease, membranous nephropathy, chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease. The current review describes gut microbial dysbiosis and metabolites in patients with CKD thus helping to understand human disease. Treatment with prebiotics, probiotics and natural products can attenuate CKD through improving dysbiosis of gut microbiota, indicating a novel intervention strategy in patients with CKD. This review also discusses therapeutic options, such as prebiotics, probiotics and natural products, for targeting dysbiosis of gut microbiota in patients to provide more specific concept-driven therapy strategy for CKD treatment.

[Names] => Ying-Yong Zhao [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00090 [Published] => June 23, 2022 [Viewed] => 1490 [Downloaded] => 64 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00090 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 67 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:260–274 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Chronic kidney disease, gut microbiota, immunoglobulin A nephropathy, diabetic kidney disease, membranous nephropathy, prebiotics, probiotics, natural products [DetailTitle] => Disease Diagnosis, Molecular Mechanism and Therapeutic Strategies in Kidney Injury and Fibrosis [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/67 [Id] => 100190 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100190/d6bd46a1892007a2e331316eaf0770d4.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100190/e5b33c056cb01d8c20bb364dd80a046b.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 8 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Zhao YY. Recent advances of gut microbiota in chronic kidney disease patients. Explor Med. 2022;3:260–74. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00090 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-06-23 07:09:49 [Bib_Time] => 2022-06-23 07:09:49 [KeysWordContens] => Recent advances of gut microbiota in chronic kidney disease patients , Chronic kidney disease, gut microbiota, immunoglobulin A nephropathy, diabetic kidney disease, membranous nephropathy, prebiotics, probiotics, natural products, Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health issue and has ultimately progressed to an end-stage renal disease that requires life-long dialysis or renal transplantation. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of these pathological development and progression remains to be fully understood. The human gut microbiota is made up of approximately 100 trillion microbial cells including anaerobic and aerobic species. In recent years, more and more evidence has indicated a clear association between dysbiosis of gut microbiota and CKD including immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, diabetic kidney disease, membranous nephropathy, chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease. The current review describes gut microbial dysbiosis and metabolites in patients with CKD thus helping to understand human disease. Treatment with prebiotics, probiotics and natural products can attenuate CKD through improving dysbiosis of gut microbiota, indicating a novel intervention strategy in patients with CKD. This review also discusses therapeutic options, such as prebiotics, probiotics and natural products, for targeting dysbiosis of gut microbiota in patients to provide more specific concept-driven therapy strategy for CKD treatment. ,Ying-Yong Zhao [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [90] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 331 [Create_Time] => 2022-06-24 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202206/20220624033247.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100191/100191.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100191/100191.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100191/100191_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Does our microbiota eat with or without gluten? [Abstract] => [AbstractComplete] => [Names] => Giuseppe Merra ... Marco Marchetti [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00091 [Published] => June 24, 2022 [Viewed] => 929 [Downloaded] => 28 [Subject] => Editorial [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00091 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 62 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:275–279 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => [DetailTitle] => The Role of Gut Microbiota and its Metabolites in Gastrointestinal Diseases [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/62 [Id] => 100191 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100191/72eed857700cca0041d58cabc70d9a60.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100191/51e742b8cd9dd44d8adbe4ce7181c34c.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Merra G, Capacci A, De Lorenzo A, Di Renzo L, Gualtieri P, Frank G, et al. Does our microbiota eat with or without gluten? Explor Med. 2022;3:275–9. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00091 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-06-24 05:28:25 [Bib_Time] => 2022-06-24 07:18:09 [KeysWordContens] => Does our microbiota eat with or without gluten?,,,Giuseppe Merra ... Marco Marchetti [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [91] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 334 [Create_Time] => 2022-06-24 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202206/20220624080247.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100192/100192.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100192/100192.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100192/100192_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Involvement of retroelements in the autoimmune response in humans [Abstract] => Retroelements are mobile genomic components requiring reverse transcription into an RNA intermediate and then synthesis of complementary DNA for transposition. Human genome contains a vast amount of retroelements including retrotransposons and endogenous retroviruses. [AbstractComplete] =>

Retroelements are mobile genomic components requiring an RNA intermediate which is reverse-transcribed into complementary DNA for transposition. Human genome contains a vast amount of retroelements including retrotransposons and endogenous retroviruses. These elements are categorized according to presence or absence of long terminal repeats, LTRs or non-LTRs, as well as autonomous and non-autonomous according to involvement of reverse transcriptase. The retroelements have been accumulated in mammalian genomes over all evolutionary times through vertical transmission, and many of them were inactivated through accumulation of mutations. However, the retroelements entered into genome within the last 200,000 years are mostly functional. Some of the active retroelements are associated with varying autoimmune diseases because anti-retroelement antibodies might cross-react with other proteins in the human body. For instance, autoimmunity and inflammation could be stimulated by increased expression of long interspersed element 1 (LINE-1 or L1) or decreased L1 degradation. Different regulation of L1 expression might be related to the genetic and sex-related variations or environmental factors. Activation of retroelements is also controlled by epigenetic silencing mechanisms such as histone modification. Elevated levels of L1 retroelements could trigger the production of type I interferon, a crucial innate defense mechanism in mammals against viruses, and systemic autoimmune response is induced. Loss-of-function in some deoxyribonucleases (DNases) such as three prime repair exonuclease 1 that degrades reverse-transcribed DNA is also related to autoimmune diseases. Additionally, human endogenous retroviruses also play a role in autoimmune diseases. Involvement of retroelements in autoimmune disorders is exemplified with three diseases, i.e. systemic lupus erythematosus, Aicardi–Goutières syndrome, and multiple sclerosis.

[Names] => Sezer Okay [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00092 [Published] => June 24, 2022 [Viewed] => 1015 [Downloaded] => 40 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00092 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:280–288 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Aicardi–Goutières syndrome, endogenous retrovirus, multiple sclerosis, retrotransposons, systemic lupus erythematosus, type I interferon [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100192 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100192/1d253acf3027ac038cb38067a07c8cbf.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100192/bc01b747f5845f2a240e49ab35fee595.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Okay S. Involvement of retroelements in the autoimmune response in humans. Explor Med. 2022;3:280–8. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00092 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-06-24 03:35:44 [Bib_Time] => 2022-06-24 08:04:41 [KeysWordContens] => Involvement of retroelements in the autoimmune response in humans, Aicardi–Goutières syndrome, endogenous retrovirus, multiple sclerosis, retrotransposons, systemic lupus erythematosus, type I interferon, Retroelements are mobile genomic components requiring an RNA intermediate which is reverse-transcribed into complementary DNA for transposition. Human genome contains a vast amount of retroelements including retrotransposons and endogenous retroviruses. These elements are categorized according to presence or absence of long terminal repeats, LTRs or non-LTRs, as well as autonomous and non-autonomous according to involvement of reverse transcriptase. The retroelements have been accumulated in mammalian genomes over all evolutionary times through vertical transmission, and many of them were inactivated through accumulation of mutations. However, the retroelements entered into genome within the last 200,000 years are mostly functional. Some of the active retroelements are associated with varying autoimmune diseases because anti-retroelement antibodies might cross-react with other proteins in the human body. For instance, autoimmunity and inflammation could be stimulated by increased expression of long interspersed element 1 (LINE-1 or L1) or decreased L1 degradation. Different regulation of L1 expression might be related to the genetic and sex-related variations or environmental factors. Activation of retroelements is also controlled by epigenetic silencing mechanisms such as histone modification. Elevated levels of L1 retroelements could trigger the production of type I interferon, a crucial innate defense mechanism in mammals against viruses, and systemic autoimmune response is induced. Loss-of-function in some deoxyribonucleases (DNases) such as three prime repair exonuclease 1 that degrades reverse-transcribed DNA is also related to autoimmune diseases. Additionally, human endogenous retroviruses also play a role in autoimmune diseases. Involvement of retroelements in autoimmune disorders is exemplified with three diseases, i.e. systemic lupus erythematosus, Aicardi–Goutières syndrome, and multiple sclerosis. ,Sezer Okay [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [92] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 338 [Create_Time] => 2022-06-28 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230303061707.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100193/100193.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100193/100193.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100193/100193_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Pyogenic liver abscess: contrast-enhanced ultrasound allows morpho-evolutive classification and guides personalized management [Abstract] => Aim: The aim of this study is to propose a contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)-based morphologic classification of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) reflecting different evolutive stages and to assess th [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

The aim of this study is to propose a contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)-based morphologic classification of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) reflecting different evolutive stages and to assess the added value of CEUS in the management of PLA.

Methods:

Forty-four PLAs of different etiologies in 44 patients (male/female = 24/20; mean age 66 ± 14.7 years) were evaluated with ultrasound (US) B-mode and CEUS (using SonoVue). PLAs were mainly located in the right lobe (n = 28, 63.6%) with a mean diameter of 6.8 cm [standard deviation (SD) ± 3.2, range 1.7–15 cm]. Conventional US findings were categorized as the presence and extension of liquified areas, echogenicity and echostructure of the index lesion. Peripheral hyperenhancing rim, transient segmental enhancement, hyperenhancing septa and “honeycomb” aspect were considered PLA hallmarks in the arterial phase after contrast agent injection. CEUS results were judged as clinically relevant if they modified the approach to percutaneous treatment in comparison with pre-operative US B-mode findings.

Results:

CEUS was superior to US B-mode as to depiction of PLA internal echostructure and enabled identification of 4 evolutive stages of PLA: type I (tumor-like), type II (“honeycomb”), type III (multiloculated with incomplete septa), and type IV (cystic-like). In 22 cases (67.4%) out of 34 who underwent percutaneous treatment, the operator tailored percutaneous approach according to PLA internal echostructure observed during CEUS exam.

Conclusions:

CEUS depicts the internal structure of PLA so allowing a morpho-evolutive classification of PLA and provides invaluable information for immediately tailoring the management to the single case. By showing the structure of PLA more precisely, CEUS allows a morpho-evolutive PLA classification and guides tailored management in the single case.

[Names] => Giampiero Francica [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00093 [Published] => June 28, 2022 [Viewed] => 1270 [Downloaded] => 71 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00093 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 39 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:289–299 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Contrast-enhanced ultrasound, abscess, liver, drainage [DetailTitle] => Exploring Chronic Liver Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/39 [Id] => 100193 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100193/4200304cda335225535c8c791e2493c2.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100193/7a93a34849d1c2881243789546d0ed9d.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Francica G. Pyogenic liver abscess: contrast-enhanced ultrasound allows morpho-evolutive classification and guides personalized management. Explor Med. 2022;3:289–99. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00093 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => GiampieroFrancica, [CEmail] => giampierofrancica@gmail.com, [Ris_Time] => 2022-06-28 01:45:56 [Bib_Time] => 2022-06-28 01:45:56 [KeysWordContens] => Pyogenic liver abscess: contrast-enhanced ultrasound allows morpho-evolutive classification and guides personalized management, Contrast-enhanced ultrasound, abscess, liver, drainage, Aim: The aim of this study is to propose a contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)-based morphologic classification of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) reflecting different evolutive stages and to assess the added value of CEUS in the management of PLA. Methods: Forty-four PLAs of different etiologies in 44 patients (male/female = 24/20; mean age 66 ± 14.7 years) were evaluated with ultrasound (US) B-mode and CEUS (using SonoVue). PLAs were mainly located in the right lobe (n = 28, 63.6%) with a mean diameter of 6.8 cm [standard deviation (SD) ± 3.2, range 1.7–15 cm]. Conventional US findings were categorized as the presence and extension of liquified areas, echogenicity and echostructure of the index lesion. Peripheral hyperenhancing rim, transient segmental enhancement, hyperenhancing septa and “honeycomb” aspect were considered PLA hallmarks in the arterial phase after contrast agent injection. CEUS results were judged as clinically relevant if they modified the approach to percutaneous treatment in comparison with pre-operative US B-mode findings. Results: CEUS was superior to US B-mode as to depiction of PLA internal echostructure and enabled identification of 4 evolutive stages of PLA: type I (tumor-like), type II (“honeycomb”), type III (multiloculated with incomplete septa), and type IV (cystic-like). In 22 cases (67.4%) out of 34 who underwent percutaneous treatment, the operator tailored percutaneous approach according to PLA internal echostructure observed during CEUS exam. Conclusions: CEUS depicts the internal structure of PLA so allowing a morpho-evolutive classification of PLA and provides invaluable information for immediately tailoring the management to the single case. By showing the structure of PLA more precisely, CEUS allows a morpho-evolutive PLA classification and guides tailored management in the single case. ,Giampiero Francica [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [93] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 341 [Create_Time] => 2022-06-30 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202207/20220701013301.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100194/100194.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100194/100194.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100194/100194_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Construction and validation of gastric cancer diagnosis model based on machine learning [Abstract] => Aim: To screen differentially expressed genes related to gastric cancer based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and construct a gastric cancer diagnosis model by machine learning. Methods: [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

To screen differentially expressed genes related to gastric cancer based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and construct a gastric cancer diagnosis model by machine learning.

Methods:

Transcriptional data, genomic data, and clinical information of gastric cancer tissues and non-gastric cancer tissues were downloaded from the TCGA database, and differentially expressed genes of gastric cancer messenger RNA (mRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) were screened out. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyzed the differentially expressed genes, and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) of differentially expressed genes was constructed. Core differentially expressed genes were screened by Cytoscape software’s molecular complex detection (MCODE) plug-in. The differential genes of lncRNA were analyzed by univariate Cox regression analysis and lasso regression for further dimension reduction to obtain the core genes. The core genes were screened by machine learning to construct the gastric cancer diagnosis model. The efficiency of the gastric cancer diagnosis model was verified externally by the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database.

Results:

Finally, 10 genes including long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1821 (LINC01821), AL138826.1, AC022164.1, adhesion G protein-coupled receptor D1-antisense RNA 1 (ADGRD1-AS1), cyclin B1 (CCNB1), kinesin family member 11 (KIF11), Aurora kinase B (AURKB), cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), nucleolar and spindle associated protein 1 (NUSAP1), and TTK protein kinase (TTK) were screened as gastric cancer diagnostic model genes. After efficiency analysis, it was found that the random forest algorithm model had the best comprehensive evaluation, with an accuracy of 92% and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.9722, which was more suitable for building a gastric cancer diagnosis model. The GSE54129 data set was used to verify the gastric cancer diagnosis model with an AUC of 0.904, indicating that the gastric cancer diagnosis model had high accuracy.

Conclusions:

Machine learning can simplify the bioinformatics analysis process and improve efficiency. The core gene discovered in this study is expected to become a gene chip for the diagnosis of gastric cancer.

[Names] => Fei Kong ... Wenzhen Yuan [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00094 [Published] => June 29, 2022 [Viewed] => 1053 [Downloaded] => 103 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00094 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:300–313 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Machine learning, gastric cancer, diagnostic model, bioinformatics [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100194 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100194/c68a702018184217f12ff6d3f000439f.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100194/1e6dc9ffe23cde4b9577182cd24e5aa2.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Kong F, Yan Z, Lan N, Wang P, Fan S, Yuan W. Construction and validation of gastric cancer diagnosis model based on machine learning. Explor Med. 2022;3:300–13. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00094 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => WenzhenYuan, [CEmail] => yuanwzh@lzu.edu.cn, [Ris_Time] => 2022-06-30 01:27:42 [Bib_Time] => 2022-06-30 06:48:43 [KeysWordContens] => Construction and validation of gastric cancer diagnosis model based on machine learning, Machine learning, gastric cancer, diagnostic model, bioinformatics, Aim: To screen differentially expressed genes related to gastric cancer based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and construct a gastric cancer diagnosis model by machine learning. Methods: Transcriptional data, genomic data, and clinical information of gastric cancer tissues and non-gastric cancer tissues were downloaded from the TCGA database, and differentially expressed genes of gastric cancer messenger RNA (mRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) were screened out. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyzed the differentially expressed genes, and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) of differentially expressed genes was constructed. Core differentially expressed genes were screened by Cytoscape software’s molecular complex detection (MCODE) plug-in. The differential genes of lncRNA were analyzed by univariate Cox regression analysis and lasso regression for further dimension reduction to obtain the core genes. The core genes were screened by machine learning to construct the gastric cancer diagnosis model. The efficiency of the gastric cancer diagnosis model was verified externally by the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Results: Finally, 10 genes including long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1821 (LINC01821), AL138826.1, AC022164.1, adhesion G protein-coupled receptor D1-antisense RNA 1 (ADGRD1-AS1), cyclin B1 (CCNB1), kinesin family member 11 (KIF11), Aurora kinase B (AURKB), cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), nucleolar and spindle associated protein 1 (NUSAP1), and TTK protein kinase (TTK) were screened as gastric cancer diagnostic model genes. After efficiency analysis, it was found that the random forest algorithm model had the best comprehensive evaluation, with an accuracy of 92% and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.9722, which was more suitable for building a gastric cancer diagnosis model. The GSE54129 data set was used to verify the gastric cancer diagnosis model with an AUC of 0.904, indicating that the gastric cancer diagnosis model had high accuracy. Conclusions: Machine learning can simplify the bioinformatics analysis process and improve efficiency. The core gene discovered in this study is expected to become a gene chip for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. ,Fei Kong ... Wenzhen Yuan [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [94] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 346 [Create_Time] => 2022-07-25 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202207/20220727082446.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100195/100195.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100195/100195.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100195/100195_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Adenine-rich diet: a potential mechanism for renal fibrosis progression [Abstract] => Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem but there are many modalities to prevent and manage CKD progression. Diet is one of these factors, which needs to be evaluated more. Adenine is a water-soluble nucleoprotein that exists in both vegetables and animal foods, which triggers and aggravates fibrosis process besides other metabolic derangements such as diabetes mellitus affection that accelerates glomerular filtration rate decline rapidly. [AbstractComplete] =>

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem but there are many modalities to prevent and manage CKD progression. Diet is one of these factors, which needs to be evaluated more. Adenine is a water-soluble nucleoprotein that exists in both vegetables and animal foods, which triggers and aggravates fibrosis process besides other metabolic derangements such as diabetes mellitus affection that accelerates glomerular filtration rate decline rapidly.

[Names] => Majid Malaki [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00095 [Published] => July 25, 2022 [Viewed] => 1620 [Downloaded] => 97 [Subject] => Letter to the Editor [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00095 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 67 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:314–316 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Kidney fibrosis, adenine, uric acid [DetailTitle] => Disease Diagnosis, Molecular Mechanism and Therapeutic Strategies in Kidney Injury and Fibrosis [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/67 [Id] => 100195 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100195/238cbe202f1bd77c4a26477be8c7c9a7.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100195/a345e22efdafc2a877e950ecf25ab260.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 2 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Malaki M. Adenine-rich diet: a potential mechanism for renal fibrosis progression. Explor Med. 2022;3:314–6. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00095 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-07-21 05:10:39 [Bib_Time] => 2022-07-21 05:10:39 [KeysWordContens] => Adenine-rich diet: a potential mechanism for renal fibrosis progression, Kidney fibrosis, adenine, uric acid, Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem but there are many modalities to prevent and manage CKD progression. Diet is one of these factors, which needs to be evaluated more. Adenine is a water-soluble nucleoprotein that exists in both vegetables and animal foods, which triggers and aggravates fibrosis process besides other metabolic derangements such as diabetes mellitus affection that accelerates glomerular filtration rate decline rapidly. ,Majid Malaki [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [95] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 351 [Create_Time] => 2022-08-12 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202209/20220901014852.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100196/100196.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100196/100196.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100196/100196_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Downhill esophageal varices: a systematic review of the case reports [Abstract] => Aim: The etiologies, presentation, and management of downhill varices in the era of modern medicine are relatively under-explored and mostly limited to case reports or case series. Methods: P [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

The etiologies, presentation, and management of downhill varices in the era of modern medicine are relatively under-explored and mostly limited to case reports or case series.

Methods:

Published case reports/series of patients ≥ 18 years old with proven/probable downhill esophageal varices were searched on Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE for all published cases up to January 2021.

Results:

The mean age was 50.9 (standard deviation ± 17.6) years old for all downhill variceal cases. End-stage renal disease was the most common comorbidity (43.9%), followed by thyroid disease (12.2%), Behçet’s disease (9.8%), and pulmonary hypertension (7.3%). Dialysis catheters, central venous grafts, or additional catheters were additional risk factors (51.2%). Variceal bleeding presenting as hematemesis, melena, or both was the most common presenting symptom (80.5%).

Conclusions:

Dialysis catheter-associated superior vena cava obstruction resulted in an increased risk of downhill varices. Other causes include thyroid malignancies, pulmonary hypertension, and Behçet’s disease.

[Names] => Hassam Ali ... Devika Kapuria [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00096 [Published] => August 11, 2022 [Viewed] => 1465 [Downloaded] => 59 [Subject] => Systematic Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00096 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:317–330 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Downhill varices, systematic review, esophageal varices, prevalence [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100196 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100196/b561d62775c865ef0be4c823c474ff24.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100196/7eaf2616e18e19ac7760b7b8c89d0e72.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Ali H, Pamarthy R, Bolick NL, Ali E, Paleti S, Kapuria D. Downhill esophageal varices: a systematic review of the case reports. Explor Med. 2022;3:317–30. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00096 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => HassamAli, [CEmail] => Alih20@ecu.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2022-08-09 00:28:31 [Bib_Time] => 2022-08-09 00:28:31 [KeysWordContens] => Downhill esophageal varices: a systematic review of the case reports, Downhill varices, systematic review, esophageal varices, prevalence, Aim: The etiologies, presentation, and management of downhill varices in the era of modern medicine are relatively under-explored and mostly limited to case reports or case series. Methods: Published case reports/series of patients ≥ 18 years old with proven/probable downhill esophageal varices were searched on Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE for all published cases up to January 2021. Results: The mean age was 50.9 (standard deviation ± 17.6) years old for all downhill variceal cases. End-stage renal disease was the most common comorbidity (43.9%), followed by thyroid disease (12.2%), Behçet’s disease (9.8%), and pulmonary hypertension (7.3%). Dialysis catheters, central venous grafts, or additional catheters were additional risk factors (51.2%). Variceal bleeding presenting as hematemesis, melena, or both was the most common presenting symptom (80.5%). Conclusions: Dialysis catheter-associated superior vena cava obstruction resulted in an increased risk of downhill varices. Other causes include thyroid malignancies, pulmonary hypertension, and Behçet’s disease. ,Hassam Ali ... Devika Kapuria [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [96] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 366 [Create_Time] => 2022-08-29 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202209/20220901024500.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100197/100197.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100197/100197.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100197/100197_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Feed your microbiome and improve sleep, stress resilience, and cognition [Abstract] => The brain and gut are connected both physically and biochemically. The gut-brain axis includes the central nervous system, neuroendocrine and neuroimmune systems, the enteric nervous system and vagu [AbstractComplete] =>

The brain and gut are connected both physically and biochemically. The gut-brain axis includes the central nervous system, neuroendocrine and neuroimmune systems, the enteric nervous system and vagus nerve, and the gut microbiome. It can influence brain function and even behavior, suggesting that dietary interventions may help enhance and protect mental health and cognitive performance. This review focuses on the role of the microbiome and its metabolites in sleep regulation, neurodegenerative disorders, mechanisms of stress, and mood. It also provides examples of nutritional interventions which can restore healthy gut microbiota and aid with risk reduction and management of many disorders related to mental and cognitive health. Evidence suggests a shift in the gut microbiota towards a balanced composition could be a target to maintain brain health, reduce stress and improve quality of life.

[Names] => Maciej Chichlowski ... Neeraj Pandey [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00097 [Published] => August 29, 2022 [Viewed] => 1511 [Downloaded] => 78 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00097 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 62 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:331–344 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Gut-brain axis, microbiome, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, biotics, sleep, stress, blood-brain barrier [DetailTitle] => The Role of Gut Microbiota and its Metabolites in Gastrointestinal Diseases [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/62 [Id] => 100197 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100197/1edc294c0accda66e48970a5759a067c.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100197/dcb5533c2e4945c6ac12724000e6a2a2.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Chichlowski M, Cotter J, Fawkes N, Pandey N. Feed your microbiome and improve sleep, stress resilience, and cognition. Explor Med. 2022;3:331–44. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00097 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => MaciejChichlowski, [CEmail] => maciej.chichlowski@reckitt.com, [Ris_Time] => 2022-08-29 06:35:16 [Bib_Time] => 2022-08-29 06:35:40 [KeysWordContens] => Feed your microbiome and improve sleep, stress resilience, and cognition, Gut-brain axis, microbiome, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, biotics, sleep, stress, blood-brain barrier, The brain and gut are connected both physically and biochemically. The gut-brain axis includes the central nervous system, neuroendocrine and neuroimmune systems, the enteric nervous system and vagus nerve, and the gut microbiome. It can influence brain function and even behavior, suggesting that dietary interventions may help enhance and protect mental health and cognitive performance. This review focuses on the role of the microbiome and its metabolites in sleep regulation, neurodegenerative disorders, mechanisms of stress, and mood. It also provides examples of nutritional interventions which can restore healthy gut microbiota and aid with risk reduction and management of many disorders related to mental and cognitive health. Evidence suggests a shift in the gut microbiota towards a balanced composition could be a target to maintain brain health, reduce stress and improve quality of life. ,Maciej Chichlowski ... Neeraj Pandey [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [97] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 367 [Create_Time] => 2022-08-30 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202305/20230520084918.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100198/100198.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100198/100198.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100198/100198_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Signaling pathways and targets of natural products in psoriasis treatment [Abstract] => Aim: Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder, which has adverse effects on patients’ quality of life. Natural products exhibit significant therapeutic capacities with [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder, which has adverse effects on patients’ quality of life. Natural products exhibit significant therapeutic capacities with small side effects and might be preferable alternative treatments for patients with psoriasis. This study summarizes the signaling pathways with the potential targets of natural products and their efficacy for psoriasis treatment.

Methods:

The literature for this article was acquired from PubMed and Web of Science, from January 2010 to December 2020. The keywords for searching included “psoriasis” and “natural product”, “herbal medicine”, “herbal therapy”, “medicinal plant”, “medicinal herb” or “pharmaceutical plant”.

Results:

Herbal extracts, natural compounds, and herbal prescriptions could regulate the signaling pathways to alleviate psoriasis symptoms, such as T helper 17 (Th17) differentiation, Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and other signaling pathways, which are involved in the inflammatory response and keratinocyte hyperproliferation. The anti-psoriatic effect of natural products in clinical trials was summarized.

Conclusions:

Natural products exerted the anti-psoriatic effect by targeting multiple signaling pathways, providing evidence for the investigation of novel drugs. Further experimental research should be performed to screen and characterize the therapeutic targets of natural products for application in psoriasis treatment.

[Names] => Ly Thi Huong Nguyen [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00098 [Published] => August 29, 2022 [Viewed] => 1357 [Downloaded] => 65 [Subject] => Systematic Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00098 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:345–367 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Natural products, herbal medicine, psoriasis, mechanism, signaling pathway, target [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100198 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100198/021c9458b505bbbe9f540195b7829050.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100198/c82da6149a65698f017dc1e283e7487f.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 2 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Nguyen LTH. Signaling pathways and targets of natural products in psoriasis treatment. Explor Med. 2022;3:345–67. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00098 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Ly Thi HuongNguyen, [CEmail] => lynguyen@dgu.ac.kr, [Ris_Time] => 2022-08-30 09:10:01 [Bib_Time] => 2022-08-30 09:10:01 [KeysWordContens] => Signaling pathways and targets of natural products in psoriasis treatment, Natural products, herbal medicine, psoriasis, mechanism, signaling pathway, target, Aim: Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder, which has adverse effects on patients’ quality of life. Natural products exhibit significant therapeutic capacities with small side effects and might be preferable alternative treatments for patients with psoriasis. This study summarizes the signaling pathways with the potential targets of natural products and their efficacy for psoriasis treatment. Methods: The literature for this article was acquired from PubMed and Web of Science, from January 2010 to December 2020. The keywords for searching included “psoriasis” and “natural product”, “herbal medicine”, “herbal therapy”, “medicinal plant”, “medicinal herb” or “pharmaceutical plant”. Results: Herbal extracts, natural compounds, and herbal prescriptions could regulate the signaling pathways to alleviate psoriasis symptoms, such as T helper 17 (Th17) differentiation, Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and other signaling pathways, which are involved in the inflammatory response and keratinocyte hyperproliferation. The anti-psoriatic effect of natural products in clinical trials was summarized. Conclusions: Natural products exerted the anti-psoriatic effect by targeting multiple signaling pathways, providing evidence for the investigation of novel drugs. Further experimental research should be performed to screen and characterize the therapeutic targets of natural products for application in psoriasis treatment. ,Ly Thi Huong Nguyen [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [98] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 368 [Create_Time] => 2022-08-30 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202208/20220831071257.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100199/100199.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100199/100199.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100199/100199_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Is there any correlation between muscle fatigue and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels in prediabetic individuals? [Abstract] => Aim: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that acts as a catalyst in the conversion of lactate to pyruvate which is abundantly found in liver, kidney, heart and muscles. Previous studies have all shown a strong positive correlation between muscle fatigue and increased serum LDH levels with type 2 diabetes mellitus but no study has actually assessed the same for prediabetes. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that acts as a catalyst in the conversion of lactate to pyruvate which is abundantly found in liver, kidney, heart and muscles. Previous studies have all shown a strong positive correlation between muscle fatigue and increased serum LDH levels with type 2 diabetes mellitus but no study has actually assessed the same for prediabetes. The basic objective of this study, thus, is to find out the correlation between muscle fatigue and serum LDH levels in prediabetic individuals.

Methods:

A cross-sectional study was conducted in adults between 24–60 years old who were classified as prediabetic individuals as per norms established by American Diabetes Association. A total of 100 prediabetic individuals were selected for the study. Fatigability was calculated as a function of work done by the pleximeter finger of the dominant hand using Mosso’s ergograph. The study was conducted at Rajarshi Dashrath Autonomous State Medical College, Ayodhya.

Results:

Out of 100 prediabetic participants, 50% were males with a mean age of 44.14 ± 10.91 years and remaining 50% were females with a mean age of 41.12 ± 11.5 years. Overall, the average work done by the participants was 2.9 ± 1.2 weight lifted•total distance moved (kg•m) with an average serum LDH level of 323.84 ± 26.82 unit/litre (U/L).

Conclusions:

This study aimed at assessing the correlation between muscle fatigue and serum LDH levels in prediabetic individuals so that further work can be initiated to improve the quality of life in prediabetics that maybe drastically hampered due to easy fatigability in prediabetic individuals.

[Names] => Charu Mishra ... Ranjan Kumar Dixit [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00099 [Published] => August 29, 2022 [Viewed] => 882 [Downloaded] => 22 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00099 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:368–374 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Muscle fatigue, Mosso’s ergograph, prediabetes, serum lactate dehydrogenase levels [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 100199 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100199/283483418740fb3cce667e094133d0ca.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A100199/45de16505dc12c280d5941258cf3d659.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Mishra C, Ailani V, Saxena D, Yadav YK, Singh S, Kumar V, et al. Is there any correlation between muscle fatigue and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels in prediabetic individuals? Explor Med. 2022;3:368–74. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00099 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-08-30 00:50:30 [Bib_Time] => 2022-08-30 00:50:30 [KeysWordContens] => Is there any correlation between muscle fatigue and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels in prediabetic individuals?, Muscle fatigue, Mosso’s ergograph, prediabetes, serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, Aim: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that acts as a catalyst in the conversion of lactate to pyruvate which is abundantly found in liver, kidney, heart and muscles. Previous studies have all shown a strong positive correlation between muscle fatigue and increased serum LDH levels with type 2 diabetes mellitus but no study has actually assessed the same for prediabetes. The basic objective of this study, thus, is to find out the correlation between muscle fatigue and serum LDH levels in prediabetic individuals. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in adults between 24–60 years old who were classified as prediabetic individuals as per norms established by American Diabetes Association. A total of 100 prediabetic individuals were selected for the study. Fatigability was calculated as a function of work done by the pleximeter finger of the dominant hand using Mosso’s ergograph. The study was conducted at Rajarshi Dashrath Autonomous State Medical College, Ayodhya. Results: Out of 100 prediabetic participants, 50% were males with a mean age of 44.14 ± 10.91 years and remaining 50% were females with a mean age of 41.12 ± 11.5 years. Overall, the average work done by the participants was 2.9 ± 1.2 weight lifted•total distance moved (kg•m) with an average serum LDH level of 323.84 ± 26.82 unit/litre (U/L). Conclusions: This study aimed at assessing the correlation between muscle fatigue and serum LDH levels in prediabetic individuals so that further work can be initiated to improve the quality of life in prediabetics that maybe drastically hampered due to easy fatigability in prediabetic individuals. ,Charu Mishra ... Ranjan Kumar Dixit [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [99] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 370 [Create_Time] => 2022-08-30 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202209/20220901015219.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001100/1001100.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001100/1001100.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001100/1001100_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Mathematical model for transmission of Chlamydia due to sexual activity and unhygienic environment [Abstract] => Aim: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) need to be studied systematically to better understand their global spread. Transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis is a severe public health issue, with r [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) need to be studied systematically to better understand their global spread. Transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis is a severe public health issue, with roughly 90 million new cases per year. Globally, Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequent bacterial cause of STDs.

Methods:

To better understand the dynamics and transmission of Chlamydia, the susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered-susceptible (SEIRS) model was constructed. Using a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, a basic reproduction number has been calculated at an equilibrium point, and the system is locally and globally asymptotically stable at both disease-free and endemic equilibrium points. Numerical simulations illustrate the behavior and flow of Chlamydia infections in different compartments.

Results:

Conclude from the proposed study that 25% of individuals have been exposed to Chlamydia, of which 20% of individuals get infections due to sexual activity and 55% of individuals get recovered. Twenty percent of individuals have been exposed to Chlamydia, of which 37% of individuals have been infected due to an unhygienic environment. Of those, 43% of individuals recovered. Also, it has been found that people are more likely to get infections because of an unhygienic environment than sexually active people. The recovery rate is also much better for people who have been infected because of an unhygienic environment.

Conclusions:

Sexually transmitted infections can be reduced by up to 10%. While infection due to an unhygienic environment can be controlled up to a certain intensity. According to this research, public awareness campaigns and the improvement of personal hygiene will play a major role in reducing the spread of the epidemic in the future.

[Names] => Nita H. Shah ... Yash N. Shah [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00100 [Published] => August 30, 2022 [Viewed] => 857 [Downloaded] => 44 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00100 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:375–385 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Chlamydia, mathematical model, transmission dynamics, stability, numerical simulation [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001100 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001100/0c106b410080e49575e3fb86c0fb1283.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001100/0dbf864e2e2efb40bc6fc8babc9b90dd.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Shah NH, Vaghela JN, Pandya PM, Shah YN. Mathematical model for transmission of Chlamydia due to sexual activity and unhygienic environment. Explor Med. 2022;3:375–85. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00100 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Nita H.Shah, [CEmail] => nitahshah@gmail.com, [Ris_Time] => 2022-09-01 01:52:20 [Bib_Time] => 2022-09-01 01:52:20 [KeysWordContens] => Mathematical model for transmission of Chlamydia due to sexual activity and unhygienic environment, Chlamydia, mathematical model, transmission dynamics, stability, numerical simulation, Aim: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) need to be studied systematically to better understand their global spread. Transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis is a severe public health issue, with roughly 90 million new cases per year. Globally, Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequent bacterial cause of STDs. Methods: To better understand the dynamics and transmission of Chlamydia, the susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered-susceptible (SEIRS) model was constructed. Using a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, a basic reproduction number has been calculated at an equilibrium point, and the system is locally and globally asymptotically stable at both disease-free and endemic equilibrium points. Numerical simulations illustrate the behavior and flow of Chlamydia infections in different compartments. Results: Conclude from the proposed study that 25% of individuals have been exposed to Chlamydia, of which 20% of individuals get infections due to sexual activity and 55% of individuals get recovered. Twenty percent of individuals have been exposed to Chlamydia, of which 37% of individuals have been infected due to an unhygienic environment. Of those, 43% of individuals recovered. Also, it has been found that people are more likely to get infections because of an unhygienic environment than sexually active people. The recovery rate is also much better for people who have been infected because of an unhygienic environment. Conclusions: Sexually transmitted infections can be reduced by up to 10%. While infection due to an unhygienic environment can be controlled up to a certain intensity. According to this research, public awareness campaigns and the improvement of personal hygiene will play a major role in reducing the spread of the epidemic in the future. ,Nita H. Shah ... Yash N. Shah [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [100] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 371 [Create_Time] => 2022-08-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202208/20220831015422.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001101/1001101.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001101/1001101.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001101/1001101_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => A case report: 19-year-old male diagnosed with C1q nephropathy requiring renal replacement therapy [Abstract] => C1q nephropathy is a rare glomerular disease. Clinical presentation is diverse and ranges from asymptomatic hematuria or proteinuria to symptoms and signs of nephrotic/nephritic syndrome. On light microscopy, it can be classified into two subtypes: minimal change disease (MCD)/focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) group and immune complex mediated proliferative glomerulonephritis group. [AbstractComplete] =>

C1q nephropathy is a rare glomerular disease. Clinical presentation is diverse and ranges from asymptomatic hematuria or proteinuria to symptoms and signs of nephrotic/nephritic syndrome. On light microscopy, it can be classified into two subtypes: minimal change disease (MCD)/focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) group and immune complex mediated proliferative glomerulonephritis group. A case of a 19-year-old male patient presenting nausea and decreased appetite will be reported. The labs showed severe nephrotic syndrome and a progressive kidney injury over a few months that were never diagnosed. The immune workup came back negative. The patient mentioned that he was taking protein shakes a few months earlier for bettering his physical fitness. A renal biopsy was done and showed a major reduction in renal mass and C1q nephropathy. He received steroids without any improvement. He was started on hemodialysis afterward then got transplanted 8 months later. In front of this rapid deterioration, FSGS might be the underlying etiology rather than MCD. Further studies are warranted to establish a connection between protein supplements, and progression of kidney disease.

[Names] => Randa Choueiri ... Vanessa Nseir [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00101 [Published] => August 31, 2022 [Viewed] => 1207 [Downloaded] => 41 [Subject] => Case Report [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00101 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 67 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:386–392 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => C1q nephropathy, kidney failure, kidney biopsy [DetailTitle] => Disease Diagnosis, Molecular Mechanism and Therapeutic Strategies in Kidney Injury and Fibrosis [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/67 [Id] => 1001101 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001101/b172952ffab38fee407098e2c0b1e23e.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001101/a03495e49bfda304a611c12fb0d21967.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 2 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Choueiri R, Faddoul J, Ghorra C, Al Najjar J, Akiki BB, Boustany S, et al. A case report: 19-year-old male diagnosed with C1q nephropathy requiring renal replacement therapy. Explor Med. 2022;3:386–92. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00101 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-08-30 07:23:01 [Bib_Time] => 2022-08-30 07:23:01 [KeysWordContens] => A case report: 19-year-old male diagnosed with C1q nephropathy requiring renal replacement therapy, C1q nephropathy, kidney failure, kidney biopsy, C1q nephropathy is a rare glomerular disease. Clinical presentation is diverse and ranges from asymptomatic hematuria or proteinuria to symptoms and signs of nephrotic/nephritic syndrome. On light microscopy, it can be classified into two subtypes: minimal change disease (MCD)/focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) group and immune complex mediated proliferative glomerulonephritis group. A case of a 19-year-old male patient presenting nausea and decreased appetite will be reported. The labs showed severe nephrotic syndrome and a progressive kidney injury over a few months that were never diagnosed. The immune workup came back negative. The patient mentioned that he was taking protein shakes a few months earlier for bettering his physical fitness. A renal biopsy was done and showed a major reduction in renal mass and C1q nephropathy. He received steroids without any improvement. He was started on hemodialysis afterward then got transplanted 8 months later. In front of this rapid deterioration, FSGS might be the underlying etiology rather than MCD. Further studies are warranted to establish a connection between protein supplements, and progression of kidney disease. ,Randa Choueiri ... Vanessa Nseir [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [101] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 374 [Create_Time] => 2022-08-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202209/20220901013012.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001102/1001102.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001102/1001102.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001102/1001102_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Paradoxical role of reactive oxygen species in bone remodelling: implications in osteoporosis and possible nanotherapeutic interventions [Abstract] => Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder that affects both sexes and is the most common cause of fractures. Osteoporosis therapies primarily inhibit osteoclast activity, and are seldom designed to [AbstractComplete] =>

Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder that affects both sexes and is the most common cause of fractures. Osteoporosis therapies primarily inhibit osteoclast activity, and are seldom designed to trigger new bone growth thereby frequently causing severe systemic adverse effects. Physiologically, the intracellular redox state depends on the ratio of pro-oxidants, oxidizing agents (reactive oxygen species, ROS) and antioxidants. ROS is the key contributor to oxidative stress in osteoporosis as changes in redox state are responsible for dynamic bone remodeling and bone regeneration. Imbalances in ROS generation vs. antioxidant systems play a pivotal role in pathogenesis of osteoporosis, stimulating osteoblasts and osteocytes towards osteoclastogenesis. ROS prevents mineralization and osteogenesis, causing increased turnover of bone loss. Alternatively, antioxidants either directly or indirectly, contribute to activation of osteoblasts leading to differentiation and mineralization, thereby reducing osteoclastogenesis. Owing to the unpredictability of immune responsiveness and reported adverse effects, despite promising outcomes from drugs against oxidative stress, treatment in clinics targeting osteoclast has been limited. Nanotechnology-mediated interventions have gained remarkable superiority over other treatment modalities in regenerative medicine. Nanotherapeutic approaches exploit the antioxidant properties of nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to trigger bone repair, by enhancing their osteogenic and anti-osteoclastogenic potentials to influence the biocompatibility, mechanical properties and osteoinductivity. Therefore, exploiting nanotherapeutics for maintaining the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts is quintessential.

[Names] => Largee Biswas ... Anita Kamra Verma [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00102 [Published] => August 31, 2022 [Viewed] => 1106 [Downloaded] => 67 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00102 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 54 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:393–413 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, osteoporosis, osteoblast, osteoclast, drug delivery system, nanotherapeutics [DetailTitle] => Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Pathophysiological Conditions [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/54 [Id] => 1001102 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001102/27e5b15a347875ec14032ec891e4ccb8.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001102/ef2f0160a414a64b2c15d4b636c20050.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Biswas L, Niveria K, Verma AK. Paradoxical role of reactive oxygen species in bone remodelling: implications in osteoporosis and possible nanotherapeutic interventions. Explor Med. 2022;3:393–413. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00102 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Anita KamraVerma, [CEmail] => akverma@kmc.du.ac.in, [Ris_Time] => 2022-08-29 07:53:23 [Bib_Time] => 2022-08-29 07:53:23 [KeysWordContens] => Paradoxical role of reactive oxygen species in bone remodelling: implications in osteoporosis and possible nanotherapeutic interventions, Reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, osteoporosis, osteoblast, osteoclast, drug delivery system, nanotherapeutics, Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder that affects both sexes and is the most common cause of fractures. Osteoporosis therapies primarily inhibit osteoclast activity, and are seldom designed to trigger new bone growth thereby frequently causing severe systemic adverse effects. Physiologically, the intracellular redox state depends on the ratio of pro-oxidants, oxidizing agents (reactive oxygen species, ROS) and antioxidants. ROS is the key contributor to oxidative stress in osteoporosis as changes in redox state are responsible for dynamic bone remodeling and bone regeneration. Imbalances in ROS generation vs. antioxidant systems play a pivotal role in pathogenesis of osteoporosis, stimulating osteoblasts and osteocytes towards osteoclastogenesis. ROS prevents mineralization and osteogenesis, causing increased turnover of bone loss. Alternatively, antioxidants either directly or indirectly, contribute to activation of osteoblasts leading to differentiation and mineralization, thereby reducing osteoclastogenesis. Owing to the unpredictability of immune responsiveness and reported adverse effects, despite promising outcomes from drugs against oxidative stress, treatment in clinics targeting osteoclast has been limited. Nanotechnology-mediated interventions have gained remarkable superiority over other treatment modalities in regenerative medicine. Nanotherapeutic approaches exploit the antioxidant properties of nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to trigger bone repair, by enhancing their osteogenic and anti-osteoclastogenic potentials to influence the biocompatibility, mechanical properties and osteoinductivity. Therefore, exploiting nanotherapeutics for maintaining the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts is quintessential. ,Largee Biswas ... Anita Kamra Verma [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [102] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 398 [Create_Time] => 2022-10-12 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202210/20221012025638.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001103/1001103.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001103/1001103.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001103/1001103_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Vasopressin: a possible link between hypoxia and hypertension [Abstract] => Cardiovascular and respiratory diseases are frequently associated with transient and prolonged hypoxia, whereas hypoxia exerts pro-hypertensive effects, through stimulation of the sympathetic system [AbstractComplete] =>

Cardiovascular and respiratory diseases are frequently associated with transient and prolonged hypoxia, whereas hypoxia exerts pro-hypertensive effects, through stimulation of the sympathetic system and release of pressor endocrine factors. This review is focused on the role of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in dysregulation of the cardiovascular system during hypoxia associated with cardiovascular disorders. AVP is synthesized mainly in the neuroendocrine neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON), which send axons to the posterior pituitary and various regions of the central nervous system (CNS). Vasopressinergic neurons are innervated by multiple neuronal projections releasing several neurotransmitters and other regulatory molecules. AVP interacts with V1a, V1b and V2 receptors that are present in the brain and peripheral organs, including the heart, vessels, lungs, and kidneys. Release of vasopressin is intensified during hypernatremia, hypovolemia, inflammation, stress, pain, and hypoxia which frequently occur in cardiovascular patients, and blood AVP concentration is markedly elevated in cardiovascular diseases associated with hypoxemia. There is evidence that hypoxia stimulates AVP release through stimulation of chemoreceptors. It is suggested that acting in the carotid bodies, AVP may fine-tune respiratory and hemodynamic responses to hypoxia and that this effect is intensified in hypertension. There is also evidence that during hypoxia, augmentation of pro-hypertensive effects of vasopressin may result from inappropriate interaction of this hormone with other compounds regulating the cardiovascular system (catecholamines, angiotensins, natriuretic peptides, steroids, nitric oxide). In conclusion, current literature indicates that abnormal mutual interactions between hypoxia and vasopressin may significantly contribute to pathogenesis of hypertension.

[Names] => Ewa Szczepańska-Sadowska, Tymoteusz Żera [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00103 [Published] => October 11, 2022 [Viewed] => 923 [Downloaded] => 39 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00103 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 68 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:414–431 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Chemoreceptors, eclampsia, hypertension, hypoxia, heart failure, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), vasopressin [DetailTitle] => Recent Advances in Hypertension [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/68 [Id] => 1001103 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001103/b85d94ad051bc81706d6a857e023f8a9.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001103/1ff0268ab28824a17a5cf45838609e1e.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Szczepańska-Sadowska E, Żera T. Vasopressin: a possible link between hypoxia and hypertension. Explor Med. 2022;3:414–31. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00103 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-10-09 08:50:38 [Bib_Time] => 2022-10-09 08:50:38 [KeysWordContens] => Vasopressin: a possible link between hypoxia and hypertension, Chemoreceptors, eclampsia, hypertension, hypoxia, heart failure, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), vasopressin, Cardiovascular and respiratory diseases are frequently associated with transient and prolonged hypoxia, whereas hypoxia exerts pro-hypertensive effects, through stimulation of the sympathetic system and release of pressor endocrine factors. This review is focused on the role of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in dysregulation of the cardiovascular system during hypoxia associated with cardiovascular disorders. AVP is synthesized mainly in the neuroendocrine neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON), which send axons to the posterior pituitary and various regions of the central nervous system (CNS). Vasopressinergic neurons are innervated by multiple neuronal projections releasing several neurotransmitters and other regulatory molecules. AVP interacts with V1a, V1b and V2 receptors that are present in the brain and peripheral organs, including the heart, vessels, lungs, and kidneys. Release of vasopressin is intensified during hypernatremia, hypovolemia, inflammation, stress, pain, and hypoxia which frequently occur in cardiovascular patients, and blood AVP concentration is markedly elevated in cardiovascular diseases associated with hypoxemia. There is evidence that hypoxia stimulates AVP release through stimulation of chemoreceptors. It is suggested that acting in the carotid bodies, AVP may fine-tune respiratory and hemodynamic responses to hypoxia and that this effect is intensified in hypertension. There is also evidence that during hypoxia, augmentation of pro-hypertensive effects of vasopressin may result from inappropriate interaction of this hormone with other compounds regulating the cardiovascular system (catecholamines, angiotensins, natriuretic peptides, steroids, nitric oxide). In conclusion, current literature indicates that abnormal mutual interactions between hypoxia and vasopressin may significantly contribute to pathogenesis of hypertension. ,Ewa Szczepańska-Sadowska, Tymoteusz Żera [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [103] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 399 [Create_Time] => 2022-10-13 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202305/20230526073554.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001104/1001104.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001104/1001104.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001104/1001104_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Nutritional prospects of wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum) and its effects in treatment and chemoprevention [Abstract] => Nutraceuticals are organic and traditional foods consumed nowadays to maintain a healthy lifestyle and get rid of lifestyle diseases like obesity, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, etc. Globally, herb [AbstractComplete] =>

Nutraceuticals are organic and traditional foods consumed nowadays to maintain a healthy lifestyle and get rid of lifestyle diseases like obesity, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, etc. Globally, herbal products have become increasingly popular in recent years. Wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum) is a nutraceutical proven to be a dietary supplement and beneficial for cancer-suffering patients. Wheatgrass possesses many beneficial antioxidant properties: anti-cancer activity, anti-bacterial activity, anti-fungal activity, and anti-microbial activity. Due to the presence of resistant starch, lignans, phenolic acids, alkylresorcinols, and numerous antioxidant components, including carotenoids and tocopherols, this herbal plant is deserving attention as a source of dietary fiber. Patients consume wheatgrass during cancer treatment as an adjunct to reduce toxicity associated with drugs and chemotherapy and ultimately improve long-term outcomes. Studies have proved that wheatgrass helps treat pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, and breast cancer. So, the multi-targeted herbal drug—wheatgrass—is used as an adjunct therapy alongside conventional medicine to treat cancer and other diseases. A promising therapeutic nutraceutical for avoiding lifestyle disorders is wheatgrass.

[Names] => Neha Minocha ... Parijat Pandey [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00104 [Published] => October 12, 2022 [Viewed] => 725 [Downloaded] => 33 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00104 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 85 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:432–442 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Triticum aestivum, wheatgrass, nutraceutical, anti-cancer, breast cancer, antioxidant, lifestyle disease [DetailTitle] => Techniques in Repurposing and Targeted Delivery: Bringing a New Life to Shelved Drugs [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/85 [Id] => 1001104 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001104/651a9ca70108f429321fdbf205248597.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001104/2dc8bb8f5f915e6a27d4aa1973999e6d.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Minocha N, Saini S, Pandey P. Nutritional prospects of wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum) and its effects in treatment and chemoprevention. Explor Med. 2022;3:432–42. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00104 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => NehaMinocha, [CEmail] => neha.minocha.bmu@gmail.com, [Ris_Time] => 2022-10-10 03:27:21 [Bib_Time] => 2022-10-10 03:27:21 [KeysWordContens] => Nutritional prospects of wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum) and its effects in treatment and chemoprevention, Triticum aestivum, wheatgrass, nutraceutical, anti-cancer, breast cancer, antioxidant, lifestyle disease, Nutraceuticals are organic and traditional foods consumed nowadays to maintain a healthy lifestyle and get rid of lifestyle diseases like obesity, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, etc. Globally, herbal products have become increasingly popular in recent years. Wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum) is a nutraceutical proven to be a dietary supplement and beneficial for cancer-suffering patients. Wheatgrass possesses many beneficial antioxidant properties: anti-cancer activity, anti-bacterial activity, anti-fungal activity, and anti-microbial activity. Due to the presence of resistant starch, lignans, phenolic acids, alkylresorcinols, and numerous antioxidant components, including carotenoids and tocopherols, this herbal plant is deserving attention as a source of dietary fiber. Patients consume wheatgrass during cancer treatment as an adjunct to reduce toxicity associated with drugs and chemotherapy and ultimately improve long-term outcomes. Studies have proved that wheatgrass helps treat pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, and breast cancer. So, the multi-targeted herbal drug—wheatgrass—is used as an adjunct therapy alongside conventional medicine to treat cancer and other diseases. A promising therapeutic nutraceutical for avoiding lifestyle disorders is wheatgrass. ,Neha Minocha ... Parijat Pandey [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [104] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 408 [Create_Time] => 2022-10-27 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202210/20221027073832.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001105/1001105.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001105/1001105.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001105/1001105_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Seminal fructose and citric acid concentrations relative to sperm parameters among men for fertility evaluation in Yaoundé, Cameroon [Abstract] => Aim: Given the male infertility’s pluri-etiological nature, thorough examinations are needed for its evaluation. Fructose and citric acid are simple biomolecules, easy to assay, which provide reliable information on the seminal [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Given the male infertility’s pluri-etiological nature, thorough examinations are needed for its evaluation. Fructose and citric acid are simple biomolecules, easy to assay, which provide reliable information on the seminal vesicles and prostate, respectively. This study aimed to compare the seminal fructose and citric acid levels in men undergoing fertility evaluation and determine the relation between these markers and sperm parameters.

Methods:

A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on consenting male participants. Following 2010 seminal fluid analysis (SFA) manual of World Health Organization (WHO), semen samples were analyzed for several sperm parameters, seminal fructose and citric acid. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS 24.0 software. Significant statistical difference was considered at P < 0.05.

Results:

There is no significant difference between seminal fructose and citric acid levels amongst men with normal and abnormal sperm parameters as median seminal fructose and citric acid levels were 11.1 (7.4–17.1) mg/mL and 11.4 (7.3–15.2) mg/mL respectively (P ≥ 0.05). However, a high level of fructose was observed in the two groups according to the reference value. The study revealed a significant positive correlation between seminal fructose levels and semen volume (coefficient rho = 0.663; P = 0.001) and between seminal citric acid levels and semen volume (coefficient rho = 0.319; P = 0.004).

Conclusions:

These biomarkers secretions can serve as markers of the state of their respective secreting glands and hence play a vital role in the investigation of male infertility.

[Names] => Bih Tanni ... Christopher Odianosen Aimakhu [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00105 [Published] => October 27, 2022 [Viewed] => 1512 [Downloaded] => 36 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00105 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:443–450 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Fructose, citric acid, semen, male infertility, sperm parameters [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001105 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001105/f10b505c561c54126ea516769034dae4.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001105/f134b13275cbb6c1be23107a466635af.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Tanni B, Voundi EV, Omigbodun A, Aimakhu CO. Seminal fructose and citric acid concentrations relative to sperm parameters among men for fertility evaluation in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Explor Med. 2022;3:443–50. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00105 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-10-25 08:21:01 [Bib_Time] => 2022-10-25 08:21:01 [KeysWordContens] => Seminal fructose and citric acid concentrations relative to sperm parameters among men for fertility evaluation in Yaoundé, Cameroon, Fructose, citric acid, semen, male infertility, sperm parameters, Aim: Given the male infertility’s pluri-etiological nature, thorough examinations are needed for its evaluation. Fructose and citric acid are simple biomolecules, easy to assay, which provide reliable information on the seminal vesicles and prostate, respectively. This study aimed to compare the seminal fructose and citric acid levels in men undergoing fertility evaluation and determine the relation between these markers and sperm parameters. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on consenting male participants. Following 2010 seminal fluid analysis (SFA) manual of World Health Organization (WHO), semen samples were analyzed for several sperm parameters, seminal fructose and citric acid. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS 24.0 software. Significant statistical difference was considered at P < 0.05. Results: There is no significant difference between seminal fructose and citric acid levels amongst men with normal and abnormal sperm parameters as median seminal fructose and citric acid levels were 11.1 (7.4–17.1) mg/mL and 11.4 (7.3–15.2) mg/mL respectively (P ≥ 0.05). However, a high level of fructose was observed in the two groups according to the reference value. The study revealed a significant positive correlation between seminal fructose levels and semen volume (coefficient rho = 0.663; P = 0.001) and between seminal citric acid levels and semen volume (coefficient rho = 0.319; P = 0.004). Conclusions: These biomarkers secretions can serve as markers of the state of their respective secreting glands and hence play a vital role in the investigation of male infertility. ,Bih Tanni ... Christopher Odianosen Aimakhu [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [105] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 409 [Create_Time] => 2022-10-28 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202210/20221028032746.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001106/1001106.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001106/1001106.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001106/1001106_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in oral mucosal surgical wound healing: a systematic review and meta-analysis [Abstract] => Aim: Wound healing is a complex phenomenon with various biological changes in tissue integrity, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has acquired several unique components to help into accelerating tis [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Wound healing is a complex phenomenon with various biological changes in tissue integrity, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has acquired several unique components to help into accelerating tissue reconstruction and eventually wound healing. Thus, in the present systematic review and meta-analysis study, the role of LLLT in oral mucosal wound healing following surgical interventions was investigated.

Methods:

The study databases, including PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Cochrane, were searched by two blinded investigators considering eligible studies based on the following keywords: “Wound Healing”, “Oral Mucosal Wound Healing”, “Laser therapy”, “Low-level laser therapy”, “Oral Surgery”, “Photobiomodulation therapy”, among 88 screened, only 12 articles were eligible for the final analysis.

Results:

There was a significant difference between control and laser group in all mentioned studies in the case of wound epithelialization in gingiva, with weighted mean difference (MD) of –0.28, [95% confidence interval (CI): –0.37, –0.19, P < 0.001], periodontium 1 day postoperative, with weighted MD of –0.56 (95% CI: –0.84, –0.27, P < 0.001) and 7 days postoperative, with weighted MD of –0.73 (95% CI: –0.97, –0.49, P < 0.001). In the cases of postoperative pain, LLLT has significantly declined pain in comparison with control group with weighted MD of –0.47 (95% CI: –0.69, –0.24, P < 0.001) for 7 days postoperative and –0.55 (95% CI: –0.96, –0.13, P = 0.005) 14 days postoperatively.

Conclusions:

LLLT can be used as a promising tool in oral surgeries because of its inevitable capability in accelerating wound healing and reducing intraoperative pain.

[Names] => Seyyed Amir Seyyedi ... Rohollah Valizadeh [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00106 [Published] => October 27, 2022 [Viewed] => 577 [Downloaded] => 31 [Subject] => Meta-Analysis [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00106 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:451–460 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Low-level laser therapy, oral mucosal wound healing, oral surgery [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001106 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001106/140d33a80baa60b5e80388783f6a8d7c.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001106/bd1b0298b6d83e84b383745f790377cf.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Seyyedi SA, Taram S, Heydari M, Valizadeh R. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in oral mucosal surgical wound healing: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Explor Med. 2022;3:451–60. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00106 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-10-24 09:57:49 [Bib_Time] => 2022-10-27 10:57:34 [KeysWordContens] => Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in oral mucosal surgical wound healing: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Low-level laser therapy, oral mucosal wound healing, oral surgery, Aim: Wound healing is a complex phenomenon with various biological changes in tissue integrity, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has acquired several unique components to help into accelerating tissue reconstruction and eventually wound healing. Thus, in the present systematic review and meta-analysis study, the role of LLLT in oral mucosal wound healing following surgical interventions was investigated. Methods: The study databases, including PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Cochrane, were searched by two blinded investigators considering eligible studies based on the following keywords: “Wound Healing”, “Oral Mucosal Wound Healing”, “Laser therapy”, “Low-level laser therapy”, “Oral Surgery”, “Photobiomodulation therapy”, among 88 screened, only 12 articles were eligible for the final analysis. Results: There was a significant difference between control and laser group in all mentioned studies in the case of wound epithelialization in gingiva, with weighted mean difference (MD) of –0.28, [95% confidence interval (CI): –0.37, –0.19, P < 0.001], periodontium 1 day postoperative, with weighted MD of –0.56 (95% CI: –0.84, –0.27, P < 0.001) and 7 days postoperative, with weighted MD of –0.73 (95% CI: –0.97, –0.49, P < 0.001). In the cases of postoperative pain, LLLT has significantly declined pain in comparison with control group with weighted MD of –0.47 (95% CI: –0.69, –0.24, P < 0.001) for 7 days postoperative and –0.55 (95% CI: –0.96, –0.13, P = 0.005) 14 days postoperatively. Conclusions: LLLT can be used as a promising tool in oral surgeries because of its inevitable capability in accelerating wound healing and reducing intraoperative pain. ,Seyyed Amir Seyyedi ... Rohollah Valizadeh [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [106] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 416 [Create_Time] => 2022-10-28 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202211/20221104051315.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001107/1001107.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001107/1001107.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001107/1001107_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Update on trials examining effects of night-time blood pressure lowering drug treatment on prevention of cardiovascular disease [Abstract] => Current evidence on benefits of night-time blood pressure (BP) lowering drug treatment on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention attributable to the Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in the Pred [AbstractComplete] =>

Current evidence on benefits of night-time blood pressure (BP) lowering drug treatment on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention attributable to the Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in the Prediction of Cardiovascular Events and Effects of Chronotherapy (MAPEC) trial and Bedtime hypertension treatment improves cardiovascular risk reduction (Hygia) trials has raised concern on their validity and methodology. In this commentary, the authors have updated the progress of the ongoing trials that were planned to examine the effect of night-time BP lowering drug treatment on CVD prevention. As compared to MAPEC and Hygia trials, three pragmatic trials the Blood Pressure Medication Timing (BPMedtime) trial (US), the Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) trial (UK), Bedmed and Bedmed-frail (Canada) were planned without ambulatory BP monitoring. The BPMedtime trial was stopped after the pilot phase due to underestimated sample size and insufficient funds. TIME trial (UK) had a similar issue when changing the sample size from 10,269 to more than 20,000 participants. The TIME trial was completed and the initial results showing that protection against heart attack, stroke and vascular death is not affected by whether antihypertensive medications are taken in the morning or evening. The full study of the TIME trial is published in December 2022. Bedmed and Bedmed-frail trials are ongoing and will be completed in 2023. Time of taking BP lowering drug should be determined by patients at their convenience to improve the adherence. There was no difference in adverse effects of taking BP lowering drugs at night or morning. Evidence on the effect of night-time treatment on CVD events is inconsistent. The results from ongoing trials in Canada will contribute evidence to the use of BP lowering drug treatment for the prevention of CVD.

[Names] => Chau Le Bao Ho, Christopher M. Reid [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00107 [Published] => October 27, 2022 [Viewed] => 917 [Downloaded] => 35 [Subject] => Commentary [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00107 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 68 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:461–467 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Night-time, hypertension, antihypertensive treatment [DetailTitle] => Recent Advances in Hypertension [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/68 [Id] => 1001107 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001107/4d877c926cdac25fa843136543e805ee.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001107/da8de136205eebabb5a4129af9c73fc3.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 2 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Ho CLB, Reid CM. Update on trials examining effects of night-time blood pressure lowering drug treatment on prevention of cardiovascular disease. Explor Med. 2022;3:461–7. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00107 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Chau Le BaoHo, [CEmail] => chau.ho@curtin.edu.au, [Ris_Time] => 2022-10-27 05:34:21 [Bib_Time] => 2022-10-26 07:15:39 [KeysWordContens] => Update on trials examining effects of night-time blood pressure lowering drug treatment on prevention of cardiovascular disease, Night-time, hypertension, antihypertensive treatment, Current evidence on benefits of night-time blood pressure (BP) lowering drug treatment on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention attributable to the Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in the Prediction of Cardiovascular Events and Effects of Chronotherapy (MAPEC) trial and Bedtime hypertension treatment improves cardiovascular risk reduction (Hygia) trials has raised concern on their validity and methodology. In this commentary, the authors have updated the progress of the ongoing trials that were planned to examine the effect of night-time BP lowering drug treatment on CVD prevention. As compared to MAPEC and Hygia trials, three pragmatic trials the Blood Pressure Medication Timing (BPMedtime) trial (US), the Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) trial (UK), Bedmed and Bedmed-frail (Canada) were planned without ambulatory BP monitoring. The BPMedtime trial was stopped after the pilot phase due to underestimated sample size and insufficient funds. TIME trial (UK) had a similar issue when changing the sample size from 10,269 to more than 20,000 participants. The TIME trial was completed and the initial results showing that protection against heart attack, stroke and vascular death is not affected by whether antihypertensive medications are taken in the morning or evening. The full study of the TIME trial is published in December 2022. Bedmed and Bedmed-frail trials are ongoing and will be completed in 2023. Time of taking BP lowering drug should be determined by patients at their convenience to improve the adherence. There was no difference in adverse effects of taking BP lowering drugs at night or morning. Evidence on the effect of night-time treatment on CVD events is inconsistent. The results from ongoing trials in Canada will contribute evidence to the use of BP lowering drug treatment for the prevention of CVD. ,Chau Le Bao Ho, Christopher M. Reid [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [107] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 418 [Create_Time] => 2022-10-28 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202211/20221109085400.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001108/1001108.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001108/1001108.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001108/1001108_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => A budding concept with certain microbiota, anti-proliferative family proteins, and engram theory for the innovative treatment of colon cancer [Abstract] => Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial chronic disease. Patients with IBD have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer which has become a major health concern. IBD might exer [AbstractComplete] =>

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial chronic disease. Patients with IBD have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer which has become a major health concern. IBD might exert a role of engrams for making the condition of specific inflammation in the gut. Dysregulation of immune cells induced by the command of engrams might be crucial in the pathogenesis of damages in gut epithelium. The anti-proliferative (APRO) family of anti-proliferative proteins characterized by immediate early responsive gene-products that might be involved in the machinery of the carcinogenesis in IBD. Herein, it is suggested that some probiotics with specific bacteria could prevent the development and/or progression of the IBD related tumors. In addition, consideration regarding the application of studying APRO family proteins for the comprehension of IBD related tumors has been presented. It is hypothesized that overexpression of Tob1, a member of APRO family proteins, in the epithelium of IBD could suppress the function of adjacent cytotoxic immune cells possibly via the paracrine signaling.

[Names] => Yuka Ikeda ... Satoru Matsuda [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00108 [Published] => October 27, 2022 [Viewed] => 2595 [Downloaded] => 1288 [Subject] => Perspective [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00108 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 62 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:468–478 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Anti-proliferative family proteins, Tob1, carcinogenesis, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease [DetailTitle] => The Role of Gut Microbiota and its Metabolites in Gastrointestinal Diseases [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/62 [Id] => 1001108 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001108/dc6b1ea3fcbf44d15eaf1a981dcd888e.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001108/68c65dcc25079702ecb69b5b6596a985.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 2 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Ikeda Y, Taniguchi K, Yoshikawa S, Sawamura H, Tsuji A, Matsuda S. A budding concept with certain microbiota, anti-proliferative family proteins, and engram theory for the innovative treatment of colon cancer. Explor Med. 2022;3:468–78. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00108 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => SatoruMatsuda, [CEmail] => smatsuda@cc.nara-wu.ac.jp, [Ris_Time] => 2022-10-25 08:51:19 [Bib_Time] => 2022-10-25 08:51:19 [KeysWordContens] => A budding concept with certain microbiota, anti-proliferative family proteins, and engram theory for the innovative treatment of colon cancer, Anti-proliferative family proteins, Tob1, carcinogenesis, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial chronic disease. Patients with IBD have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer which has become a major health concern. IBD might exert a role of engrams for making the condition of specific inflammation in the gut. Dysregulation of immune cells induced by the command of engrams might be crucial in the pathogenesis of damages in gut epithelium. The anti-proliferative (APRO) family of anti-proliferative proteins characterized by immediate early responsive gene-products that might be involved in the machinery of the carcinogenesis in IBD. Herein, it is suggested that some probiotics with specific bacteria could prevent the development and/or progression of the IBD related tumors. In addition, consideration regarding the application of studying APRO family proteins for the comprehension of IBD related tumors has been presented. It is hypothesized that overexpression of Tob1, a member of APRO family proteins, in the epithelium of IBD could suppress the function of adjacent cytotoxic immune cells possibly via the paracrine signaling. ,Yuka Ikeda ... Satoru Matsuda [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [108] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 430 [Create_Time] => 2022-10-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202305/20230525015850.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001109/1001109.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001109/1001109.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001109/1001109_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Development of nanobiosensors for human immunodeficiency virus detection—a mini review [Abstract] => Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a global disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). About 50 million people have died worldwide due to HIV-1 infection alone. HIV is a primary [AbstractComplete] =>

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a global disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). About 50 million people have died worldwide due to HIV-1 infection alone. HIV is a primary sexually transmitted infection but can also spread via breastfeeding, blood transfer, organ transfer, etc. Early detection with the maintenance of the disease is the only way to reduce the spread and severity of the disease. There are many conventional techniques for the detection of the virus. Still, recently nano-based diagnostic method remains a little ahead of these techniques due to advancements in nanotechnology. Nanomaterial-based biosensors constitute a significant part of the discussion because of their high sensitivity and accuracy. Nanobiosensors like electronic nano biosensors, quantum dot (QD)-based biosensors, optical biosensors, electronic biosensors, electrochemiluminescence nanosensors, field-effect transistor (FET) biosensors, surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensors, graphene-based biosensors, etc. have been widely used for detecting HIV in human blood samples. All these biosensors offer promising results in the detection of the virus. In this article, different types of nanobiosensors and their application in the field of diagnosis and maintenance of HIV was reviewed.

[Names] => Shurfa Mudenkattil ... Koyeli Girigoswami [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00109 [Published] => October 31, 2022 [Viewed] => 605 [Downloaded] => 30 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00109 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:479–493 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Biosensors, nanobiosensors, types of biosensors, applications of biosensors, pathogen detection by biosensors, human immunodeficiency virus [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001109 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001109/c01bb8cb8c14e58ec735eecb205d0a94.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001109/e16956963bd8e8c18fbbc5e0fd3bf1db.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Mudenkattil S, Girigoswami A, Jayaprakash T, Girigoswami K. Development of nanobiosensors for human immunodeficiency virus detection—a mini review. Explor Med. 2022;3:479–93. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00109 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => KoyeliGirigoswami, [CEmail] => koyelig@gmail.com, [Ris_Time] => 2022-10-31 06:31:56 [Bib_Time] => 2022-10-31 06:31:56 [KeysWordContens] => Development of nanobiosensors for human immunodeficiency virus detection—a mini review, Biosensors, nanobiosensors, types of biosensors, applications of biosensors, pathogen detection by biosensors, human immunodeficiency virus, Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a global disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). About 50 million people have died worldwide due to HIV-1 infection alone. HIV is a primary sexually transmitted infection but can also spread via breastfeeding, blood transfer, organ transfer, etc. Early detection with the maintenance of the disease is the only way to reduce the spread and severity of the disease. There are many conventional techniques for the detection of the virus. Still, recently nano-based diagnostic method remains a little ahead of these techniques due to advancements in nanotechnology. Nanomaterial-based biosensors constitute a significant part of the discussion because of their high sensitivity and accuracy. Nanobiosensors like electronic nano biosensors, quantum dot (QD)-based biosensors, optical biosensors, electronic biosensors, electrochemiluminescence nanosensors, field-effect transistor (FET) biosensors, surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensors, graphene-based biosensors, etc. have been widely used for detecting HIV in human blood samples. All these biosensors offer promising results in the detection of the virus. In this article, different types of nanobiosensors and their application in the field of diagnosis and maintenance of HIV was reviewed. ,Shurfa Mudenkattil ... Koyeli Girigoswami [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [109] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 432 [Create_Time] => 2022-11-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202305/20230523071823.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001110/1001110.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001110/1001110.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001110/1001110_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Role of mitochondria in brain functions and related disorders [Abstract] => Mitochondria are important organelles for high energy synthesis, reactive oxygen species balancing, antiapoptotic molecule production, membrane stability, intracellular calcium buffering, neuroplast [AbstractComplete] =>

Mitochondria are important organelles for high energy synthesis, reactive oxygen species balancing, antiapoptotic molecule production, membrane stability, intracellular calcium buffering, neuroplasticity and neurotransmission. Dysfunction in mitochondria is considered to be involved in the pathophysiology of mental problems. It has been observed that several drug types used to treat brain illnesses can harm mitochondria by altering the oxidative phosphorylation system and the gene expression of mitochondria-related proteins. In some studies, it has been observed that mitochondrial biogenesis shows a therapeutic effect in the management of mitochondrial disorders. Many therapeutic compounds are effective in the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis. The comorbidity of mental problems observed in those with mitochondrial dysfunction and the change in the efficacy of the cellular respiratory system have attracted researchers to understand the pathways and possible therapeutic strategies in neurological disorders. This article has attempted to understand the impact of mitochondrial function and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of brain disorders to develop potential therapeutic drugs.

[Names] => Monu Yadav ... Anil Kumar [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00110 [Published] => October 31, 2022 [Viewed] => 1002 [Downloaded] => 76 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00110 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 85 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:494–515 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Mitochondria, mitochondrial function, mitochondrial dysfunction, neurological disorder [DetailTitle] => Techniques in Repurposing and Targeted Delivery: Bringing a New Life to Shelved Drugs [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/85 [Id] => 1001110 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001110/963c8198f89692298b648e23a5f41914.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001110/4213de034f478ea623a1846624f8808e.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Yadav M, Dahiya M, Dagar J, Singh N, Sharma N, Rawat N, et al. Role of mitochondria in brain functions and related disorders. Explor Med. 2022;3:494-515. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00110 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => MonuYadav, [CEmail] => monuyadav.pharmacology@gmail.com, [Ris_Time] => 2022-10-31 06:09:34 [Bib_Time] => 2022-10-31 06:09:34 [KeysWordContens] => Role of mitochondria in brain functions and related disorders, Mitochondria, mitochondrial function, mitochondrial dysfunction, neurological disorder, Mitochondria are important organelles for high energy synthesis, reactive oxygen species balancing, antiapoptotic molecule production, membrane stability, intracellular calcium buffering, neuroplasticity and neurotransmission. Dysfunction in mitochondria is considered to be involved in the pathophysiology of mental problems. It has been observed that several drug types used to treat brain illnesses can harm mitochondria by altering the oxidative phosphorylation system and the gene expression of mitochondria-related proteins. In some studies, it has been observed that mitochondrial biogenesis shows a therapeutic effect in the management of mitochondrial disorders. Many therapeutic compounds are effective in the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis. The comorbidity of mental problems observed in those with mitochondrial dysfunction and the change in the efficacy of the cellular respiratory system have attracted researchers to understand the pathways and possible therapeutic strategies in neurological disorders. This article has attempted to understand the impact of mitochondrial function and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of brain disorders to develop potential therapeutic drugs. ,Monu Yadav ... Anil Kumar [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [110] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 434 [Create_Time] => 2022-11-15 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202305/20230525083840.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001111/1001111.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001111/1001111.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001111/1001111_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Treatment opportunities with Fernandoa adenophylla and recent novel approaches for natural medicinal phytochemicals as a drug delivery system [Abstract] => Fernandoa adenophylla (FA, Heterophragma adenophyllum) is a plant, cultivated throughout Africa and Southeast Asia. It contains potent phytochemicals such as novel naphthoquinones, their derivatives [AbstractComplete] =>

Fernandoa adenophylla (FA, Heterophragma adenophyllum) is a plant, cultivated throughout Africa and Southeast Asia. It contains potent phytochemicals such as novel naphthoquinones, their derivatives (peshwaraquinone, dilapachone, adenophyllone, indadone, and lapachol), and triterpenoids [ursolic acid (UA), β-sitosterol (BS), α-amyrin, and oleanolic acid (OA)] that have been assessed and reported to show potential pharmacological activities. The crude extract obtained from the plant has been investigated for certain pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-tubercular (TB), antihypertensive, and leishmanicidal activity. A novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) is the latest technique that combines innovative development, formulations, new technology, and methodologies for the safe delivery of pharmaceutical substances in the body. The present study reports the possible treatment opportunities of FA and recent possible novel drug delivery approaches for the natural medicinal phytochemicals.

[Names] => Sangeet Kumar Mall ... Md Sabir Alam [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00111 [Published] => November 14, 2022 [Viewed] => 1167 [Downloaded] => 62 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00111 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 85 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:516–539 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Fernandoa adenophylla, phytochemicals, Heterophragma adenophyllum, pharmacological activities, novel drug delivery system [DetailTitle] => Techniques in Repurposing and Targeted Delivery: Bringing a New Life to Shelved Drugs [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/85 [Id] => 1001111 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001111/c7965f0a1609aeb2c2e504cd65759c88.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001111/bc03acbef75be4c01edc6b808133ff9c.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Mall SK, Yadav T, Waziri A, Alam MS. Treatment opportunities with Fernandoa adenophylla and recent novel approaches for natural medicinal phytochemicals as a drug delivery system. Explor Med. 2022;3:516–39. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00111 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Md SabirAlam, [CEmail] => mdsabiralam86@gmail.com, [Ris_Time] => 2022-11-15 01:49:44 [Bib_Time] => 2022-11-15 01:49:44 [KeysWordContens] => Treatment opportunities with Fernandoa adenophylla and recent novel approaches for natural medicinal phytochemicals as a drug delivery system, Fernandoa adenophylla, phytochemicals, Heterophragma adenophyllum, pharmacological activities, novel drug delivery system, Fernandoa adenophylla (FA, Heterophragma adenophyllum) is a plant, cultivated throughout Africa and Southeast Asia. It contains potent phytochemicals such as novel naphthoquinones, their derivatives (peshwaraquinone, dilapachone, adenophyllone, indadone, and lapachol), and triterpenoids [ursolic acid (UA), β-sitosterol (BS), α-amyrin, and oleanolic acid (OA)] that have been assessed and reported to show potential pharmacological activities. The crude extract obtained from the plant has been investigated for certain pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-tubercular (TB), antihypertensive, and leishmanicidal activity. A novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) is the latest technique that combines innovative development, formulations, new technology, and methodologies for the safe delivery of pharmaceutical substances in the body. The present study reports the possible treatment opportunities of FA and recent possible novel drug delivery approaches for the natural medicinal phytochemicals. ,Sangeet Kumar Mall ... Md Sabir Alam [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 0 ) [111] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 440 [Create_Time] => 2022-12-27 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202212/20221228051421.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001112/1001112.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001112/1001112.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001112/1001112_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Let’s review the gut microbiota in systemic lupus erythematosus [Abstract] => Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, immune-mediated disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. New evidence suggests that diet, gut microbiota, intestinal permeability [AbstractComplete] =>

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, immune-mediated disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. New evidence suggests that diet, gut microbiota, intestinal permeability, and endotoxemia may modulate chronic inflammation and disease activity in SLE. This review focus on what is known about the gut microbiota in lupus mouse models and SLE patients and the possible mechanisms that connect the gut microbiota with SLE. It included 29 studies (12 animal studies, 15 human studies, and 2 included data on both), with variable results regarding alpha and beta-diversity and gut microbiota composition between lupus-mouse models and SLE patients. Ruminococcus (R.) gnavus was significantly increased in lupus nephritis (LN) in one study, but this was not corroborated by others. Despite the different results, mechanistic lupus mouse model studies have shown that gut microbiota can modulate disease activity. Interestingly, pathobiont translocation in monocolonized and autoimmune-prone mice induced autoantibodies and caused mortality, which could be prevented by a vaccine targeting the pathobiont. Moreover, studies on fecal transplants and diet on different lupus mouse models showed an effect on disease activity. In SLE patients, a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with lower disease activity, which may be explained by the connection between diet and gut microbiota. Although gut dysbiosis has been observed in SLE patients and lupus mouse models, it remains to clarify if it is a cause or a consequence of the disease or its treatments. Further studies with larger and well-characterized populations will undoubtedly contribute to deciphering the role of gut microbiota in SLE development, progression, and outcome.

[Names] => Inês Almada-Correia ... João Eurico Fonseca [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00112 [Published] => December 26, 2022 [Viewed] => 577 [Downloaded] => 21 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/em.2022.00112 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 60 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:540–560 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Systemic lupus erythematosus, gut microbiota, dysbiosis [DetailTitle] => Colon Controlled Microbiome Function: Role, Impact, Structure, Pathogenetic Significance, Therapeutic and Diagnostic Management [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/60 [Id] => 1001112 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001112/208cde740fd9a2e42a045305060d58fc.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001112/d5842cc368985fc38138f1e4622b09d5.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Almada-Correia I, Costa-Reis P, Sousa Guerreiro C, Eurico Fonseca J. Let’s review the gut microbiota in systemic lupus erythematosus. Explor Med. 2022;3:540–60. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00112 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-12-27 02:38:43 [Bib_Time] => 2022-12-27 02:38:43 [KeysWordContens] => Let’s review the gut microbiota in systemic lupus erythematosus, Systemic lupus erythematosus, gut microbiota, dysbiosis, Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, immune-mediated disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. New evidence suggests that diet, gut microbiota, intestinal permeability, and endotoxemia may modulate chronic inflammation and disease activity in SLE. This review focus on what is known about the gut microbiota in lupus mouse models and SLE patients and the possible mechanisms that connect the gut microbiota with SLE. It included 29 studies (12 animal studies, 15 human studies, and 2 included data on both), with variable results regarding alpha and beta-diversity and gut microbiota composition between lupus-mouse models and SLE patients. Ruminococcus (R.) gnavus was significantly increased in lupus nephritis (LN) in one study, but this was not corroborated by others. Despite the different results, mechanistic lupus mouse model studies have shown that gut microbiota can modulate disease activity. Interestingly, pathobiont translocation in monocolonized and autoimmune-prone mice induced autoantibodies and caused mortality, which could be prevented by a vaccine targeting the pathobiont. Moreover, studies on fecal transplants and diet on different lupus mouse models showed an effect on disease activity. In SLE patients, a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with lower disease activity, which may be explained by the connection between diet and gut microbiota. Although gut dysbiosis has been observed in SLE patients and lupus mouse models, it remains to clarify if it is a cause or a consequence of the disease or its treatments. Further studies with larger and well-characterized populations will undoubtedly contribute to deciphering the role of gut microbiota in SLE development, progression, and outcome. ,Inês Almada-Correia ... João Eurico Fonseca [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 22 ) [112] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 447 [Create_Time] => 2022-12-28 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202212/20221228020519.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001113/1001113.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001113/1001113.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001113/1001113_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => An unusual presentation of Whipple’s disease: adenopathies, polyarthralgia and dermatomyositis-like symptoms [Abstract] => Whipple’s disease (WD) is a rare systemic disease caused by gram-positive bacillus bacteria that invades multiple organs mainly the intestinal epithelium. Its manifestation is not only l [AbstractComplete] =>

Whipple’s disease (WD) is a rare systemic disease caused by gram-positive bacillus bacteria that invades multiple organs mainly the intestinal epithelium. Its manifestation is not only limited to the gastrointestinal tract but it also affects the joints, muscle and skin. This is a case of a 54-year-old male patient with a medical history of chronic arthritis presenting with bilateral progressive calves pain, anterior tibial hyperpigmentation, joints pain, anemia and weight loss. He was misdiagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis, for which he was treated by immunosuppressors for several years with no amelioration. After advanced investigations, he was found to have multiple retroperitoneal and mesenteric adenopathies, with an incidental finding of a mesojejunal mass during laparoscopy, from which the biopsies revealed the presence of histiocytosis and numerous intra-cytoplasmic particles with positive periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) suggesting the diagnosis of WD. Endoscopy was done and intestinal histology with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test confirmed the diagnosis of WD. The patient was then treated with antibiotics (ceftriaxone and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) with a remarkable clinical amelioration. To be aware of WD as a potential etiology behind malabsorption, musculoskeletal and skin abnormalities, is the first step in order to establish the diagnosis and provide adequate treatment, thus, improving the patient’s quality of life. WD is a rare, without antibiotic treatment deadly systemic infectious disease caused by the ubiquitary Gram-positive bacterium Tropheryma whipplei. This article aims to report a case marked with dermatomyositis like presentation that had a missed and delayed diagnosis.

[Names] => Randa Choueiry ... Joseph Amara [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00113 [Published] => December 27, 2022 [Viewed] => 540 [Downloaded] => 16 [Subject] => Case Report [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00113 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:561–570 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Whipple’s disease, myositis, arthralgia, melanoderma, hyperpigmentation [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001113 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001113/f299753e97d9980d3e3d6671037da034.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001113/4fd7f6c5e121b1284f41cd47684604a6.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Choueiry R, Faddoul J, Najjar J, Ghorra C, Mansour J, Safi N, et al. An unusual presentation of Whipple’s disease: adenopathies, polyarthralgia and dermatomyositis-like symptoms. Explor Med. 2022;3:561–70. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00113 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-12-27 03:46:22 [Bib_Time] => 2022-12-27 03:46:22 [KeysWordContens] => An unusual presentation of Whipple’s disease: adenopathies, polyarthralgia and dermatomyositis-like symptoms, Whipple’s disease, myositis, arthralgia, melanoderma, hyperpigmentation, Whipple’s disease (WD) is a rare systemic disease caused by gram-positive bacillus bacteria that invades multiple organs mainly the intestinal epithelium. Its manifestation is not only limited to the gastrointestinal tract but it also affects the joints, muscle and skin. This is a case of a 54-year-old male patient with a medical history of chronic arthritis presenting with bilateral progressive calves pain, anterior tibial hyperpigmentation, joints pain, anemia and weight loss. He was misdiagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis, for which he was treated by immunosuppressors for several years with no amelioration. After advanced investigations, he was found to have multiple retroperitoneal and mesenteric adenopathies, with an incidental finding of a mesojejunal mass during laparoscopy, from which the biopsies revealed the presence of histiocytosis and numerous intra-cytoplasmic particles with positive periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) suggesting the diagnosis of WD. Endoscopy was done and intestinal histology with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test confirmed the diagnosis of WD. The patient was then treated with antibiotics (ceftriaxone and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) with a remarkable clinical amelioration. To be aware of WD as a potential etiology behind malabsorption, musculoskeletal and skin abnormalities, is the first step in order to establish the diagnosis and provide adequate treatment, thus, improving the patient’s quality of life. WD is a rare, without antibiotic treatment deadly systemic infectious disease caused by the ubiquitary Gram-positive bacterium Tropheryma whipplei. This article aims to report a case marked with dermatomyositis like presentation that had a missed and delayed diagnosis. ,Randa Choueiry ... Joseph Amara [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 48 ) [113] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 454 [Create_Time] => 2022-12-28 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202212/20221228071001.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001114/1001114.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001114/1001114.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001114/1001114_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Predictive value of SII and sd-LDL for contrast-induced acute kidney injury in STEMI patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention [Abstract] => Aim: To investigate the relationship between the incidence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) and the level of small dense low-density lipoprotein (sd-LDL) and systemic immune-infla [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

To investigate the relationship between the incidence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) and the level of small dense low-density lipoprotein (sd-LDL) and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and to further compare the predictive values of SII, sd-LDL and their combination for CI-AKI.

Methods:

A total of 674 patients were assigned to a training and a validation cohort according to their chronological sequence. The baseline characteristics of the 450 patients in the training cohort were considered as candidate univariate predictors of CI-AKI. Multivariate logistic regression was then used to identify predictors of CI-AKI and develop a prediction model. The predictive values of SII, sd-LDL and their combination for CI-AKI were also evaluated.

Results:

Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), sd-LDL, uric acid, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and SII were predictors of CI-AKI. The area under the curve (AUC) of the prediction model based on the above factors was 0.846 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.808–0.884], and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (P = 0.587, χ2 = 6.543) proved the goodness of fit of the model. The AUC combining SII with sd-LDL to predict CI-AKI was 0.785 (95% CI 0.735–0.836), with a sensitivity of 72.8% and a specificity of 79.8%, and was statistically significant when compared with SII and sd-LDL, respectively. The predictive efficiency of combining SII with sd-LDL and SII were evaluated by improved net reclassification improvement (NRI, 0.325, P < 0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI, 0.07, P < 0.001).

Conclusions:

Both SII and sd-LDL can be used as predictors of CI-AKI in STEMI patients undergoing emergency PCI, and their combination can provide more useful value for early assessment of CI-AKI.

[Names] => Guoqi Shen ... Wenhua Li [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00114 [Published] => December 28, 2022 [Viewed] => 703 [Downloaded] => 22 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00114 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 67 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:571–582 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Systemic immune-inflammation index, small dense low-density lipoprotein, contrast-induced acute kidney injury, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, risk assessment [DetailTitle] => Disease Diagnosis, Molecular Mechanism and Therapeutic Strategies in Kidney Injury and Fibrosis [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/67 [Id] => 1001114 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001114/298ec806711bf3275eeba8f84cd2a349.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001114/9d57212f07a5315833cec13ed8d80c49.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Shen G, He H, Wang Z, Qiu H, Zhu Y, Zheng D, et al. Predictive value of SII and sd-LDL for contrast-induced acute kidney injury in STEMI patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Explor Med. 2022;3:571–82. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00114 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-12-28 01:39:50 [Bib_Time] => 2022-12-28 01:39:50 [KeysWordContens] => Predictive value of SII and sd-LDL for contrast-induced acute kidney injury in STEMI patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, Systemic immune-inflammation index, small dense low-density lipoprotein, contrast-induced acute kidney injury, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, risk assessment, Aim: To investigate the relationship between the incidence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) and the level of small dense low-density lipoprotein (sd-LDL) and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and to further compare the predictive values of SII, sd-LDL and their combination for CI-AKI. Methods: A total of 674 patients were assigned to a training and a validation cohort according to their chronological sequence. The baseline characteristics of the 450 patients in the training cohort were considered as candidate univariate predictors of CI-AKI. Multivariate logistic regression was then used to identify predictors of CI-AKI and develop a prediction model. The predictive values of SII, sd-LDL and their combination for CI-AKI were also evaluated. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), sd-LDL, uric acid, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and SII were predictors of CI-AKI. The area under the curve (AUC) of the prediction model based on the above factors was 0.846 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.808–0.884], and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (P = 0.587, χ2 = 6.543) proved the goodness of fit of the model. The AUC combining SII with sd-LDL to predict CI-AKI was 0.785 (95% CI 0.735–0.836), with a sensitivity of 72.8% and a specificity of 79.8%, and was statistically significant when compared with SII and sd-LDL, respectively. The predictive efficiency of combining SII with sd-LDL and SII were evaluated by improved net reclassification improvement (NRI, 0.325, P < 0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI, 0.07, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Both SII and sd-LDL can be used as predictors of CI-AKI in STEMI patients undergoing emergency PCI, and their combination can provide more useful value for early assessment of CI-AKI. ,Guoqi Shen ... Wenhua Li [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 38 ) [114] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 455 [Create_Time] => 2022-12-29 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202212/20221230011605.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001115/1001115.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001115/1001115.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001115/1001115_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Right atrial thrombus, junctional tachycardia, and critical lower limb ischemia: three rare complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection [Abstract] => In recent years, Polypodium leucotomos has emerged with a great interest for having medicinal and therapeutic potential. It is producing very promising results due to the presence of antioxidant and [AbstractComplete] =>

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can engender multi-system inflammatory syndrome. Its main symptoms are cardiovascular and thromboembolic problems that can develop into severe complications. The present case is about a 55-year-old patient who was admitted for critical ischemia of the right lower limb and necrosis of the right forefoot. The patient was infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) one month before her admission. The patient also has cardiovascular risks including type 2 diabetes and hypertension. The performance of ultrasounds revealed a thrombus in the right atrium and the pulmonary artery, and arteriography detected an occlusion of the right popliteal joint for which she had an endovascular recanalization and amputation of the right forefoot. This case highlights that SARS-CoV-2 infection could be considered a serious cardiovascular disease requiring cardiovascular explorations to initiate hospital management and avoid severe complications.

[Names] => Said Makani ... Youssef Tijani [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00115 [Published] => December 29, 2022 [Viewed] => 690 [Downloaded] => 20 [Subject] => Case Report [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00115 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 38 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:583–591 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Coronavirus disease 2019, thrombosis, necrosis, cardiovascular risks [DetailTitle] => Exploring Aortic Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/38 [Id] => 1001115 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001115/f99af36fb387ab4bb457c7b96ac9f105.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001115/585e0747c0f17f097432d764206d3f58.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Makani S, Laarje A, Mabrouk M, Zaid Y, Chahid M, Hifdi Z, et al. Right atrial thrombus, junctional tachycardia, and critical lower limb ischemia: three rare complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Explor Med. 2022;3:583–91. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00115 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2022-12-29 08:30:51 [Bib_Time] => 2022-12-29 08:30:51 [KeysWordContens] => Right atrial thrombus, junctional tachycardia, and critical lower limb ischemia: three rare complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, Coronavirus disease 2019, thrombosis, necrosis, cardiovascular risks, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can engender multi-system inflammatory syndrome. Its main symptoms are cardiovascular and thromboembolic problems that can develop into severe complications. The present case is about a 55-year-old patient who was admitted for critical ischemia of the right lower limb and necrosis of the right forefoot. The patient was infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) one month before her admission. The patient also has cardiovascular risks including type 2 diabetes and hypertension. The performance of ultrasounds revealed a thrombus in the right atrium and the pulmonary artery, and arteriography detected an occlusion of the right popliteal joint for which she had an endovascular recanalization and amputation of the right forefoot. This case highlights that SARS-CoV-2 infection could be considered a serious cardiovascular disease requiring cardiovascular explorations to initiate hospital management and avoid severe complications. ,Said Makani ... Youssef Tijani [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 55 ) [115] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 463 [Create_Time] => 2022-12-30 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202301/20230104004233.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001116/1001116.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001116/1001116.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001116/1001116-Cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => The journey of dostarlimab: a successful weapon for cancer treatment [Abstract] => In a number of malignancies, new immuno-oncology therapies that focus on the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) have improvised the patient condition along with a positive aftereffect. Monoclonal antibo [AbstractComplete] =>

In a number of malignancies, new immuno-oncology therapies that focus on the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) have improvised the patient condition along with a positive aftereffect. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against PD-1 and its ligand (PD-L1), have been widely used to treat a variety of malignancies, including melanoma, renal cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Dostarlimab, a therapeutic anti-PD-1 antibody, was authorised by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in April 2021 under the trade name JEMPERLI. It is a humanised contrary PD-1 immunoglobulin G 4 (IgG4) mAb, which successfully blocks interaction with PD-L1 and PD-L2 by binding tightly to the PD-1 receptor. This article summarizes the different aspects associated with the dostarlimab, including currently available anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics, adverse reaction, and mechanism of action of dostarlimab, as well as various reported clinical trials.

Role of dostarlimab in cancer

[Names] => Rouchan Ali ... Pooja A. Chawla [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00116 [Published] => December 29, 2022 [Viewed] => 823 [Downloaded] => 24 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/em.2022.00116 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 85 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:592–606 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Programmed cell death receptor 1, cancer therapy, monoclonal antibodies, programmed cell death 1 ligand 1, dostarlimab, clinical trials [DetailTitle] => Techniques in Repurposing and Targeted Delivery: Bringing a New Life to Shelved Drugs [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/85 [Id] => 1001116 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001116/6bec072f229c3a5e7e6ab16d06ee1867.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001116/9f1c5ce8cce7ac8291a50eb48f05c0b6.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Ali R, Virendra SA, Chawla PA. The journey of dostarlimab: a successful weapon for cancer treatment. Explor Med. 2022;3:592–606. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00116 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Pooja A.Chawla, [CEmail] => pvchawla@gmail.com, [Ris_Time] => 2022-12-29 08:18:31 [Bib_Time] => 2022-12-29 08:18:31 [KeysWordContens] => The journey of dostarlimab: a successful weapon for cancer treatment, Programmed cell death receptor 1, cancer therapy, monoclonal antibodies, programmed cell death 1 ligand 1, dostarlimab, clinical trials, In a number of malignancies, new immuno-oncology therapies that focus on the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) have improvised the patient condition along with a positive aftereffect. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against PD-1 and its ligand (PD-L1), have been widely used to treat a variety of malignancies, including melanoma, renal cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Dostarlimab, a therapeutic anti-PD-1 antibody, was authorised by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in April 2021 under the trade name JEMPERLI. It is a humanised contrary PD-1 immunoglobulin G 4 (IgG4) mAb, which successfully blocks interaction with PD-L1 and PD-L2 by binding tightly to the PD-1 receptor. This article summarizes the different aspects associated with the dostarlimab, including currently available anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics, adverse reaction, and mechanism of action of dostarlimab, as well as various reported clinical trials. Graphical abstract. Role of dostarlimab in cancer ,Rouchan Ali ... Pooja A. Chawla [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 55 ) [116] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 464 [Create_Time] => 2022-12-30 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202305/20230525084703.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001117/1001117.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001117/1001117.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001117/1001117-Cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Antioxidant and photoprotective potential of Polypodium leucotomos [Abstract] => In recent years, Polypodium leucotomos has emerged with a great interest for having medicinal and therapeutic potential. It is producing very promising results due to the presence of antioxidant and [AbstractComplete] =>

In recent years, Polypodium leucotomos has emerged with a great interest for having medicinal and therapeutic potential. It is producing very promising results due to the presence of antioxidant and photoprotective properties. Electronic libraries and databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Web of Science were searched to identify relevant studies; 79 publications contributed to this review regarding Polypodium leucotomos botanical aspects, chemical composition, antioxidant and photoprotective activity. It is used in complementary and alternative therapies with various pharmaceutical dosage forms (systemic or topical). Thanks to the composition of phytochemical constituents present in the leaves and rhizomes which confer antioxidant and photoprotective activity that has clinical therapeutic potential to be used as systemic and topical sunscreen of natural origin for the prevention of different types of skin diseases caused by harmful ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B radiations. However, more studies are needed in the future to test the ability and enhance the capacity of sunscreen and sunblock in cosmetic formulations. To conclude, it is recommended to carry out scientific studies based on different analytical methods to evaluate the phytoconstituents potential and to develop stable pharmaceutical formulations according to the skin phototype.

[Names] => Rosy Yesela Mancilla Santa Cruz ... María Segunda Aurora Prado [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00117 [Published] => December 29, 2022 [Viewed] => 666 [Downloaded] => 47 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/em.2022.00117 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 85 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:607–616 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Polypodium leucotomos, antioxidant, photoprotective [DetailTitle] => Techniques in Repurposing and Targeted Delivery: Bringing a New Life to Shelved Drugs [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/85 [Id] => 1001117 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001117/fb32baabd2eeaf4224c9cebfe1a55a84.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001117/699fe9ed12c3653d6e5bd47056cbe88c.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Cruz RYMS, Arévalo SV, Rashid A, Jara MRA, Prado MSA. Antioxidant and photoprotective potential of Polypodium leucotomos. Explor Med. 2022;3:607–16. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00117 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => María Segunda AuroraPrado, [CEmail] => msaprad06@usp.br, [Ris_Time] => 2022-12-29 00:58:22 [Bib_Time] => 2022-12-29 00:58:22 [KeysWordContens] => Antioxidant and photoprotective potential of Polypodium leucotomos, Polypodium leucotomos, antioxidant, photoprotective, In recent years, Polypodium leucotomos has emerged with a great interest for having medicinal and therapeutic potential. It is producing very promising results due to the presence of antioxidant and photoprotective properties. Electronic libraries and databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Web of Science were searched to identify relevant studies; 79 publications contributed to this review regarding Polypodium leucotomos botanical aspects, chemical composition, antioxidant and photoprotective activity. It is used in complementary and alternative therapies with various pharmaceutical dosage forms (systemic or topical). Thanks to the composition of phytochemical constituents present in the leaves and rhizomes which confer antioxidant and photoprotective activity that has clinical therapeutic potential to be used as systemic and topical sunscreen of natural origin for the prevention of different types of skin diseases caused by harmful ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B radiations. However, more studies are needed in the future to test the ability and enhance the capacity of sunscreen and sunblock in cosmetic formulations. To conclude, it is recommended to carry out scientific studies based on different analytical methods to evaluate the phytoconstituents potential and to develop stable pharmaceutical formulations according to the skin phototype. ,Rosy Yesela Mancilla Santa Cruz ... María Segunda Aurora Prado [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 55 ) [117] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 467 [Create_Time] => 2022-12-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202302/20230210092843.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001118/1001118.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001118/1001118.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001118/1001118_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Quality by design based development of nanostructured lipid carrier: a risk based approach [Abstract] => The aim of this review is to discuss the development of nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) by the application of quality by design (QbD). QbD started with the evolution of the quality concept and sl [AbstractComplete] =>

The aim of this review is to discuss the development of nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) by the application of quality by design (QbD). QbD started with the evolution of the quality concept and slow adaptation of quality guidelines, which has now become a regulatory requirement. In this review, brief history and elements of QbD including risk assessment (RA) have been discussed followed by the design of experiments (DoEs) that acts as a tool to analyze the input whose variation can optimize the output with the desired goal. NLC is a versatile delivery system as researchers widely use it to administer therapeutics with different physicochemical properties. The surface of NLC can be modified, making it a suitable delivery system with targeting potential for therapeutics. Implementation of QbD provides a high-quality robust formulation that can consistently meet the patient’s requirement throughout its life cycle without compromising the safety and effectiveness of the drug and delivery system. This review discusses QbD concepts followed by the systematic development of NLC by the application of DoE. Process analytical technology (PAT) and six sigma concepts have also been included which can benefit in the development of optimized NLC.

[Names] => Tausif Alam [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2022.00118 [Published] => December 31, 2022 [Viewed] => 697 [Downloaded] => 56 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2022 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2022.00118 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 6 [Topic] => 85 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2022;3:617–638 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Design of experiment, nanostructured lipid carrier, process analytical technology, quality by design, quality risk management, risk assessment [DetailTitle] => Techniques in Repurposing and Targeted Delivery: Bringing a New Life to Shelved Drugs [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/85 [Id] => 1001118 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001118/f2453cd4fbb89003e49295bea29e93b6.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001118/e80f07b2b9a00fa611b23d6c8a342980.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Alam T. Quality by design based development of nanostructured lipid carrier: a risk based approach. Explor Med. 2022;3:617–38. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2022.00118 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => TausifAlam, [CEmail] => tausif@lingayasvidyapeeth.edu.in, [Ris_Time] => 2022-12-30 10:08:45 [Bib_Time] => 2022-12-29 06:11:23 [KeysWordContens] => Quality by design based development of nanostructured lipid carrier: a risk based approach, Design of experiment, nanostructured lipid carrier, process analytical technology, quality by design, quality risk management, risk assessment, The aim of this review is to discuss the development of nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) by the application of quality by design (QbD). QbD started with the evolution of the quality concept and slow adaptation of quality guidelines, which has now become a regulatory requirement. In this review, brief history and elements of QbD including risk assessment (RA) have been discussed followed by the design of experiments (DoEs) that acts as a tool to analyze the input whose variation can optimize the output with the desired goal. NLC is a versatile delivery system as researchers widely use it to administer therapeutics with different physicochemical properties. The surface of NLC can be modified, making it a suitable delivery system with targeting potential for therapeutics. Implementation of QbD provides a high-quality robust formulation that can consistently meet the patient’s requirement throughout its life cycle without compromising the safety and effectiveness of the drug and delivery system. This review discusses QbD concepts followed by the systematic development of NLC by the application of DoE. Process analytical technology (PAT) and six sigma concepts have also been included which can benefit in the development of optimized NLC. ,Tausif Alam [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 46 ) [118] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 471 [Create_Time] => 2023-02-16 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202302/20230216032805.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001119/1001119.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001119/1001119.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001119/1001119_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Ultra-widefield imaging technologies in the peripheral retinal pathologies [Abstract] => [AbstractComplete] => [Names] => Lokman Balyen [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00119 [Published] => February 16, 2023 [Viewed] => 459 [Downloaded] => 27 [Subject] => Letter to the Editor [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00119 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:1–2 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Conventional imaging systems, peripheral retinal pathology, ultra-widefield retinal imaging [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001119 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001119/d874f26b70711d0ca0aa53de90a82994.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001119/6d948715db566a0ec937f3b42beca28a.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Balyen L. Ultra-widefield imaging technologies in the peripheral retinal pathologies. Explor Med. 2023;4:1–2. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00119 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-02-16 03:28:05 [Bib_Time] => 2023-02-16 03:28:06 [KeysWordContens] => Ultra-widefield imaging technologies in the peripheral retinal pathologies, Conventional imaging systems, peripheral retinal pathology, ultra-widefield retinal imaging,,Lokman Balyen [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 55 ) [119] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 474 [Create_Time] => 2023-02-22 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202302/20230222034238.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001120/1001120.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001120/1001120.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001120/1001120_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Alterations in metabolic status of healthy individuals with and without obesity during transition from adolescence to young adulthood [Abstract] => Aim: Extensive research is carried out throughout the world in healthy persons with obesity phenotype in concern with prevalence, metabolic profiling, etc. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, not many studies have investigated the status of adiponectin, specific inflammatory changes, oxidative damage in healthy adolescents and young adults with obesity. Present study was undertaken in adolescents and young adults of urban population in a district of North Karnataka, India, in a view to understand relationship between hormone adiponectin, oxidative stress markers like C3, C4, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in non-hypertensive, non-diabetic, euthyroid individuals with and without obesity. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Extensive research is carried out throughout the world in healthy persons with obesity phenotype in concern with prevalence, metabolic profiling, etc. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, not many studies have investigated the status of adiponectin, specific inflammatory changes, oxidative damage in healthy adolescents and young adults with obesity. Present study was undertaken in adolescents and young adults of urban population in a district of North Karnataka, India, in a view to understand relationship between hormone adiponectin, oxidative stress markers like C3, C4, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in non-hypertensive, non-diabetic, euthyroid individuals with and without obesity.

Methods:

Participant selection was done using cluster sampling technique. Participating adolescents and young adults, each with and without obesity were included in the study. Screening of participants for diabetes, hypertension, and thyroid disorders was done, their serum level of adiponectin, hs-CRP, C3, C4, ceruloplasmin (Cp), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were estimated using standardized methods in National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL) laboratory.

Results:

Adiponectin (young adults lower than adolescents, P = 0.01) levels were low, while hs-CRP and Cp (young adults higher than adolescents, P = 0.01) levels were high with increasing age in non-obese. While in persons having obesity, aging adiponectin levels were low while hs-CRP, C3, Cp levels were high significantly. Females without obesity had significantly higher values of C3 than males. Adiponectin showed higher levels in females than males, however, statistical significance could not be achieved (P = 0.308). While females with obesity, exhibited statistically lower levels of adiponectin, and higher levels of C3 and C4.

Conclusions:

Being non-diabetic and non-hypertensive yet obese, tagged by one time of assay, does not suffice to be categorized as healthy. Healthy young adults with obesity are exhibiting lower levels of adiponectin and higher levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers compared to adolescents with obesity. This implies, the so categorized “healthy obese” participants are in a phase of transition towards an unhealthy state.

[Names] => Smita S. Sonoli ... Reshma D. Channashetti [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00120 [Published] => February 21, 2023 [Viewed] => 514 [Downloaded] => 25 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00120 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:3–15 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Obesity, adiponectin, healthy non-obese, inflammatory status in obesity [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001120 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001120/2dbd83bb0e0d64dcfa108ea1c2439ffb.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001120/87191d444e66b7f698553ccfe075d489.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Sonoli SS, Kothiwale VA, Channashetti RD. Alterations in metabolic status of healthy individuals with and without obesity during transition from adolescence and young adulthood. Explor Med. 2023;4:3–15. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00120 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-02-22 03:43:24 [Bib_Time] => 2023-02-17 07:28:34 [KeysWordContens] => Alterations in metabolic status of healthy individuals with and without obesity during transition from adolescence to young adulthood, Obesity, adiponectin, healthy non-obese, inflammatory status in obesity, Aim: Extensive research is carried out throughout the world in healthy persons with obesity phenotype in concern with prevalence, metabolic profiling, etc. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, not many studies have investigated the status of adiponectin, specific inflammatory changes, oxidative damage in healthy adolescents and young adults with obesity. Present study was undertaken in adolescents and young adults of urban population in a district of North Karnataka, India, in a view to understand relationship between hormone adiponectin, oxidative stress markers like C3, C4, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in non-hypertensive, non-diabetic, euthyroid individuals with and without obesity. Methods: Participant selection was done using cluster sampling technique. Participating adolescents and young adults, each with and without obesity were included in the study. Screening of participants for diabetes, hypertension, and thyroid disorders was done, their serum level of adiponectin, hs-CRP, C3, C4, ceruloplasmin (Cp), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were estimated using standardized methods in National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL) laboratory. Results: Adiponectin (young adults lower than adolescents, P = 0.01) levels were low, while hs-CRP and Cp (young adults higher than adolescents, P = 0.01) levels were high with increasing age in non-obese. While in persons having obesity, aging adiponectin levels were low while hs-CRP, C3, Cp levels were high significantly. Females without obesity had significantly higher values of C3 than males. Adiponectin showed higher levels in females than males, however, statistical significance could not be achieved (P = 0.308). While females with obesity, exhibited statistically lower levels of adiponectin, and higher levels of C3 and C4. Conclusions: Being non-diabetic and non-hypertensive yet obese, tagged by one time of assay, does not suffice to be categorized as healthy. Healthy young adults with obesity are exhibiting lower levels of adiponectin and higher levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers compared to adolescents with obesity. This implies, the so categorized “healthy obese” participants are in a phase of transition towards an unhealthy state. ,Smita S. Sonoli ... Reshma D. Channashetti [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 24 ) [120] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 478 [Create_Time] => 2023-02-23 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202302/20230224070844.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001121/1001121.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001121/1001121.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001121/1001121_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => An association study of the PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism (rs738409) with serum lipids in patients with dyslipidemia [Abstract] => Aim: One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs738409 in the patatin-like phospholipase domain- containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) gene has been considered a major genetic risk factor of nonalcoholic [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs738409 in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) gene has been considered a major genetic risk factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Data have indicated that NAFLD is related to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, but whether rs738409 is associated with circulating lipid and lipoproteins is not fully elucidated. The main aim of this study was to assess the association of rs738409 with lipid and lipoprotein levels in patients with dyslipidemia.

Methods:

This was a post-hoc analysis of a study in patients with dyslipidemia recruited on an outpatient basis. Morning blood samples were collected after a 12-h fast. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole-blood samples.

Results:

One hundred seventy-five patients with dyslipidemia were included (97 women). Lipid levels [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)] or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were not associated with the SNP, even after adjustment for gender, body mass index (BMI) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), using either the additive (CC vs. CG vs. GG) or the dominant (CC vs. GG + CG) inheritance model. When data were stratified for obesity, significant associations between the variant and TC (P = 0.014) or LDL-C levels (P = 0.046) in the non-obese were observed. Pairwise comparison revealed significant changes only in TC between CC and CG genotypes (P = 0.012).

Conclusions:

No association was shown between rs738409 SNP and lipid/lipoprotein levels in patients with dyslipidemia. In subgroup analysis, TC was higher in non-obese, but not in obese, patients with CC, compared to CG carriers.

[Names] => Despoina Ioannidou ... Antonis Goulas [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00121 [Published] => February 22, 2023 [Viewed] => 550 [Downloaded] => 31 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00121 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:16–22 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, rs738409, patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001121 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001121/f16eccbbcf12bd7a19e54992dc882519.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001121/e4c821c926d79df72d056218468a17af.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Ioannidou D, Makri ES, Polyzos SA, Ntenti C, Agapakis D, Germanidis G, et al. An association study of the PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism (rs738409) with serum lipids in patients with dyslipidemia. Explor Med. 2023;4:16–22. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00121 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-02-27 03:00:03 [Bib_Time] => 2023-02-28 07:17:01 [KeysWordContens] => An association study of the PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism (rs738409) with serum lipids in patients with dyslipidemia, Dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, rs738409, patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3, Aim: One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs738409 in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) gene has been considered a major genetic risk factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Data have indicated that NAFLD is related to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, but whether rs738409 is associated with circulating lipid and lipoproteins is not fully elucidated. The main aim of this study was to assess the association of rs738409 with lipid and lipoprotein levels in patients with dyslipidemia. Methods: This was a post-hoc analysis of a study in patients with dyslipidemia recruited on an outpatient basis. Morning blood samples were collected after a 12-h fast. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole-blood samples. Results: One hundred seventy-five patients with dyslipidemia were included (97 women). Lipid levels [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)] or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were not associated with the SNP, even after adjustment for gender, body mass index (BMI) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), using either the additive (CC vs. CG vs. GG) or the dominant (CC vs. GG + CG) inheritance model. When data were stratified for obesity, significant associations between the variant and TC (P = 0.014) or LDL-C levels (P = 0.046) in the non-obese were observed. Pairwise comparison revealed significant changes only in TC between CC and CG genotypes (P = 0.012). Conclusions: No association was shown between rs738409 SNP and lipid/lipoprotein levels in patients with dyslipidemia. In subgroup analysis, TC was higher in non-obese, but not in obese, patients with CC, compared to CG carriers. ,Despoina Ioannidou ... Antonis Goulas [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 56 ) [121] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 488 [Create_Time] => 2023-02-24 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202302/20230228013448.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001122/1001122.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001122/1001122.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001122/1001122_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Disparities and trends in suicidal ideations for inflammatory bowel disease hospitalizations: a decade-long national database analysis [Abstract] => Aim: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are more likely to develop anxiety or depression. The study aimed to describe the trends and disparities of suicidal ideation (SI) in hospitali [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are more likely to develop anxiety or depression. The study aimed to describe the trends and disparities of suicidal ideation (SI) in hospitalized IBD patients.

Methods:

A retrospective study was conducted using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database, to analyze SI among the IBD hospitalizations from 2009 to 2019. Bivariate analysis was conducted using a chi-square test for categorical variables and an independent t-test for continuous variables. For prevalence, the trend over time was evaluated using the score test.

Results:

There were 1,724 IBD hospitalizations with SI for the study period. There was a male (53.8%) and white race (74.2%) predominance. The mean age was 41.47 ± 0.25 years. The hospital stay decreased for IBD hospitalizations with SI from 7.97 days in 2009 to 7.57 days in 2019 (P < 0.001). The mean hospital charge increased from $44,664 in 2009 to $66,639 in 2019 (P < 0.001). The prevalence of SIs increased from 0.17% in 2009 to 0.29% in 2019 (P < 0.001). The mean age of these hospitalizations increased from 38 years in 2009 to 42.3 years in 2019 (P = 0.02). The prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) increased from < 1% in 2009 to 12.19% in 2019 (P < 0.001). The prevalence of depression increased from 18.04% in 2009 to 51.21% in 2019 (P < 0.001). Inpatient mortality increased from 0% in 2009 to 2.43% in 2019 (P = 0.024). Among IBD hospitalizations, the male gender had a higher association with SIs than females (odds ratio 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–1.66], P = 0.014).

Conclusions:

There is a rise of SI among the IBD population. Specialized protocols should be in place in clinical settings and communities to identify and assess high-risk patients.

[Names] => Hassam Ali ... Ramona Rajapakse [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00122 [Published] => February 24, 2023 [Viewed] => 601 [Downloaded] => 24 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00122 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:23–32 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Suicidal ideation, depression, inpatients, inflammatory bowel diseases, anxiety disorders, hospitalization [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001122 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001122/e9d4fa411169b8c9de74deb0c097c831.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001122/8610bb49ae59b260a9599ec0e5134902.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Ali H, Patel P, Dhillon R, Sarfraz S, Poola S, Smith-Martinez L, et al. Disparities and trends in suicidal ideations for inflammatory bowel disease hospitalizations: a decade-long national database analysis. Explor Med. 2023;4:23–32. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00122 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-02-24 03:47:50 [Bib_Time] => 2023-02-24 03:47:50 [KeysWordContens] => Disparities and trends in suicidal ideations for inflammatory bowel disease hospitalizations: a decade-long national database analysis, Suicidal ideation, depression, inpatients, inflammatory bowel diseases, anxiety disorders, hospitalization, Aim: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are more likely to develop anxiety or depression. The study aimed to describe the trends and disparities of suicidal ideation (SI) in hospitalized IBD patients. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database, to analyze SI among the IBD hospitalizations from 2009 to 2019. Bivariate analysis was conducted using a chi-square test for categorical variables and an independent t-test for continuous variables. For prevalence, the trend over time was evaluated using the score test. Results: There were 1,724 IBD hospitalizations with SI for the study period. There was a male (53.8%) and white race (74.2%) predominance. The mean age was 41.47 ± 0.25 years. The hospital stay decreased for IBD hospitalizations with SI from 7.97 days in 2009 to 7.57 days in 2019 (P < 0.001). The mean hospital charge increased from $44,664 in 2009 to $66,639 in 2019 (P < 0.001). The prevalence of SIs increased from 0.17% in 2009 to 0.29% in 2019 (P < 0.001). The mean age of these hospitalizations increased from 38 years in 2009 to 42.3 years in 2019 (P = 0.02). The prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) increased from < 1% in 2009 to 12.19% in 2019 (P < 0.001). The prevalence of depression increased from 18.04% in 2009 to 51.21% in 2019 (P < 0.001). Inpatient mortality increased from 0% in 2009 to 2.43% in 2019 (P = 0.024). Among IBD hospitalizations, the male gender had a higher association with SIs than females (odds ratio 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–1.66], P = 0.014). Conclusions: There is a rise of SI among the IBD population. Specialized protocols should be in place in clinical settings and communities to identify and assess high-risk patients. ,Hassam Ali ... Ramona Rajapakse [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 24 ) [122] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 493 [Create_Time] => 2023-02-27 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202302/20230227090836.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001123/1001123.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001123/1001123.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001123/1001123_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Molecular docking analysis of peptide-based antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2 main protease: an approach towards drug repurposing [Abstract] => Aim: Utilizing the therapeutic potentials of previously approved medications against a new target or pharmacological response is known as drug repurposing. The health and scientific communities a [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Utilizing the therapeutic potentials of previously approved medications against a new target or pharmacological response is known as drug repurposing. The health and scientific communities are under continual pressure to discover new compounds with antiviral potential due to the rising reports of viral resistance and the occurrence and re-emergence of viral outbreaks. The use of antiviral peptides has emerged as an intriguing option in this search. Here, this article includes the current United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved antiviral peptides that might be enforced for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and carried out docking study of the viral protease inhibitors.

Methods:

In silico techniques like molecular docking was carried out using Autodock Vina software.

Results:

The molecular docking studies of peptide-based antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2 [Protein Data Bank (PDB) ID: 7P35] using docking software AutoDockTools 1.5.6. Among all the docked ligands, compound velpatasvir showed interaction with residues ILE213, GLN256, LEU141, GLN189, GLU166, HIS41, CYS145, and ASN142, and displayed the highest docking score of –8.2 kcal/mol. This medication could be a novel treatment lead or candidate for treating SARS-CoV-2.

Conclusions:

To conclude, a docking study of peptide based antiviral compounds for their binding mode in the catalytic domain of SARS-CoV-2 receptor is reported. On molecular docking, the compounds have showed remarkable binding affinity with the amino acids of receptor chain A. The compounds occupied the same binding cavity as the reference compound maintaining the interactions with conserved amino acid residues essential for significant inhibitory potential, especially for compound velpatasvir with binding score of –8.2 kcal/mol.

Affinity of viral protease inhibitors towards SARS-CoV-2 Mpro

[Names] => Abhishek Chaurasiya ... Pooja A. Chawla [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00123 [Published] => February 27, 2023 [Viewed] => 823 [Downloaded] => 25 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00123 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 85 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:33–44 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Coronavirus disease 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, rupintrivir, ATN 161, velpatasvir, boceprevir, ombitasvir [DetailTitle] => Techniques in Repurposing and Targeted Delivery: Bringing a New Life to Shelved Drugs [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/85 [Id] => 1001123 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001123/d921c2740a1f981ef9fc3f22bdda8582.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001123/b4417b46efe2dbbfd58f5cad8176c557.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Chaurasiya A, Shome A, Chawla PA. Molecular docking analysis of peptide-based antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2 main protease: an approach towards drug repurposing. Explor Med. 2023;4:33–44. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00123 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-03-01 03:30:56 [Bib_Time] => 2023-03-01 03:30:56 [KeysWordContens] => Molecular docking analysis of peptide-based antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2 main protease: an approach towards drug repurposing, Coronavirus disease 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, rupintrivir, ATN 161, velpatasvir, boceprevir, ombitasvir, Aim: Utilizing the therapeutic potentials of previously approved medications against a new target or pharmacological response is known as drug repurposing. The health and scientific communities are under continual pressure to discover new compounds with antiviral potential due to the rising reports of viral resistance and the occurrence and re-emergence of viral outbreaks. The use of antiviral peptides has emerged as an intriguing option in this search. Here, this article includes the current United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved antiviral peptides that might be enforced for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and carried out docking study of the viral protease inhibitors. Methods: In silico techniques like molecular docking was carried out using Autodock Vina software. Results: The molecular docking studies of peptide-based antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2 [Protein Data Bank (PDB) ID: 7P35] using docking software AutoDockTools 1.5.6. Among all the docked ligands, compound velpatasvir showed interaction with residues ILE213, GLN256, LEU141, GLN189, GLU166, HIS41, CYS145, and ASN142, and displayed the highest docking score of –8.2 kcal/mol. This medication could be a novel treatment lead or candidate for treating SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions: To conclude, a docking study of peptide based antiviral compounds for their binding mode in the catalytic domain of SARS-CoV-2 receptor is reported. On molecular docking, the compounds have showed remarkable binding affinity with the amino acids of receptor chain A. The compounds occupied the same binding cavity as the reference compound maintaining the interactions with conserved amino acid residues essential for significant inhibitory potential, especially for compound velpatasvir with binding score of –8.2 kcal/mol. Graphical abstract.Affinity of viral protease inhibitors towards SARS-CoV-2 Mpro ,Abhishek Chaurasiya ... Pooja A. Chawla [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 24 ) [123] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 495 [Create_Time] => 2023-02-28 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202305/20230520073755.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001124/1001124.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001124/1001124.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001124/1001124_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Oxidative stress, inflammation, dysfunctional redox homeostasis and autophagy cause age-associated diseases [Abstract] => Aging and age-associated diseases (AADs) are growing risk factors in societies worldwide. During aging, there is an accumulation of excessive oxygen free radicals [reactive oxygen species (ROS)] and nitrogen free radicals [reactive nitrogen species (RNS)] due to dysfunctional mitochondria, dysregulated catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) phosphate [NADP(H)] oxidase (NOX), cyclooxygenases, and nitric oxide synthases (NOS) over the threshold of physiological levels, creating oxidative stress (OS). [AbstractComplete] =>

Aging and age-associated diseases (AADs) are growing risk factors in societies worldwide. During aging, there is an accumulation of excessive oxygen free radicals [reactive oxygen species (ROS)] and nitrogen free radicals [reactive nitrogen species (RNS)] due to dysfunctional mitochondria, dysregulated catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) phosphate [NADP(H)] oxidase (NOX), cyclooxygenases, and nitric oxide synthases (NOS) over the threshold of physiological levels, creating oxidative stress (OS). Excessive ROS and RNS oxidize, break, denature, and sometimes cause aggregations of key cellular components including DNA, proteins, and lipids. Normally, these denatured molecules and their aggregates are eliminated by autophagy (AP) and ubiquitin-proteosome system (UPS). However, these two proteostatic mechanisms are impaired as age progresses. As a result, these abnormal molecules turn into damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), recognized as non-self by immune cells, leading to systemic chronic inflammation (SCI), which together with OS are the major causes of aging and AADs. Therefore, instead of trying to prevent and cure AADs individually, the logical approach should be the restoration of redox homeostasis by the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway which can prevent the damaging effect of OS and the upregulation of AP and UPS to eliminate DAMPs, and together they attenuate SCI to lessen the effect of inflammation. The central regulators, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), and Sestrins, synergistically control the restoration of the redox homeostasis by activating Nrf2, the upregulation of AP-UPS, and the inhibition of SCI. The activation of these central regulators can be achieved by exercise, caloric restriction (CR), and intakes of certain CR mimetic natural compounds. Consequently, the activations of these regulators may lead to the prevention and/or attenuation of the AADs.

[Names] => Prasert Sobhon ... Sawaek Weerakiet [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00124 [Published] => February 28, 2023 [Viewed] => 736 [Downloaded] => 24 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00124 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 102 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:45–70 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Oxidative stress, redox homeostasis, autophagy, inflammation, age-associated diseases [DetailTitle] => Genetic and Epigenetic Control of Autophagy in Human Diseases [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/102 [Id] => 1001124 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001124/1f01ce820caf7af5fdaaf1b8682578c1.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001124/ac3f67684ba49dc515800df5362ba56c.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Sobhon P, Savedvanich G, Weerakiet S. Oxidative stress, inflammation, dysfunctional redox homeostasis and autophagy cause age-associated diseases. Explor Med. 2023;4:45–70. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00124 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => PrasertSobhon, [CEmail] => prasert.sob@mahidol.ac.th, [Ris_Time] => 2023-03-01 03:29:51 [Bib_Time] => 2023-03-01 03:29:51 [KeysWordContens] => Oxidative stress, inflammation, dysfunctional redox homeostasis and autophagy cause age-associated diseases, Oxidative stress, redox homeostasis, autophagy, inflammation, age-associated diseases, Aging and age-associated diseases (AADs) are growing risk factors in societies worldwide. During aging, there is an accumulation of excessive oxygen free radicals [reactive oxygen species (ROS)] and nitrogen free radicals [reactive nitrogen species (RNS)] due to dysfunctional mitochondria, dysregulated catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) phosphate [NADP(H)] oxidase (NOX), cyclooxygenases, and nitric oxide synthases (NOS) over the threshold of physiological levels, creating oxidative stress (OS). Excessive ROS and RNS oxidize, break, denature, and sometimes cause aggregations of key cellular components including DNA, proteins, and lipids. Normally, these denatured molecules and their aggregates are eliminated by autophagy (AP) and ubiquitin-proteosome system (UPS). However, these two proteostatic mechanisms are impaired as age progresses. As a result, these abnormal molecules turn into damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), recognized as non-self by immune cells, leading to systemic chronic inflammation (SCI), which together with OS are the major causes of aging and AADs. Therefore, instead of trying to prevent and cure AADs individually, the logical approach should be the restoration of redox homeostasis by the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway which can prevent the damaging effect of OS and the upregulation of AP and UPS to eliminate DAMPs, and together they attenuate SCI to lessen the effect of inflammation. The central regulators, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), and Sestrins, synergistically control the restoration of the redox homeostasis by activating Nrf2, the upregulation of AP-UPS, and the inhibition of SCI. The activation of these central regulators can be achieved by exercise, caloric restriction (CR), and intakes of certain CR mimetic natural compounds. Consequently, the activations of these regulators may lead to the prevention and/or attenuation of the AADs. ,Prasert Sobhon ... Sawaek Weerakiet [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 24 ) [124] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 496 [Create_Time] => 2023-02-28 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202303/20230301030154.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001125/1001125.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001125/1001125.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001125/1001125_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => An overview of current strategies and future prospects in drug repurposing in tuberculosis [Abstract] => A large number of the population faces mortality as an effect of tuberculosis (TB). The line of treatment in the management of TB faces a jolt with ever-increasing multi-drug resistance (DR) cases. [AbstractComplete] =>

A large number of the population faces mortality as an effect of tuberculosis (TB). The line of treatment in the management of TB faces a jolt with ever-increasing multi-drug resistance (DR) cases. Further, the drugs engaged in the treatment of TB are associated with different toxicities, such as renal and hepatic toxicity. Different combinations are sought for effective anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) effects with a decrease in toxicity. In this regard, drug repurposing has been very promising in improving the efficacy of drugs by enhancement of bioavailability and widening the safety margin. The success in drug repurposing lies in specified binding and inhibition of a particular target in the drug molecule. Different drugs have been repurposed for various ailments like cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hair loss, etc. Repurposing in anti-TB drugs holds great potential too. The use of whole-cell screening assays and the availability of large chemical compounds for testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis poses a challenge in this development. The target-based discovery of sites has emerged in the form of phenotypic screening as ethionamide R (EthR) and malate synthase inhibitors are similar to pharmaceuticals. In this review, the authors have thoroughly described the drug repurposing techniques on the basis of pharmacogenomics and drug metabolism, pathogen-targeted therapy, host-directed therapy, and bioinformatics approaches for the identification of drugs. Further, the significance of repurposing of drugs elaborated on large databases has been revealed. The role of genomics and network-based methods in drug repurposing has been also discussed in this article.

[Names] => Dilpreet Singh ... Pooja A. Chawla [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00125 [Published] => February 28, 2023 [Viewed] => 758 [Downloaded] => 28 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00125 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 85 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:71–84 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Genomics, drug repurposing, tuberculosis, methodologies, bioinformatics [DetailTitle] => Techniques in Repurposing and Targeted Delivery: Bringing a New Life to Shelved Drugs [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/85 [Id] => 1001125 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001125/876040243b51a6e1dc1d71fb0998c3d6.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001125/1ab02c33e199b0edda3dc1c9d63099ad.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Singh D, Singh A, Chawla PA. An overview of current strategies and future prospects in drug repurposing in tuberculosis. Explor Med. 2023;4:71–84. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00125 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-03-01 03:29:15 [Bib_Time] => 2023-03-01 03:29:15 [KeysWordContens] => An overview of current strategies and future prospects in drug repurposing in tuberculosis, Genomics, drug repurposing, tuberculosis, methodologies, bioinformatics, A large number of the population faces mortality as an effect of tuberculosis (TB). The line of treatment in the management of TB faces a jolt with ever-increasing multi-drug resistance (DR) cases. Further, the drugs engaged in the treatment of TB are associated with different toxicities, such as renal and hepatic toxicity. Different combinations are sought for effective anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) effects with a decrease in toxicity. In this regard, drug repurposing has been very promising in improving the efficacy of drugs by enhancement of bioavailability and widening the safety margin. The success in drug repurposing lies in specified binding and inhibition of a particular target in the drug molecule. Different drugs have been repurposed for various ailments like cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hair loss, etc. Repurposing in anti-TB drugs holds great potential too. The use of whole-cell screening assays and the availability of large chemical compounds for testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis poses a challenge in this development. The target-based discovery of sites has emerged in the form of phenotypic screening as ethionamide R (EthR) and malate synthase inhibitors are similar to pharmaceuticals. In this review, the authors have thoroughly described the drug repurposing techniques on the basis of pharmacogenomics and drug metabolism, pathogen-targeted therapy, host-directed therapy, and bioinformatics approaches for the identification of drugs. Further, the significance of repurposing of drugs elaborated on large databases has been revealed. The role of genomics and network-based methods in drug repurposing has been also discussed in this article. ,Dilpreet Singh ... Pooja A. Chawla [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 24 ) [125] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 500 [Create_Time] => 2023-03-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202305/20230526073522.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001126/1001126.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001126/1001126.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001126/1001126_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => N-type calcium channel blockers: a new approach towards the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain [Abstract] => Neuropathic pain (NP) remains maltreated for a wide number of patients by the currently available treatments and little research has been done in finding new drugs for treating NP. Ziconotide (Prial [AbstractComplete] =>

Neuropathic pain (NP) remains maltreated for a wide number of patients by the currently available treatments and little research has been done in finding new drugs for treating NP. Ziconotide (PrialtTM) had been developed as the new drug, which belongs to the class of ω-conotoxin MVIIA. It inhibits N-type calcium channels. Ziconotide is under the last phase of the clinical trial, a new non-narcotic drug for the management of NP. Synthetically it has shown the similarities with ω-conotoxin MVIIA, a constituent of poison found in fish hunting snails (Conus magus). Ziconotide acts by selectively blocking neural N-type voltage-sensitized Ca2+ channels (NVSCCs). Certain herbal drugs also have been studied but no clinical result is there and the study is only limited to preclinical data. This review emphasizes the N-type calcium channel inhibitors, and their mechanisms for blocking calcium channels with their remedial prospects for treating chronic NP.

[Names] => Shikha Choudhary ... Md Sabir Alam [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00126 [Published] => February 28, 2023 [Viewed] => 698 [Downloaded] => 34 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00126 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 85 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:85–106 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => N-type calcium channel blockers, neuropathic pain, conotoxin, ω-conotoxin, ziconotide, peptide inhibitor [DetailTitle] => Techniques in Repurposing and Targeted Delivery: Bringing a New Life to Shelved Drugs [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/85 [Id] => 1001126 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001126/c5fa90edcdba1c781fd1b127b37ce66a.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001126/e84c0d6950e1888b7a7c9b1a2708c64a.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Choudhary S, Kaur R, Waziri A, Garg A, Kadian R, Alam MS. N-type calcium channel blockers: a new approach towards the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. Explor Med. 2023;4:85–106. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00126 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Md SabirAlam, [CEmail] => mdsabiralam86@gmail.com, [Ris_Time] => 2023-02-25 06:52:46 [Bib_Time] => 2023-02-25 06:52:46 [KeysWordContens] => N-type calcium channel blockers: a new approach towards the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain, N-type calcium channel blockers, neuropathic pain, conotoxin, ω-conotoxin, ziconotide, peptide inhibitor, Neuropathic pain (NP) remains maltreated for a wide number of patients by the currently available treatments and little research has been done in finding new drugs for treating NP. Ziconotide (PrialtTM) had been developed as the new drug, which belongs to the class of ω-conotoxin MVIIA. It inhibits N-type calcium channels. Ziconotide is under the last phase of the clinical trial, a new non-narcotic drug for the management of NP. Synthetically it has shown the similarities with ω-conotoxin MVIIA, a constituent of poison found in fish hunting snails (Conus magus). Ziconotide acts by selectively blocking neural N-type voltage-sensitized Ca2+ channels (NVSCCs). Certain herbal drugs also have been studied but no clinical result is there and the study is only limited to preclinical data. This review emphasizes the N-type calcium channel inhibitors, and their mechanisms for blocking calcium channels with their remedial prospects for treating chronic NP. ,Shikha Choudhary ... Md Sabir Alam [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 38 ) [126] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 501 [Create_Time] => 2023-03-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202304/20230410065702.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001127/1001127.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001127/1001127.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001127/1001127_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => m6 RNA methylation: an emerging common target in the immune response to cancer and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection [Abstract] => m6A RNA methylation, a predominant type of RNA modification, is involved in regulating mRNA splicing, stability, and translation as well as the interaction between nucleoproteins and noncoding RNAs. [AbstractComplete] =>

m6A RNA methylation, a predominant type of RNA modification, is involved in regulating mRNA splicing, stability, and translation as well as the interaction between nucleoproteins and noncoding RNAs. Recent studies have revealed that m6A RNA methylation plays a critical role in the self-to-non-self-recognition of immune cells against endogenous mutations in cancer and exogenous organism-related infections. As an epigenetic mechanism, m6A RNA modification induces immune cell signal transduction, which is altered in the tumor microenvironment, as detected in liquid biopsy. Furthermore, m6A RNA methylation-related inflammation is involved in the cellular response to viral infections, including the emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Given the importance of the immune response in maintaining homeostasis in higher eukaryotes, m6A RNA methylation could be useful not only for the early detection of cancer but also for SARS-CoV-2 screening during a global pandemic.

[Names] => Hiromichi Sato ... Hideshi Ishii [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00127 [Published] => February 28, 2023 [Viewed] => 847 [Downloaded] => 43 [Subject] => Commentary [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00127 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 1 [Topic] => 104 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:107–114 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => RNA, methylation, m6A, cancer, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 [DetailTitle] => RNA World in Health and Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/104 [Id] => 1001127 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001127/b01b33a25b7159f2641e26ab4e42e7fc.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001127/e81a1eb0abc7fc68312aaac135bb150c.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Sato H, Hara T, Otsuka C, Arao Y, Tsuji Y, Hamano Y, et al. m6 RNA methylation: an emerging common target in the immune response to cancer and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection. Explor Med. 2023;4:107–14. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00127 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => HideshiIshii, [CEmail] => hishii@gesurg.med.osaka-u.ac.jp, [Ris_Time] => 2023-03-01 03:37:48 [Bib_Time] => 2023-03-01 03:37:48 [KeysWordContens] => m6 RNA methylation: an emerging common target in the immune response to cancer and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection, RNA, methylation, m6A, cancer, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2, m6A RNA methylation, a predominant type of RNA modification, is involved in regulating mRNA splicing, stability, and translation as well as the interaction between nucleoproteins and noncoding RNAs. Recent studies have revealed that m6A RNA methylation plays a critical role in the self-to-non-self-recognition of immune cells against endogenous mutations in cancer and exogenous organism-related infections. As an epigenetic mechanism, m6A RNA modification induces immune cell signal transduction, which is altered in the tumor microenvironment, as detected in liquid biopsy. Furthermore, m6A RNA methylation-related inflammation is involved in the cellular response to viral infections, including the emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Given the importance of the immune response in maintaining homeostasis in higher eukaryotes, m6A RNA methylation could be useful not only for the early detection of cancer but also for SARS-CoV-2 screening during a global pandemic. ,Hiromichi Sato ... Hideshi Ishii [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 24 ) [127] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 523 [Create_Time] => 2023-04-10 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202304/20230410060239.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001128/1001128.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001128/1001128.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001128/1001128_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Assessing cardiac contractility in hypertension with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: the value of left ventricular strain [Abstract] => Aim: Hypertension (HTN) is a major cause of heart failure but the precise pathways by which HTN leads to heart failure are not resolved. Newer echocardiographic techniques permit assessment of my [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Hypertension (HTN) is a major cause of heart failure but the precise pathways by which HTN leads to heart failure are not resolved. Newer echocardiographic techniques permit assessment of myocardial contraction in different orientations defining left ventricular (LV) shortening as percentage longitudinal, circumferential and radial strain.

Methods:

A systematic search was conducted of Medline and Embase. The search was conducted from the inception of each database on June 30, 2022. Search terms “left ventricular strain” or speckle tracking AND heart failure with preserved ejection fraction or diastolic dysfunction AND HTN.

Results:

Six studies were identified and subject to detailed review. LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was not significantly different in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and HTN compared to individuals with or without HTN. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS) were significantly (P < 0.0001) different (lower) in patients with HFpEF and HTN compared to patients with HTN without HFpEF and control individuals without HTN or other conditions. In contrast, global radial strain (GRS) was not significantly (P < 0.054) different in patients with HFpEF and HTN compared to individuals without HTN or other conditions. GRS was significantly (P < 0.01) different in individuals with HFpEF and HTN compared to individuals with HTN.

Conclusions:

Assessment of LV strain is an important advance in the assessment of LV function in patients with HTN and HFpEF as it identifies patients with reduced LV strain while there was no difference in LVEF. GLS and GCS provide the best separation between patients with HFpEF and HTN compared to individuals with HTN without HFpEF. This study advances the possibility of redefining the classification of heart function and heart failure for patients with HTN by either classifying patients mainly by LV strain or sub-classifying patients with HTN and HFpEF by LV strain.

[Names] => Simon W. Rabkin [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00128 [Published] => April 10, 2023 [Viewed] => 747 [Downloaded] => 23 [Subject] => Meta-Analysis [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00128 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 68 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:115–126 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Hypertension, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, left ventricular strain [DetailTitle] => Recent Advances in Hypertension [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/68 [Id] => 1001128 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001128/1ef316764f93c635a1ee4fe7130051c3.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001128/826e98b9cdafda5ceb470fa0fae8ca25.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Rabkin SW. Assessing cardiac contractility in hypertension with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: the value of left ventricular strain. Explor Med. 2023;4:115–26. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00128 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-03-30 07:54:47 [Bib_Time] => 2023-03-30 07:54:47 [KeysWordContens] => Assessing cardiac contractility in hypertension with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: the value of left ventricular strain, Hypertension, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, left ventricular strain, Aim: Hypertension (HTN) is a major cause of heart failure but the precise pathways by which HTN leads to heart failure are not resolved. Newer echocardiographic techniques permit assessment of myocardial contraction in different orientations defining left ventricular (LV) shortening as percentage longitudinal, circumferential and radial strain. Methods: A systematic search was conducted of Medline and Embase. The search was conducted from the inception of each database on June 30, 2022. Search terms “left ventricular strain” or speckle tracking AND heart failure with preserved ejection fraction or diastolic dysfunction AND HTN. Results: Six studies were identified and subject to detailed review. LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was not significantly different in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and HTN compared to individuals with or without HTN. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS) were significantly (P < 0.0001) different (lower) in patients with HFpEF and HTN compared to patients with HTN without HFpEF and control individuals without HTN or other conditions. In contrast, global radial strain (GRS) was not significantly (P < 0.054) different in patients with HFpEF and HTN compared to individuals without HTN or other conditions. GRS was significantly (P < 0.01) different in individuals with HFpEF and HTN compared to individuals with HTN. Conclusions: Assessment of LV strain is an important advance in the assessment of LV function in patients with HTN and HFpEF as it identifies patients with reduced LV strain while there was no difference in LVEF. GLS and GCS provide the best separation between patients with HFpEF and HTN compared to individuals with HTN without HFpEF. This study advances the possibility of redefining the classification of heart function and heart failure for patients with HTN by either classifying patients mainly by LV strain or sub-classifying patients with HTN and HFpEF by LV strain. ,Simon W. Rabkin [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 38 ) [128] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 526 [Create_Time] => 2023-04-18 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202304/20230421064016.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001129/1001129.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001129/1001129.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001129/1001129_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Oxidative stress and inflammation: the root causes of aging [Abstract] => Oxygen free radicals [reactive oxygen species (ROS)] and nitrogen free radicals [reactive nitrogen species (RNS)] are generated by mitochondria during adenosine triphosphate synthesis, and catalytic [AbstractComplete] =>

Oxygen free radicals [reactive oxygen species (ROS)] and nitrogen free radicals [reactive nitrogen species (RNS)] are generated by mitochondria during adenosine triphosphate synthesis, and catalytic activities of cytochrome P450, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NOXs), cyclooxygenases, and nitric oxide synthases during drug catabolism, phagocytosis, and acute inflammation. Under normal circumstances, low levels of ROS and RNS provide redox signalings that control many essential physiological processes. As age progresses ROS and RNS increase excessively due to dysfunctional mitochondria, dysregulated NOX, and other free-radical generating sources, leading to oxidative stress, which causes oxidation and denaturation of key cellular components including DNA, proteins, and lipids, which become abnormal, constituting damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP), recognized as ‘non-self’ by immune cells, leading to inflammation which is mediated by nuclear factor kappa B-inflammasome, p38-c-Jun N-terminal kinase and Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription pathways. DAMPs are continuously released from damaged and senescent cells, causing an otherwise normally transient inflammation turning into systemic chronic inflammation, the root cause of aging and age-associated diseases (AADs). Cells restore redox balance by activating the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway that induces the synthesis and release of antioxidation molecules and enzymes including haem oxygenase-1, which also inhibits the three inflammatory pathways. Furthermore, upregulation of autophagy (AP) can get rid of abnormal molecules, prevent the generation of DAMPs, and attenuate inflammation. Both AP and Nrf2 signalings decrease with age. The upregulations of Nrf2, AP, and downregulation of inflammation are controlled by sensors of energy and stress levels, i.e., adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, silent information regulator 1, and Sestrins, as well as the extracellular matrix, while mammalian targets for rapamycin complex 1, a nutrient sensor, act in the opposite direction. If the balance of these sensor systems becomes dysregulated, aging process accelerates, and the risk of AADs increases.

[Names] => Prasert Sobhon ... Sawaek Weerakiet [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00129 [Published] => April 17, 2023 [Viewed] => 806 [Downloaded] => 49 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00129 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 93 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:127–156 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Oxidative stress, redox imbalance, inflammation, aging [DetailTitle] => Determinants of Exceptional Longevity [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/93 [Id] => 1001129 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001129/78640facb87c4630c1644de6ff633ad6.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001129/98d43a1a7278392e605cc82a864073a8.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Sobhon P, Savedvanich G, Weerakiet S. Oxidative stress and inflammation: the root causes of aging. Explor Med. 2023;4:127–56. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00129 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-04-14 02:28:03 [Bib_Time] => 2023-04-14 02:28:03 [KeysWordContens] => Oxidative stress and inflammation: the root causes of aging, Oxidative stress, redox imbalance, inflammation, aging, Oxygen free radicals [reactive oxygen species (ROS)] and nitrogen free radicals [reactive nitrogen species (RNS)] are generated by mitochondria during adenosine triphosphate synthesis, and catalytic activities of cytochrome P450, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NOXs), cyclooxygenases, and nitric oxide synthases during drug catabolism, phagocytosis, and acute inflammation. Under normal circumstances, low levels of ROS and RNS provide redox signalings that control many essential physiological processes. As age progresses ROS and RNS increase excessively due to dysfunctional mitochondria, dysregulated NOX, and other free-radical generating sources, leading to oxidative stress, which causes oxidation and denaturation of key cellular components including DNA, proteins, and lipids, which become abnormal, constituting damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP), recognized as ‘non-self’ by immune cells, leading to inflammation which is mediated by nuclear factor kappa B-inflammasome, p38-c-Jun N-terminal kinase and Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription pathways. DAMPs are continuously released from damaged and senescent cells, causing an otherwise normally transient inflammation turning into systemic chronic inflammation, the root cause of aging and age-associated diseases (AADs). Cells restore redox balance by activating the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway that induces the synthesis and release of antioxidation molecules and enzymes including haem oxygenase-1, which also inhibits the three inflammatory pathways. Furthermore, upregulation of autophagy (AP) can get rid of abnormal molecules, prevent the generation of DAMPs, and attenuate inflammation. Both AP and Nrf2 signalings decrease with age. The upregulations of Nrf2, AP, and downregulation of inflammation are controlled by sensors of energy and stress levels, i.e., adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, silent information regulator 1, and Sestrins, as well as the extracellular matrix, while mammalian targets for rapamycin complex 1, a nutrient sensor, act in the opposite direction. If the balance of these sensor systems becomes dysregulated, aging process accelerates, and the risk of AADs increases. ,Prasert Sobhon ... Sawaek Weerakiet [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 24 ) [129] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 527 [Create_Time] => 2023-04-26 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202304/20230428085106.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001130/1001130.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001130/1001130.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001130/1001130_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Gastrointestinal microbiome and coronavirus disease: evidence of a bidirectional association [Abstract] => The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome remains an emerging topic of study and the characterization and impact on human health and disease continue to be an area of great interest. Similarly, the coron [AbstractComplete] =>

The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome remains an emerging topic of study and the characterization and impact on human health and disease continue to be an area of great interest. Similarly, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted the healthcare system with active disease, lasting effects, and complications with the full impact yet to be determined. The most current evidence of the interaction between COVID-19 and the GI microbiome is reviewed, with a focus on key mediators and the microbiome changes associated with acute disease and post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS).

[Names] => Kevin V. Houston ... David A. Johnson [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00130 [Published] => April 25, 2023 [Viewed] => 678 [Downloaded] => 18 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00130 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 62 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:157–165 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Gastrointestinal microbiome, dysbiosis, coronavirus disease 2019, post-acute coronavirus disease 2019 syndrome, long-haul coronavirus disease 2019, post infection irritable bowel syndrome [DetailTitle] => The Role of Gut Microbiota and its Metabolites in Gastrointestinal Diseases [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/62 [Id] => 1001130 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001130/65c93d17b0da70cc4714fd4ff650c5a2.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001130/85bd2f3729ce04482c18e7dbd5d222e4.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Houston KV, Patel A, Saadeh M, Vargas A, Vilela Sangay AR, D’Souza SM, et al. Gastrointestinal microbiome and coronavirus disease: evidence of a bidirectional association. Explor Med. 2023;4:157–65. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00130 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-04-26 02:11:11 [Bib_Time] => 2023-04-26 02:11:11 [KeysWordContens] => Gastrointestinal microbiome and coronavirus disease: evidence of a bidirectional association, Gastrointestinal microbiome, dysbiosis, coronavirus disease 2019, post-acute coronavirus disease 2019 syndrome, long-haul coronavirus disease 2019, post infection irritable bowel syndrome, The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome remains an emerging topic of study and the characterization and impact on human health and disease continue to be an area of great interest. Similarly, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted the healthcare system with active disease, lasting effects, and complications with the full impact yet to be determined. The most current evidence of the interaction between COVID-19 and the GI microbiome is reviewed, with a focus on key mediators and the microbiome changes associated with acute disease and post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS). ,Kevin V. Houston ... David A. Johnson [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 24 ) [130] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 535 [Create_Time] => 2023-04-26 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202304/20230428073043.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001134/1001134.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001134/1001134.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001134/1001134_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Forward head posture and neck disability: what is the effect on lung function? [Abstract] => Aim: Forward head posture (FHP) is a very common pathological neck posture among people who frequently use multimedia devices, and it could be related to some musculoskeletal disorders. However, it [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Forward head posture (FHP) is a very common pathological neck posture among people who frequently use multimedia devices, and it could be related to some musculoskeletal disorders. However, its role in influencing lung function and its relationship with neck disability are still debated in the literature. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of FHP on respiratory function, and to explore a possible relationship between FHP and neck discomfort.

Methods:

A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 83 subjects (35.7 ± 8.4 years aged), enrolled at the Ferrari corporate wellness program “Formula Benessere”. Craniovertebral angle (CVA) was measured with a digital goniometer to assess head posture: FHP was defined with a CVA < 50° in an upright position. Spirometry was conducted according to European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society (ERS/ATS) criteria. Finally, subjects enrolled were evaluated through a self-administered neck disability index (NDI) questionnaire.

Results:

Among the 60 participants with agreement about the CVA measurements, 45 had FHP (11 females and 34 males) with lower CVA values. No significant differences were found in spirometric parameters between subjects with FHP (n = 45) and subjects without FHP (n = 15). Furthermore, the two groups did not differ either in NDI scores (P = 0.148).

Conclusions:

There is no clear relationship between FHP and respiratory function indices. Moreover, no differences have been found in NDI values between subjects with FHP and subjects without FHP. Respiratory rehabilitation strategies should be focused on other parameters than FHP itself.

[Names] => Giada Annarumma ... Felice Sirico [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00134 [Published] => April 26, 2023 [Viewed] => 702 [Downloaded] => 26 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00134 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:207–214 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Forward head posture, neck posture, spirometry, peak expiratory flow, neck disability index, chronic neck pain [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001134 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001134/824b8fdc012534a101072efe9dd63736.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001134/16c5c8c83a5021dcabb5b8b4d9720aab.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Annarumma G, Spinelli A, Serio A, Di Fraia T, Gallinoro CM, Caoduro L, et al. Forward head posture and neck disability: what is the effect on lung function? Explor Med. 2023;4:207–14. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00134 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-04-20 08:12:21 [Bib_Time] => 2023-04-20 08:12:21 [KeysWordContens] => Forward head posture and neck disability: what is the effect on lung function?, Forward head posture, neck posture, spirometry, peak expiratory flow, neck disability index, chronic neck pain, Aim: Forward head posture (FHP) is a very common pathological neck posture among people who frequently use multimedia devices, and it could be related to some musculoskeletal disorders. However, its role in influencing lung function and its relationship with neck disability are still debated in the literature. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of FHP on respiratory function, and to explore a possible relationship between FHP and neck discomfort. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 83 subjects (35.7 ± 8.4 years aged), enrolled at the Ferrari corporate wellness program “Formula Benessere”. Craniovertebral angle (CVA) was measured with a digital goniometer to assess head posture: FHP was defined with a CVA < 50° in an upright position. Spirometry was conducted according to European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society (ERS/ATS) criteria. Finally, subjects enrolled were evaluated through a self-administered neck disability index (NDI) questionnaire. Results: Among the 60 participants with agreement about the CVA measurements, 45 had FHP (11 females and 34 males) with lower CVA values. No significant differences were found in spirometric parameters between subjects with FHP (n = 45) and subjects without FHP (n = 15). Furthermore, the two groups did not differ either in NDI scores (P = 0.148). Conclusions: There is no clear relationship between FHP and respiratory function indices. Moreover, no differences have been found in NDI values between subjects with FHP and subjects without FHP. Respiratory rehabilitation strategies should be focused on other parameters than FHP itself. ,Giada Annarumma ... Felice Sirico [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 48 ) [131] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 528 [Create_Time] => 2023-04-26 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202304/20230426023523.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001131/1001131.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001131/1001131.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001131/1001131_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Low copy repeats in the genome: from neglected to respected [Abstract] => DNA paralogs that have a length of at least 1 kilobase (kb) and are duplicated with a sequence identity of over 90% are classified as low copy repeats (LCRs) or segmental duplications (SDs). They co [AbstractComplete] =>

DNA paralogs that have a length of at least 1 kilobase (kb) and are duplicated with a sequence identity of over 90% are classified as low copy repeats (LCRs) or segmental duplications (SDs). They constitute 6.6% of the genome and are clustering in specific genomic loci. Due to the high sequence homology between these duplicated regions, they can misalign during meiosis resulting in non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) and leading to structural variation such as deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations. When such rearrangements result in a clinical phenotype, they are categorized as a genomic disorder. The presence of multiple copies of larger genomic segments offers opportunities for evolution. First, the creation of new genes in the human lineage will lead to human-specific traits and adaptation. Second, LCR variation between human populations can give rise to phenotypic variability. Hence, the rearrangement predisposition associated with LCRs should be interpreted in the context of the evolutionary advantages.

[Names] => Lisanne Vervoort, Joris R. Vermeesch [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00131 [Published] => April 25, 2023 [Viewed] => 841 [Downloaded] => 46 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00131 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:166–175 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Genomic disorders, low copy repeats, segmental duplications [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001131 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001131/d371210b11afe900b35d40a0f46b2dbb.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001131/f94b1a91fb2e71b4c83db97ad24ab5e9.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Vervoort L, Vermeesch JR. Low copy repeats in the genome: from neglected to respected. Explor Med. 2023;4:166–75. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00131 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-04-10 06:48:50 [Bib_Time] => 2023-04-10 06:48:51 [KeysWordContens] => Low copy repeats in the genome: from neglected to respected, Genomic disorders, low copy repeats, segmental duplications, DNA paralogs that have a length of at least 1 kilobase (kb) and are duplicated with a sequence identity of over 90% are classified as low copy repeats (LCRs) or segmental duplications (SDs). They constitute 6.6% of the genome and are clustering in specific genomic loci. Due to the high sequence homology between these duplicated regions, they can misalign during meiosis resulting in non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) and leading to structural variation such as deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations. When such rearrangements result in a clinical phenotype, they are categorized as a genomic disorder. The presence of multiple copies of larger genomic segments offers opportunities for evolution. First, the creation of new genes in the human lineage will lead to human-specific traits and adaptation. Second, LCR variation between human populations can give rise to phenotypic variability. Hence, the rearrangement predisposition associated with LCRs should be interpreted in the context of the evolutionary advantages. ,Lisanne Vervoort, Joris R. Vermeesch [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 38 ) [132] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 529 [Create_Time] => 2023-04-26 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202304/20230428074740.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001132/1001132.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001132/1001132.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001132/1001132_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Development of solid lipid nanoparticle gel for transdermal delivery system of chaulmoogra oil [Abstract] => Aim: The main objective of the study was to formulate, evaluate and perform an optimization study of chaulmoogra oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) based gel. Methods: The study involves isolation, identification, and quantification of hydnocarpic acid (HA), using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and characterization using ultraviolet (UV), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectroscopy (MS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Different concentration of assorted solid lipids and surfactants was used for the preparation of SLN gel with the improved transdermal application. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

The main objective of the study was to formulate, evaluate and perform an optimization study of chaulmoogra oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) based gel.

Methods:

The study involves isolation, identification, and quantification of hydnocarpic acid (HA), using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and characterization using ultraviolet (UV), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectroscopy (MS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Different concentration of assorted solid lipids and surfactants was used for the preparation of SLN gel with the improved transdermal application. Size distribution, entrapping efficiency, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and percent yield were tested for the prepared SLN and the characterization of SLN gel was evaluated on the basis of in vitro diffusion study, stability studies, homogeneity, and skin irritancy test.

Results:

The amount of HA quantified in the oil sample was found to be 54.84% w/w. The percent yield and entrapment efficiency (EE) of HA SLNs were 96.176 ± 1.338% and 90.2 ± 0.5% respectively. The in vitro percent cumulative drug release was 80.89% for the developed SLN, the homogeneity test showed no grittiness, and the prepared gel was found to be effective as it shows no signs of erythema post-treatment of 10 days. The in vitro dissolution studies showed better results for SLN gel when compared to SLN suspension.

Conclusions:

The nano-gel could be a better option for the topical delivery of herbal drugs with improved bioavailability providing several benefits over conventional formulation.

[Names] => Rabea Parveen ... Sayeed Ahmad [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00132 [Published] => April 25, 2023 [Viewed] => 466 [Downloaded] => 26 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00132 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:176–188 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Chaulmoogra oil, hydnocarpic acid, solid lipid nanoparticle gel, stability studies, skin irritancy [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001132 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001132/9a62a1ddbabc19767d32b944c69c807f.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001132/a8aa71d50d247c42da1c139e5f8d4bfd.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Parveen R, Samal M, Nafis, Mukhtar HM, Ahmad S. Development of solid lipid nanoparticle gel for transdermal delivery system of chaulmoogra oil. Explor Med. 2023;4:176–88. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00132 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-04-19 09:17:43 [Bib_Time] => 2023-04-19 09:17:43 [KeysWordContens] => Development of solid lipid nanoparticle gel for transdermal delivery system of chaulmoogra oil, Chaulmoogra oil, hydnocarpic acid, solid lipid nanoparticle gel, stability studies, skin irritancy, Aim: The main objective of the study was to formulate, evaluate and perform an optimization study of chaulmoogra oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) based gel. Methods: The study involves isolation, identification, and quantification of hydnocarpic acid (HA), using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and characterization using ultraviolet (UV), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectroscopy (MS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Different concentration of assorted solid lipids and surfactants was used for the preparation of SLN gel with the improved transdermal application. Size distribution, entrapping efficiency, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and percent yield were tested for the prepared SLN and the characterization of SLN gel was evaluated on the basis of in vitro diffusion study, stability studies, homogeneity, and skin irritancy test. Results: The amount of HA quantified in the oil sample was found to be 54.84% w/w. The percent yield and entrapment efficiency (EE) of HA SLNs were 96.176 ± 1.338% and 90.2 ± 0.5% respectively. The in vitro percent cumulative drug release was 80.89% for the developed SLN, the homogeneity test showed no grittiness, and the prepared gel was found to be effective as it shows no signs of erythema post-treatment of 10 days. The in vitro dissolution studies showed better results for SLN gel when compared to SLN suspension. Conclusions: The nano-gel could be a better option for the topical delivery of herbal drugs with improved bioavailability providing several benefits over conventional formulation. ,Rabea Parveen ... Sayeed Ahmad [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 24 ) [133] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 534 [Create_Time] => 2023-04-26 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202304/20230426092521.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001133/1001133.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001133/1001133.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001133/1001133_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Immunomodulation strategies against COVID-19 evidence: key nutrients and dietary approaches [Abstract] => The novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has created a major public health crisis. Various dietary factors may enhance immunological activity against COVID-19 and serve as a method to combat se [AbstractComplete] =>

The novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has created a major public health crisis. Various dietary factors may enhance immunological activity against COVID-19 and serve as a method to combat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The dietary factors that are responsible for boosting immunity may provide a therapeutic advantage in patients with COVID-19. Investigators have demonstrated that vitamins B6, B12, C, D, E, and K, and trace elements like zinc, copper, selenium, and iron may serve as important tools for immunomodulation. Herein this is a review the peer-reviewed literature pertaining to dietary immunomodulation strategies against COVID-19. This review is intended to better define the evidence that dietary modifications and supplementation could positively influence the proinflammatory state in patients with COVID-19 and improve clinical outcomes. With appropriate insight, therapeutic interventions are discussed and directed to potentially modulate host immunity to mitigate the disease mechanisms of COVID-19.

[Names] => Lindsey B. Cundra ... David A. Johnson [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00133 [Published] => April 25, 2023 [Viewed] => 657 [Downloaded] => 20 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00133 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 62 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:189–206 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Coronavirus disease-2019, immunity, diet, fasting, dietary supplements, probiotics [DetailTitle] => The Role of Gut Microbiota and its Metabolites in Gastrointestinal Diseases [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/62 [Id] => 1001133 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001133/3aa41e6ee2ffd7fe76270f2759d92459.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001133/2cf2f8a9e6d10834e435d5f1ea114bf8.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Cundra LB, Vallabhaneni M, Saadeh M, Houston KV, Yoo BS, D’Souza S, et al. Immunomodulation strategies against COVID-19 evidence: key nutrients and dietary approaches. Explor Med. 2023;4:189–206. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00133 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-04-26 03:25:04 [Bib_Time] => 2023-04-26 03:25:04 [KeysWordContens] => Immunomodulation strategies against COVID-19 evidence: key nutrients and dietary approaches, Coronavirus disease-2019, immunity, diet, fasting, dietary supplements, probiotics, The novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has created a major public health crisis. Various dietary factors may enhance immunological activity against COVID-19 and serve as a method to combat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The dietary factors that are responsible for boosting immunity may provide a therapeutic advantage in patients with COVID-19. Investigators have demonstrated that vitamins B6, B12, C, D, E, and K, and trace elements like zinc, copper, selenium, and iron may serve as important tools for immunomodulation. Herein this is a review the peer-reviewed literature pertaining to dietary immunomodulation strategies against COVID-19. This review is intended to better define the evidence that dietary modifications and supplementation could positively influence the proinflammatory state in patients with COVID-19 and improve clinical outcomes. With appropriate insight, therapeutic interventions are discussed and directed to potentially modulate host immunity to mitigate the disease mechanisms of COVID-19. ,Lindsey B. Cundra ... David A. Johnson [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 24 ) [134] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 546 [Create_Time] => 2023-04-26 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202304/20230428070840.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001135/1001135.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001135/1001135.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001135/1001135_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Impact exerted by scaffolds and biomaterials in periodontal bone and tissue regeneration engineering: new challenges and perspectives for disease treatment [Abstract] => The periodontium is an appropriate target for regeneration, as it cannot restore its function following disease. Significantly, the periodontium’s limited regenerative capacity could be enhanced through the development of novel biomaterials and therapeutic approaches. Notably, the regenerative potential of the periodontium depends not only on its tissue-specific architecture and function but also on its ability [AbstractComplete] =>

The periodontium is an appropriate target for regeneration, as it cannot restore its function following disease. Significantly, the periodontium’s limited regenerative capacity could be enhanced through the development of novel biomaterials and therapeutic approaches. Notably, the regenerative potential of the periodontium depends not only on its tissue-specific architecture and function but also on its ability to reconstruct distinct tissues and tissue interfaces, implying that the development of tissue engineering techniques can offer new perspectives for the organized reconstruction of soft and hard periodontal tissues. With their biocompatible structure and one-of-a-kind stimulus-responsive property, hydrogels have been utilized as an excellent drug delivery system for the treatment of several oral diseases. Furthermore, bioceramics and three-dimensional (3D) printed scaffolds are also appropriate scaffolding materials for the regeneration of periodontal tissue, bone, and cartilage. This work aims to examine and update material-based, biologically active cues and the deployment of breakthrough bio-fabrication technologies to regenerate the numerous tissues that comprise the periodontium for clinical and scientific applications.

[Names] => Simona Santonocito ... Gaetano Isola [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00135 [Published] => April 26, 2023 [Viewed] => 856 [Downloaded] => 31 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00135 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 170 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:215–234 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Three-dimensional printing, scaffolds, periodontal regeneration, fibrous scaffolds, periodontal engineering, functional biomaterials [DetailTitle] => Biomaterials and Biomarkers in Dentistry: Up to Date [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/170 [Id] => 1001135 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001135/aaaed8c75e03c40e44a513c1bc105e36.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001135/9100dd5f100ea9b7002faffbeef7028d.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Santonocito S, Ferlito S, Polizzi A, Ronsivalle V, Reitano G, Lo Giudice A, et al. Impact exerted by scaffolds and biomaterials in periodontal bone and tissue regeneration engineering: new challenges and perspectives for disease treatment. Explor Med. 2023;4:215–34. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00135 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-04-20 08:29:42 [Bib_Time] => 2023-04-20 08:29:42 [KeysWordContens] => Impact exerted by scaffolds and biomaterials in periodontal bone and tissue regeneration engineering: new challenges and perspectives for disease treatment, Three-dimensional printing, scaffolds, periodontal regeneration, fibrous scaffolds, periodontal engineering, functional biomaterials, The periodontium is an appropriate target for regeneration, as it cannot restore its function following disease. Significantly, the periodontium’s limited regenerative capacity could be enhanced through the development of novel biomaterials and therapeutic approaches. Notably, the regenerative potential of the periodontium depends not only on its tissue-specific architecture and function but also on its ability to reconstruct distinct tissues and tissue interfaces, implying that the development of tissue engineering techniques can offer new perspectives for the organized reconstruction of soft and hard periodontal tissues. With their biocompatible structure and one-of-a-kind stimulus-responsive property, hydrogels have been utilized as an excellent drug delivery system for the treatment of several oral diseases. Furthermore, bioceramics and three-dimensional (3D) printed scaffolds are also appropriate scaffolding materials for the regeneration of periodontal tissue, bone, and cartilage. This work aims to examine and update material-based, biologically active cues and the deployment of breakthrough bio-fabrication technologies to regenerate the numerous tissues that comprise the periodontium for clinical and scientific applications. ,Simona Santonocito ... Gaetano Isola [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 56 ) [135] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 547 [Create_Time] => 2023-04-26 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202305/20230525080847.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001136/1001136.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001136/1001136.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001136/1001136_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Abnormal glucose tolerance in children: oral glucose tolerance test is fit-for-purpose [Abstract] => Aim: Childhood obesity is accompanied by an increased prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) including the prediabetes states. This study aims to investigate and evaluate the use of oral gl [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Childhood obesity is accompanied by an increased prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) including the prediabetes states. This study aims to investigate and evaluate the use of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for detecting AGT among overweight and obese children.

Methods:

A retrospective study was conducted on 895 overweight and obese Chinese children (6–18 years) with obesity assessment and analysis of demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical parameters data between January 2006 and December 2015 at Tseung Kwan O Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Results:

The proportion of males and older age group was 63.7% and 55.9%, respectively. Girls were more in older age groups (62.7% vs. 52.0%, P = 0.002). AGT occurred in 17.1% of the cohort [impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was the most frequent morbidity (11.3%)]. After regression analysis, female sex, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride (TG), older age group, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ≥ 4.1 were significantly associated with AGT.

Conclusions:

AGT is common in overweight and obese Chinese children. Girls, older age, higher LDL, TG and HOMA-IR ≥ 4.1 showed significant association with AGT. OGTT is essential and fit-for-purpose to detect AGT in overweight and obese children.

[Names] => Vivian Yuet Ho Law ... Louis Tsz Wang Chan [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00136 [Published] => April 26, 2023 [Viewed] => 534 [Downloaded] => 14 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/em.2023.00136 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:235–245 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Pediatric obesity, abnormal glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus, prediabetes, oral glucose tolerance test [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001136 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001136/b9290edb3b1119cc931584d2345794a0.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001136/ab42fb6561efdf86a80b45eec1efb33d.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Law VYH, Young JHM, Ng HY, Chan LTW. Abnormal glucose tolerance in children: oral glucose tolerance test is fit-for-purpose. Explor Med. 2023;4:235–45. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00136 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Vivian Yuet HoLaw, [CEmail] => lawyuethovivian@gmail.com, [Ris_Time] => 2023-04-23 05:49:47 [Bib_Time] => 2023-04-23 05:49:47 [KeysWordContens] => Abnormal glucose tolerance in children: oral glucose tolerance test is fit-for-purpose, Pediatric obesity, abnormal glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus, prediabetes, oral glucose tolerance test, Aim: Childhood obesity is accompanied by an increased prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) including the prediabetes states. This study aims to investigate and evaluate the use of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for detecting AGT among overweight and obese children. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 895 overweight and obese Chinese children (6–18 years) with obesity assessment and analysis of demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical parameters data between January 2006 and December 2015 at Tseung Kwan O Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Results: The proportion of males and older age group was 63.7% and 55.9%, respectively. Girls were more in older age groups (62.7% vs. 52.0%, P = 0.002). AGT occurred in 17.1% of the cohort [impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was the most frequent morbidity (11.3%)]. After regression analysis, female sex, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride (TG), older age group, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ≥ 4.1 were significantly associated with AGT. Conclusions: AGT is common in overweight and obese Chinese children. Girls, older age, higher LDL, TG and HOMA-IR ≥ 4.1 showed significant association with AGT. OGTT is essential and fit-for-purpose to detect AGT in overweight and obese children. ,Vivian Yuet Ho Law ... Louis Tsz Wang Chan [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 55 ) [136] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 554 [Create_Time] => 2023-04-26 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202304/20230426094409.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001137/1001137.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001137/1001137.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001137/1001137_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Mechanistic approaching study in COVID-19 patients treated with high doses of vitamin D [Abstract] => Aim: To evaluate angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang-(1-7) levels and the cytokine profile in patients hospitalized with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and contrast them with patients with identical clinical conditions but treated with high doses of vitamin D (vitD). Methods: From the 218 patients recruited (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04411446), 16 participated in this sub-study and were randomized to a single oral dose of 500,000 IU vitD (n = 10) or placebo (n = 6). Plasmatic Ang II and Ang-(1-7) levels were determined by radioimmunoassay and interleukins (ILs) 1, 6, 8, and 10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after treatment. Parallel, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH vitD) concentrations as vitD status was measured by a chemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: A trend towards an increase in Ang-(1-7) and a decrease in Ang II levels were observed in placebo- and vitD-treated COVID-19 patients compared to baseline values. There was no difference in Ang II and Ang-(1-7) levels between placebo- and vitD-treated COVID-19 patients. Similar results were obtained with ILs profile. COVID-19 patients showed an increase in the protective component of the RAS which was not improved by vitD treatment. Conclusions: VitD did not improve RAS disbalance in COVID-19. Notwithstanding, the authors visualize that acute treatment with high doses of vitD may show a trend to a decline in inflammatory ILs and an increase in protective markers. Finally, the authors would like to highlight the limitations of this preliminary study, namely the small number of patients and the use of a large single bolus dose of vitD rather than lower daily doses for extended periods with prolonged follow-up times. All these factors need special consideration in the designs of new vitD supplementation trials. All these factors need special consideration in the designs of new vitD supplementation trials (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04411446). [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

To evaluate angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang-(1-7) levels and the cytokine profile in patients hospitalized with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and contrast them with patients with identical clinical conditions but treated with high doses of vitamin D (vitD).

Methods:

From the 218 patients recruited (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04411446), 16 participated in this sub-study and were randomized to a single oral dose of 500,000 IU vitD (n = 10) or placebo (n = 6). Plasmatic Ang II and Ang-(1-7) levels were determined by radioimmunoassay and interleukins (ILs) 1, 6, 8, and 10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after treatment. Parallel, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH vitD) concentrations as vitD status was measured by a chemiluminescence immunoassay.

Results:

A trend towards an increase in Ang-(1-7) and a decrease in Ang II levels were observed in placebo- and vitD-treated COVID-19 patients compared to baseline values. There was no difference in Ang II and Ang-(1-7) levels between placebo- and vitD-treated COVID-19 patients. Similar results were obtained with ILs profile. COVID-19 patients showed an increase in the protective component of the RAS which was not improved by vitD treatment.

Conclusions:

VitD did not improve RAS disbalance in COVID-19. Notwithstanding, the authors visualize that acute treatment with high doses of vitD may show a trend to a decline in inflammatory ILs and an increase in protective markers. Finally, the authors would like to highlight the limitations of this preliminary study, namely the small number of patients and the use of a large single bolus dose of vitD rather than lower daily doses for extended periods with prolonged follow-up times. All these factors need special consideration in the designs of new vitD supplementation trials. All these factors need special consideration in the designs of new vitD supplementation trials (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04411446).

[Names] => Mauro G. Silva ... Walter Manucha [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00137 [Published] => April 26, 2023 [Viewed] => 578 [Downloaded] => 20 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00137 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 134 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:246–253 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, vitamin D3, angiotensin II, angiotensin-(1-7), interleukins [DetailTitle] => Lung Fibrosis—Models and Mechanisms [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/134 [Id] => 1001137 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001137/b82da8fc2958ca5c0b5f372590b8eb5b.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001137/dc2cde2da00ed4679eb93eba7dd49ace.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Silva MG, Inserra F, Mariani J, Antonietti L, Nuñez M, Tajer C, et al. Mechanistic approaching study in COVID-19 patients treated with high doses of vitamin D. Explor Med. 2023;4:246–53. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00137 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-04-26 03:49:01 [Bib_Time] => 2023-04-26 03:49:01 [KeysWordContens] => Mechanistic approaching study in COVID-19 patients treated with high doses of vitamin D, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, vitamin D3, angiotensin II, angiotensin-(1-7), interleukins, Aim: To evaluate angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang-(1-7) levels and the cytokine profile in patients hospitalized with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and contrast them with patients with identical clinical conditions but treated with high doses of vitamin D (vitD). Methods: From the 218 patients recruited (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04411446), 16 participated in this sub-study and were randomized to a single oral dose of 500,000 IU vitD (n = 10) or placebo (n = 6). Plasmatic Ang II and Ang-(1-7) levels were determined by radioimmunoassay and interleukins (ILs) 1, 6, 8, and 10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after treatment. Parallel, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH vitD) concentrations as vitD status was measured by a chemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: A trend towards an increase in Ang-(1-7) and a decrease in Ang II levels were observed in placebo- and vitD-treated COVID-19 patients compared to baseline values. There was no difference in Ang II and Ang-(1-7) levels between placebo- and vitD-treated COVID-19 patients. Similar results were obtained with ILs profile. COVID-19 patients showed an increase in the protective component of the RAS which was not improved by vitD treatment. Conclusions: VitD did not improve RAS disbalance in COVID-19. Notwithstanding, the authors visualize that acute treatment with high doses of vitD may show a trend to a decline in inflammatory ILs and an increase in protective markers. Finally, the authors would like to highlight the limitations of this preliminary study, namely the small number of patients and the use of a large single bolus dose of vitD rather than lower daily doses for extended periods with prolonged follow-up times. All these factors need special consideration in the designs of new vitD supplementation trials. All these factors need special consideration in the designs of new vitD supplementation trials (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04411446). ,Mauro G. Silva ... Walter Manucha [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 45 ) [137] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 565 [Create_Time] => 2023-04-27 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202305/20230512005049.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001138/1001138.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001138/1001138.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001138/1001138_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Cannabis use in cancer patients: acute and sustained associations with pain, cognition, and quality of life [Abstract] => Aim: Given the myriad of negative sequalae associated with cancer and its treatment, the palliative use of cannabis by cancer patients is increasingly of special interest. This research sought to e [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Given the myriad of negative sequalae associated with cancer and its treatment, the palliative use of cannabis by cancer patients is increasingly of special interest. This research sought to explore associations of acute and sustained use of legal market edible cannabis products on pain, cognition, and quality of life in a group of cancer patients.

Methods:

In this observational study, cancer patients completed a baseline appointment, a two-week ad libitum cannabis use period, and an acute administration appointment that included assessments before cannabis use, one-hour post-use, and two-hour post-use. Participants completed self-report questionnaires related to the primary outcomes and the Stroop task as a measure of objective cognitive function.

Results:

Twenty-five participants [mean (standard deviation, SD) age = 54.3 years (15.6); 13 females (52.0%)] completed all study appointments and were included in the analysis. Sustained cannabis use was associated with improvements in pain intensity, pain interference, sleep quality, subjective cognitive function, and reaction times in the Stroop task, but no change in general quality of life was observed. High levels of cannabidiol (CBD) use during the two-week ad libitum use period was associated with steeper improvements in pain intensity and sleep quality. Participants reported improvements in pain intensity and increased feelings of subjective high after acute use. High levels of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) use during the acute administration appointment was associated with steeper increases in feelings of subjective high. Improvements in pain were associated with improvements in subjective cognitive function.

Conclusions:

This observational study is among the first of its kind to examine associations between legal market, palliative cannabis use, and subjective and objective outcomes among cancer patients. These early findings concerning pain intensity, sleep quality, and cognitive function can help to inform future, fully powered studies of this important topic (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03617692).

[Names] => Gregory Giordano ... Angela D. Bryan [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00138 [Published] => April 26, 2023 [Viewed] => 6711 [Downloaded] => 226 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00138 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 84 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:254–271 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Cancer, cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, pain, cognition, quality of life, palliative care [DetailTitle] => Beyond Weed: Clinical Applications of Cannabis and Cannabinoids [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/84 [Id] => 1001138 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001138/88cf00ca3066f11c756e5183aa6646ab.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001138/ed3329719ddc431611c1cb6cdac3d839.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Giordano G, Martin-Willett R, Gibson LP, Camidge DR, Bowles DW, Hutchison KE, et al. Cannabis use in cancer patients: acute and sustained associations with pain, cognition, and quality of life. Explor Med. 2023;4:254–71. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00138 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => GregoryGiordano, [CEmail] => gregory.giordano@colorado.edu, [Ris_Time] => 2023-04-26 08:56:18 [Bib_Time] => 2023-04-26 08:56:18 [KeysWordContens] => Cannabis use in cancer patients: acute and sustained associations with pain, cognition, and quality of life, Cancer, cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, pain, cognition, quality of life, palliative care, Aim: Given the myriad of negative sequalae associated with cancer and its treatment, the palliative use of cannabis by cancer patients is increasingly of special interest. This research sought to explore associations of acute and sustained use of legal market edible cannabis products on pain, cognition, and quality of life in a group of cancer patients. Methods: In this observational study, cancer patients completed a baseline appointment, a two-week ad libitum cannabis use period, and an acute administration appointment that included assessments before cannabis use, one-hour post-use, and two-hour post-use. Participants completed self-report questionnaires related to the primary outcomes and the Stroop task as a measure of objective cognitive function. Results: Twenty-five participants [mean (standard deviation, SD) age = 54.3 years (15.6); 13 females (52.0%)] completed all study appointments and were included in the analysis. Sustained cannabis use was associated with improvements in pain intensity, pain interference, sleep quality, subjective cognitive function, and reaction times in the Stroop task, but no change in general quality of life was observed. High levels of cannabidiol (CBD) use during the two-week ad libitum use period was associated with steeper improvements in pain intensity and sleep quality. Participants reported improvements in pain intensity and increased feelings of subjective high after acute use. High levels of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) use during the acute administration appointment was associated with steeper increases in feelings of subjective high. Improvements in pain were associated with improvements in subjective cognitive function. Conclusions: This observational study is among the first of its kind to examine associations between legal market, palliative cannabis use, and subjective and objective outcomes among cancer patients. These early findings concerning pain intensity, sleep quality, and cognitive function can help to inform future, fully powered studies of this important topic (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03617692). ,Gregory Giordano ... Angela D. Bryan [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 48 ) [138] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 568 [Create_Time] => 2023-04-27 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202304/20230427053212.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001139/1001139.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001139/1001139.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001139/1001139_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Can we estimate the causal effects of diet and sedentary behavior on schoolchildren’s overweight/obesity from observational studies? [Abstract] => Aim: To investigate the causal impact of diet and sedentary behavior on Brazilian schoolchildren’s overweight/obesity using the data from observational studies. Methods: Annual cros [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

To investigate the causal impact of diet and sedentary behavior on Brazilian schoolchildren’s overweight/obesity using the data from observational studies.

Methods:

Annual cross-sectional nutritional surveys over the 2013–2015 period, with 26,712 children old 7–12 years in Florianópolis, Brazil, provided the data for this analysis. The surveys applied an online previous-day recall questionnaire on food intake and physical/sedentary activities. Outcome measures were overweight/obesity, whereas exposure variables were daily frequencies of consuming sugary drinks and ultra-processed foods, the total number of dietary items consumed and the total number of sedentary activities per day, and consuming breakfast, mid-morning snacks, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner, and evening snack. Control variables included child age, sex, family income, school shift, survey year, day of the week the questionnaire refers to, metabolic equivalents (METs) of physical activities (PAs), and the quality of dietary and PA reports. Causal effects were estimated by augmented inverse probability weighting.

Results:

Daily consumption of sugary drinks, eating ten or more foods, and engaging in three or more sedentary behaviors per day significantly increased the odds ratios (ORs) of being overweight/obese in the range of 3–24% compared to the reference, with 95% confidence intervals in the range of 1–32%. Among 19 ORs with P-value ≤ 0.05, only 3 exceeded 10%.

Conclusions:

Under certain conditions, not uncommon in large-scale monitoring and surveillance studies, it is possible to evaluate the causal effects of diet and sedentary activities on overweight/obesity. Daily consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, eating ten or more foods, skipping breakfast, and engaging in three or more sedentary behaviors per day significantly increased the odds of being overweight/obese.

[Names] => Emil Kupek [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00139 [Published] => April 27, 2023 [Viewed] => 663 [Downloaded] => 32 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00139 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:272–285 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Statistics and numerical data, diet, food consumption, child, surveys and questionnaires, causality [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001139 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001139/e055374fb199e423e5e8bd1870f3849d.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001139/f5b74265700ac38eadd4e44c9516b5b7.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Kupek E. Can we estimate the causal effects of diet and sedentary behavior on schoolchildren’s overweight/obesity from observational studies? Explor Med. 2023;4:272–85. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00139 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-04-26 02:10:17 [Bib_Time] => 2023-04-26 02:10:17 [KeysWordContens] => Can we estimate the causal effects of diet and sedentary behavior on schoolchildren’s overweight/obesity from observational studies?, Statistics and numerical data, diet, food consumption, child, surveys and questionnaires, causality, Aim: To investigate the causal impact of diet and sedentary behavior on Brazilian schoolchildren’s overweight/obesity using the data from observational studies. Methods: Annual cross-sectional nutritional surveys over the 2013–2015 period, with 26,712 children old 7–12 years in Florianópolis, Brazil, provided the data for this analysis. The surveys applied an online previous-day recall questionnaire on food intake and physical/sedentary activities. Outcome measures were overweight/obesity, whereas exposure variables were daily frequencies of consuming sugary drinks and ultra-processed foods, the total number of dietary items consumed and the total number of sedentary activities per day, and consuming breakfast, mid-morning snacks, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner, and evening snack. Control variables included child age, sex, family income, school shift, survey year, day of the week the questionnaire refers to, metabolic equivalents (METs) of physical activities (PAs), and the quality of dietary and PA reports. Causal effects were estimated by augmented inverse probability weighting. Results: Daily consumption of sugary drinks, eating ten or more foods, and engaging in three or more sedentary behaviors per day significantly increased the odds ratios (ORs) of being overweight/obese in the range of 3–24% compared to the reference, with 95% confidence intervals in the range of 1–32%. Among 19 ORs with P-value ≤ 0.05, only 3 exceeded 10%. Conclusions: Under certain conditions, not uncommon in large-scale monitoring and surveillance studies, it is possible to evaluate the causal effects of diet and sedentary activities on overweight/obesity. Daily consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, eating ten or more foods, skipping breakfast, and engaging in three or more sedentary behaviors per day significantly increased the odds of being overweight/obese. ,Emil Kupek [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 45 ) [139] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 585 [Create_Time] => 2023-04-28 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202304/20230428024651.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001140/1001140.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001140/1001140.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001140/1001140_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Serum levels of ceruloplasmin and magnesium in polycystic ovarian syndrome: a cross sectional study [Abstract] => Aim: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine condition, affecting 5–7% of reproductive-age women worldwide. It is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation, insulin [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine condition, affecting 5–7% of reproductive-age women worldwide. It is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Studies have shown ceruloplasmin (Cp) as an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome and magnesium (Mg), which is required for proper glucose utilization. This study aimed to compare the serum Mg and Cp in PCOS and healthy women and correlate their levels with changes in biochemical, hormonal, and gynaecological aspects of PCOS.

Methods:

The study comprised 98 women diagnosed with PCOS using the Rotterdam criteria and 75 age-matched healthy control subjects. The level of serum Cp and Mg were determined using Somani Ambade colorimetric method and methylthymol blue method respectively.

Results:

Serum Cp was higher and Mg levels were lower significantly in PCOS patients in comparison with controls. Mg was inversely correlated with fasting blood glucose and directly correlated with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Cp was inversely correlated with prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Multiple regression analysis revealed that Cp correlates with both the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) and LH/FSH ratio, whereas serum Mg did not have a significant correlation with any of the clinical variables. Logistic regression analysis revealed elevated Cp, antral follicle count (AFC), body mass index (BMI), weight, and irregular menses increase the risk of developing PCOS, whereas Mg was not a risk factor. However, high LH and LH/FSH ratios were risk factors for hypomagnesemia. In conclusion, serum Cp levels in PCOS may be evaluated as an additional risk factor in association with AFC, BMI, weight, and irregular menses.

Conclusions:

Mg deficiency and high Cp play an important etiological role in PCOS pathogenesis. Thus, research evaluating dietary interventions and supplementation is warranted.

[Names] => Pratibha Misra ... Yaongamphi Vashum [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00140 [Published] => April 27, 2023 [Viewed] => 655 [Downloaded] => 28 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00140 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 2 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:286–298 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Polycystic ovary syndrome, magnesium, ceruloplasmin [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001140 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001140/3b757c7f9d41d88ad2fb60effb91957d.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001140/e730a2c7f351eb03c64d71d5fedc0637.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Misra P, Gopinath R, Naredi N, Kandi SM, Raj S, Vashum Y. Serum levels of ceruloplasmin and magnesium in polycystic ovarian syndrome: a cross sectional study. Explor Med. 2023;4:286–98. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00140 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-04-28 01:36:01 [Bib_Time] => 2023-04-28 01:36:01 [KeysWordContens] => Serum levels of ceruloplasmin and magnesium in polycystic ovarian syndrome: a cross sectional study, Polycystic ovary syndrome, magnesium, ceruloplasmin, Aim: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine condition, affecting 5–7% of reproductive-age women worldwide. It is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Studies have shown ceruloplasmin (Cp) as an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome and magnesium (Mg), which is required for proper glucose utilization. This study aimed to compare the serum Mg and Cp in PCOS and healthy women and correlate their levels with changes in biochemical, hormonal, and gynaecological aspects of PCOS. Methods: The study comprised 98 women diagnosed with PCOS using the Rotterdam criteria and 75 age-matched healthy control subjects. The level of serum Cp and Mg were determined using Somani Ambade colorimetric method and methylthymol blue method respectively. Results: Serum Cp was higher and Mg levels were lower significantly in PCOS patients in comparison with controls. Mg was inversely correlated with fasting blood glucose and directly correlated with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Cp was inversely correlated with prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Multiple regression analysis revealed that Cp correlates with both the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) and LH/FSH ratio, whereas serum Mg did not have a significant correlation with any of the clinical variables. Logistic regression analysis revealed elevated Cp, antral follicle count (AFC), body mass index (BMI), weight, and irregular menses increase the risk of developing PCOS, whereas Mg was not a risk factor. However, high LH and LH/FSH ratios were risk factors for hypomagnesemia. In conclusion, serum Cp levels in PCOS may be evaluated as an additional risk factor in association with AFC, BMI, weight, and irregular menses. Conclusions: Mg deficiency and high Cp play an important etiological role in PCOS pathogenesis. Thus, research evaluating dietary interventions and supplementation is warranted. ,Pratibha Misra ... Yaongamphi Vashum [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 24 ) [140] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 592 [Create_Time] => 2023-05-30 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202306/20230614023118.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001142/1001142.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001142/1001142.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001142/1001142_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Effect of number of dissected lymph nodes on prognosis of patients with stage II and III colorectal cancer [Abstract] => Aim: There is a correlation between the number of resected lymph nodes (LNs) and survival as well as staging in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). This cohort discussed the effect of the numb [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

There is a correlation between the number of resected lymph nodes (LNs) and survival as well as staging in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). This cohort discussed the effect of the number of dissected LNs on the prognosis [survival, disease-free survival (DFS)] of patients with stage II and III CRC.

Methods:

In this historical prospective cohort study, the records of 946 patients with CRC operated in the Seyyed-Al-Shohada hospital in Isfahan from 1998 to 2014 were enrolled. Then the impact of LNs on the overall survival (OS) and DFS were analyzed.

Results:

The number of removed LNs was higher among males [mean difference = 1.38, t (944) = 2.232, P-value = 0.02]. The median of the DFS for the patients with 1 to 20 LN removal was 104 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 90.97–117.03], while this number for the patients with more than 20 nodes was 166 months (95% CI: 140.41–191.58). DFS between two groups of CRCs, LN removal 1–20, and greater than 20. Age and number of LN removal were significant predictors of the DFS. There was a strong and statistically significant correlation between DFS and OS among CRC patients.

Conclusions:

This study shows that if the number of resected LNs in patients with CRC is more than 20, it will increase in DFS and OS.

[Names] => Reihane Mokarian Rajabi ... Sayyideh Forough Hosseini [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00142 [Published] => May 30, 2023 [Viewed] => 449 [Downloaded] => 19 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00142 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:314–322 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Colon cancer, disease-free survival, lymph node, rectal cancer, overall survival [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001142 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001142/9d577ce520cd0db1f04f42324aca524d.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001142/bef0698fb364457623267b7e4fe6addf.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Rajabi RM, Rajabi FM, Moazam E, Mohseni S, Tarbiat M, Emami A, et al. Effect of number of dissected lymph nodes on prognosis of patients with stage II and III colorectal cancer. Explor Med. 2023;4:314–22. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00142 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-05-30 03:48:34 [Bib_Time] => 2023-05-30 03:48:34 [KeysWordContens] => Effect of number of dissected lymph nodes on prognosis of patients with stage II and III colorectal cancer, Colon cancer, disease-free survival, lymph node, rectal cancer, overall survival, Aim: There is a correlation between the number of resected lymph nodes (LNs) and survival as well as staging in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). This cohort discussed the effect of the number of dissected LNs on the prognosis [survival, disease-free survival (DFS)] of patients with stage II and III CRC. Methods: In this historical prospective cohort study, the records of 946 patients with CRC operated in the Seyyed-Al-Shohada hospital in Isfahan from 1998 to 2014 were enrolled. Then the impact of LNs on the overall survival (OS) and DFS were analyzed. Results: The number of removed LNs was higher among males [mean difference = 1.38, t (944) = 2.232, P-value = 0.02]. The median of the DFS for the patients with 1 to 20 LN removal was 104 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 90.97–117.03], while this number for the patients with more than 20 nodes was 166 months (95% CI: 140.41–191.58). DFS between two groups of CRCs, LN removal 1–20, and greater than 20. Age and number of LN removal were significant predictors of the DFS. There was a strong and statistically significant correlation between DFS and OS among CRC patients. Conclusions: This study shows that if the number of resected LNs in patients with CRC is more than 20, it will increase in DFS and OS. ,Reihane Mokarian Rajabi ... Sayyideh Forough Hosseini [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 24 ) [141] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 591 [Create_Time] => 2023-05-17 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202305/20230517074504.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001141/1001141.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001141/1001141.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001141/1001141_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Prognostic importance of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients—a hospital-based prospective cohort [Abstract] => Aim: In patients with cancer, ischemic heart disease, and peripheral vascular disease, the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a measure of systemic inflammation, has been demonstrated to predict [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

In patients with cancer, ischemic heart disease, and peripheral vascular disease, the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a measure of systemic inflammation, has been demonstrated to predict mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the inflammatory status, and also examine the impact of NLR on renal outcomes (mortality and composite endpoints) in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients.

Methods:

This prospective cohort was conducted at a tertiary care public teaching hospital. The NLR greater than 3.53 was taken as an indication of systemic inflammation. The outcome measures include composite endpoints (end-stage renal disease, dialysis commencement, doubling serum creatinine from the baseline), and mortality. Kaplan-Meier plots and a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model were employed to analyze the outcomes.

Results:

A cohort of 360 patients aged 53.7 years ± 13.9 years had a median follow-up of 14 months ± 4.24 months and was evaluated for inflammatory status and renal outcomes. The proportion of inflammation was found to be 101 (28.7%). Higher NLR levels had shown an increased incidence of mortality (5.3%) and composite endpoints (12.3%). In reference to the NLR quartile (Q1), the highest quartile (Q4) had shown 3 times increased hazards for mortality and 95.0% increased risk of hazards for composite endpoints Q4 hazard ratio (HR) 3.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38–6.91 (P = 0.006), and Q4 HR 1.93; 95% CI 1.22–3.08 (P = 0.005), respectively. Higher NLR was positively associated with urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, Pt-Global web tool©/Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate, albumin, hemoglobin.

Conclusions:

NLR is a potential predictor of mortality and composite endpoints in CKD patients even before they undergo dialysis. Additionally, inflammation should be regarded as a common comorbid condition in CKD patients due to its high prevalence.

[Names] => Ishfaq Rashid ... Shivani Jaswal [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00141 [Published] => May 17, 2023 [Viewed] => 848 [Downloaded] => 32 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00141 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 67 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:299–313 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Chronic kidney disease, inflammation, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, mortality [DetailTitle] => Disease Diagnosis, Molecular Mechanism and Therapeutic Strategies in Kidney Injury and Fibrosis [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/67 [Id] => 1001141 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001141/2eb66cc0a9fe81102f0da1d08475d2cd.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001141/79e7d25ab8382ea7f059972b5602362d.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Rashid I, Tiwari P, D’Cruz S, Jaswal S. Prognostic importance of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients—a hospital-based prospective cohort. Explor Med. 2023;4:299–313. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00141 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-05-15 02:31:57 [Bib_Time] => 2023-05-15 02:31:57 [KeysWordContens] => Prognostic importance of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients—a hospital-based prospective cohort, Chronic kidney disease, inflammation, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, mortality, Aim: In patients with cancer, ischemic heart disease, and peripheral vascular disease, the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a measure of systemic inflammation, has been demonstrated to predict mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the inflammatory status, and also examine the impact of NLR on renal outcomes (mortality and composite endpoints) in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Methods: This prospective cohort was conducted at a tertiary care public teaching hospital. The NLR greater than 3.53 was taken as an indication of systemic inflammation. The outcome measures include composite endpoints (end-stage renal disease, dialysis commencement, doubling serum creatinine from the baseline), and mortality. Kaplan-Meier plots and a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model were employed to analyze the outcomes. Results: A cohort of 360 patients aged 53.7 years ± 13.9 years had a median follow-up of 14 months ± 4.24 months and was evaluated for inflammatory status and renal outcomes. The proportion of inflammation was found to be 101 (28.7%). Higher NLR levels had shown an increased incidence of mortality (5.3%) and composite endpoints (12.3%). In reference to the NLR quartile (Q1), the highest quartile (Q4) had shown 3 times increased hazards for mortality and 95.0% increased risk of hazards for composite endpoints Q4 hazard ratio (HR) 3.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38–6.91 (P = 0.006), and Q4 HR 1.93; 95% CI 1.22–3.08 (P = 0.005), respectively. Higher NLR was positively associated with urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, Pt-Global web tool©/Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate, albumin, hemoglobin. Conclusions: NLR is a potential predictor of mortality and composite endpoints in CKD patients even before they undergo dialysis. Additionally, inflammation should be regarded as a common comorbid condition in CKD patients due to its high prevalence. ,Ishfaq Rashid ... Shivani Jaswal [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 38 ) [142] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 593 [Create_Time] => 2023-05-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202306/20230629013229.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001143/1001143.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001143/1001143.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001143/1001143_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Effect of overweight and obesity on spirometric parameters in children and adolescent with asthma [Abstract] => Aim: Being overweight and obesity are factors in the negative modification of bronchial asthma (BA). The mechanisms of the aggravating effect of obesity on the course of BA have not yet been fully determined, but include changes in external respiration. The aim of the study was to study the effect of being overweight/obesity on spirometric parameters and on the occurrence of dysanapsis in children and adolescents with BA. Methods: It was a cross-sectional, open, single-center study. The data were obtained from 428 patients with atopic BA aged 7 years to 17 years, 12.0 [9.0; 14.0], and 72.9% (312/428) of them were boys. The children were divided into 3 groups: group 1—normal body weight; group 2—overweight; and group 3—obesity. All participants underwent spirometry, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) was calculated and the diagnosis of dysanapsis was performed. Results: As body weight increases, a progressive decrease in FEV1/FVC is revealed—group 1: 79.55% [71.37; 85.43]; group 2: 76.82% [70.12; 82.03]; and group 3: 76.28% [67.04; 79.89] P = 0.004; as well as a decrease in Z FEV1/FVC: group 1—1.23 [–2.18; –0.28]; group 2—1.54 [–2.19; –0.68]; and group 3—1.75 [–2.63; –0.90] P = 0.02. Dysanapsis was detected in 37.7% (159/428) of patients. The incidence of dysanapsis increased statistically significantly with increasing body mass index (BMI) and amounted to: with normal body weight—31.7% (77/243), with overweight—42.0% (55/131), and with obesity—50% (27/54) P = 0.016. Conclusions: In children and adolescents with BA, as BMI increases, there is a statistically significant decrease in the ratio of FEV1/FVC, and, consequently, bronchial patency; the incidence of dysanapsis also increases statistically significantly. Taken together, this indicates the formation of an obstructive pattern of external respiration under the influence of being overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with BA. [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Being overweight and obesity are factors in the negative modification of bronchial asthma (BA). The mechanisms of the aggravating effect of obesity on the course of BA have not yet been fully determined, but include changes in external respiration. The aim of the study was to study the effect of being overweight/obesity on spirometric parameters and on the occurrence of dysanapsis in children and adolescents with BA.

Methods:

It was a cross-sectional, open, single-center study. The data were obtained from 428 patients with atopic BA aged 7 years to 17 years, 12.0 [9.0; 14.0], and 72.9% (312/428) of them were boys. The children were divided into 3 groups: group 1—normal body weight; group 2—overweight; and group 3—obesity. All participants underwent spirometry, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) was calculated and the diagnosis of dysanapsis was performed.

Results:

As body weight increases, a progressive decrease in FEV1/FVC is revealed—group 1: 79.55% [71.37; 85.43]; group 2: 76.82% [70.12; 82.03]; and group 3: 76.28% [67.04; 79.89] P = 0.004; as well as a decrease in Z FEV1/FVC: group 1—1.23 [–2.18; –0.28]; group 2—1.54 [–2.19; –0.68]; and group 3—1.75 [–2.63; –0.90] P = 0.02. Dysanapsis was detected in 37.7% (159/428) of patients. The incidence of dysanapsis increased statistically significantly with increasing body mass index (BMI) and amounted to: with normal body weight—31.7% (77/243), with overweight—42.0% (55/131), and with obesity—50% (27/54) P = 0.016.

Conclusions:

In children and adolescents with BA, as BMI increases, there is a statistically significant decrease in the ratio of FEV1/FVC, and, consequently, bronchial patency; the incidence of dysanapsis also increases statistically significantly. Taken together, this indicates the formation of an obstructive pattern of external respiration under the influence of being overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with BA.

[Names] => Regina N. Khramova ... Olga V. Khaletskaya [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00143 [Published] => May 30, 2023 [Viewed] => 581 [Downloaded] => 37 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00143 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:323–332 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Obesity, overweight, asthma, children, spirometry [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001143 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001143/6990e064f6ba07aa7b705bbf8e6ca88e.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001143/8733e5e8b1004ecb27eaa896ce88cf44.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Khramova RN, Eliseeva TI, Tush EV, Ovsyannikov DY, Bulgakova VA, Ignatov GS, et al. Effect of overweight and obesity on spirometric parameters in children and adolescent with asthma. Explor Med. 2023;4:323–32. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00143 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-05-29 01:23:05 [Bib_Time] => 2023-05-29 01:23:05 [KeysWordContens] => Effect of overweight and obesity on spirometric parameters in children and adolescent with asthma, Obesity, overweight, asthma, children, spirometry, Aim: Being overweight and obesity are factors in the negative modification of bronchial asthma (BA). The mechanisms of the aggravating effect of obesity on the course of BA have not yet been fully determined, but include changes in external respiration. The aim of the study was to study the effect of being overweight/obesity on spirometric parameters and on the occurrence of dysanapsis in children and adolescents with BA. Methods: It was a cross-sectional, open, single-center study. The data were obtained from 428 patients with atopic BA aged 7 years to 17 years, 12.0 [9.0; 14.0], and 72.9% (312/428) of them were boys. The children were divided into 3 groups: group 1—normal body weight; group 2—overweight; and group 3—obesity. All participants underwent spirometry, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) was calculated and the diagnosis of dysanapsis was performed. Results: As body weight increases, a progressive decrease in FEV1/FVC is revealed—group 1: 79.55% [71.37; 85.43]; group 2: 76.82% [70.12; 82.03]; and group 3: 76.28% [67.04; 79.89] P = 0.004; as well as a decrease in Z FEV1/FVC: group 1—1.23 [–2.18; –0.28]; group 2—1.54 [–2.19; –0.68]; and group 3—1.75 [–2.63; –0.90] P = 0.02. Dysanapsis was detected in 37.7% (159/428) of patients. The incidence of dysanapsis increased statistically significantly with increasing body mass index (BMI) and amounted to: with normal body weight—31.7% (77/243), with overweight—42.0% (55/131), and with obesity—50% (27/54) P = 0.016. Conclusions: In children and adolescents with BA, as BMI increases, there is a statistically significant decrease in the ratio of FEV1/FVC, and, consequently, bronchial patency; the incidence of dysanapsis also increases statistically significantly. Taken together, this indicates the formation of an obstructive pattern of external respiration under the influence of being overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with BA. ,Regina N. Khramova ... Olga V. Khaletskaya [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 56 ) [143] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 598 [Create_Time] => 2023-06-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202306/20230601021110.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001144/1001144.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001144/1001144.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001144/1001144.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Vascular accesses: Which choice? Less is more, more or less [Abstract] => In the context of in-hospital care management, the need for infusion therapies involves the choice of appropriate devices. Historically, there is no consensus about the preference for vascular acces [AbstractComplete] =>

In the context of in-hospital care management, the need for infusion therapies involves the choice of appropriate devices. Historically, there is no consensus about the preference for vascular accesses, although the data present in the literature would seem to favor peripheral ones due to fearful complications and a non-negligible rate of bloodstream infections. It is also true the decision for central routes is sometimes dictated by the patient’s general clinical conditions (especially as a result of surgery) or by the need to establish continuous short or long-term support therapies. Therefore, it would seem anachronistic to favor one strategy rather than another. Probably data should be reviewed, considering and evaluating the correct application of indications and guidelines for both positioning and management of venous accesses, without facing methodological biases that could lead to scarcy and inconclusive results; although it is undeniable that some conditions promote the onset of complications.

[Names] => Regina Frontera, Mirko Barone [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00144 [Published] => May 31, 2023 [Viewed] => 501 [Downloaded] => 29 [Subject] => Letter to the Editor [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00144 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:333–335 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Vascular access devices, sepsis, bundles, nosocomial infections [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001144 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001144/a2ecfda61aa202353d0900b2c6378895.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001144/afa4264692ea1a19520602111ad8e1e7.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Frontera R, Barone M. Vascular accesses: Which choice? Less is more, more or less. Explor Med. 2023;4:333–5. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00144 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-05-31 08:46:49 [Bib_Time] => 2023-05-31 08:46:49 [KeysWordContens] => Vascular accesses: Which choice? Less is more, more or less, Vascular access devices, sepsis, bundles, nosocomial infections, In the context of in-hospital care management, the need for infusion therapies involves the choice of appropriate devices. Historically, there is no consensus about the preference for vascular accesses, although the data present in the literature would seem to favor peripheral ones due to fearful complications and a non-negligible rate of bloodstream infections. It is also true the decision for central routes is sometimes dictated by the patient’s general clinical conditions (especially as a result of surgery) or by the need to establish continuous short or long-term support therapies. Therefore, it would seem anachronistic to favor one strategy rather than another. Probably data should be reviewed, considering and evaluating the correct application of indications and guidelines for both positioning and management of venous accesses, without facing methodological biases that could lead to scarcy and inconclusive results; although it is undeniable that some conditions promote the onset of complications. ,Regina Frontera, Mirko Barone [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 69 ) [144] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 615 [Create_Time] => 2023-06-28 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202306/20230628071900.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001146/1001146.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001146/1001146.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001146/1001146_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Association between coronavirus 2019 disease and pseudoneurological complaints: analysis of case-control data [Abstract] => Aim: Pseudoneurological complaints (PNCs) are highly prevalent among the general population. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) adversely influences such complaints in individuals who recovered [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Pseudoneurological complaints (PNCs) are highly prevalent among the general population. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) adversely influences such complaints in individuals who recovered from COVID-19. This study determined the prevalence and identified the predictors of PNCs among individuals who had previously experienced COVID-19 and their healthy counterparts.

Methods:

This case-control study analyzed the data of 878 Bangladeshi adults (439 patients). Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 individuals were considered cases, and the controls were those who never tested positive for COVID-19. The controls were matched with cases’ sex and age. The seven-item pseudoneurological sub-scale of the subjective health complaints scale produced by Eriksen et al. evaluated PNCs. The descriptive analysis estimated the prevalence of PNCs among the subgroups, whereas multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the predictors of PNCs.

Results:

Overall, the prevalence of PNCs was 40%; however, patients who recovered from COVID-19 reported a PNC rate of 67.4%. The regression analysis identified COVID-19 as a robust independent predictor of PNCs. Furthermore, occupation, monthly household income, current living location, hypertension, and recovery period from acute COVID-19 were independently associated with PNCs.

Conclusions:

This study revealed a significant association between COVID-19 and PNCs. The results of this study will be helpful when discussing, planning, and implementing strategies to alleviate the overburden of PNCs among COVID-19 survivors.

[Names] => Mohammad Ali ... Tajnuva Mehjabin [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00146 [Published] => June 28, 2023 [Viewed] => 365 [Downloaded] => 15 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00146 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:343–355 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Anxiety, COVID-19, depression, fear, economic crisis, pandemic, pseudoneurology, subjective health complaints [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001146 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001146/1e27e9defd4a4b42e20887cb6ffb7a17.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001146/480bd798fe62682dab24e1b37a9b623c.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Ali M, Bonna AS, Mehjabin T. Association between coronavirus 2019 disease and pseudoneurological complaints: analysis of case-control data. Explor Med. 2023;4:343–55. https://doi.org/10.37349/em.2023.00146 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-06-27 06:50:53 [Bib_Time] => 2023-06-27 06:50:53 [KeysWordContens] => Association between coronavirus 2019 disease and pseudoneurological complaints: analysis of case-control data, Anxiety, COVID-19, depression, fear, economic crisis, pandemic, pseudoneurology, subjective health complaints, Aim: Pseudoneurological complaints (PNCs) are highly prevalent among the general population. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) adversely influences such complaints in individuals who recovered from COVID-19. This study determined the prevalence and identified the predictors of PNCs among individuals who had previously experienced COVID-19 and their healthy counterparts. Methods: This case-control study analyzed the data of 878 Bangladeshi adults (439 patients). Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 individuals were considered cases, and the controls were those who never tested positive for COVID-19. The controls were matched with cases’ sex and age. The seven-item pseudoneurological sub-scale of the subjective health complaints scale produced by Eriksen et al. evaluated PNCs. The descriptive analysis estimated the prevalence of PNCs among the subgroups, whereas multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the predictors of PNCs. Results: Overall, the prevalence of PNCs was 40%; however, patients who recovered from COVID-19 reported a PNC rate of 67.4%. The regression analysis identified COVID-19 as a robust independent predictor of PNCs. Furthermore, occupation, monthly household income, current living location, hypertension, and recovery period from acute COVID-19 were independently associated with PNCs. Conclusions: This study revealed a significant association between COVID-19 and PNCs. The results of this study will be helpful when discussing, planning, and implementing strategies to alleviate the overburden of PNCs among COVID-19 survivors. ,Mohammad Ali ... Tajnuva Mehjabin [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 69 ) [145] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 614 [Create_Time] => 2023-06-28 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202306/20230629011934.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001145/1001145.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001145/1001145.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001145/1001145_Cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery stenosis: a risk pattern association study [Abstract] => Aim: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death globally. In the condition of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the prevalence of CVD increase parallel with the rise of metabolic [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death globally. In the condition of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the prevalence of CVD increase parallel with the rise of metabolic complication and higher incidence of coronary artery stenosis. The aim of this study was to compare the level of percent stenosis in coronary arteries in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) with and without T2DM, and to measure the severity of CVD using Gensini score (GS) through angiographic data.

Methods:

The current study was conducted in tertiary care specialized hospital in Delhi, India. The level of percent stenosis in coronary arteries was compared in patients with CAD with and without T2DM. The patients were divided into two groups: group I included 100 patients with T2DM, and group II included 100 non-diabetic CAD patients who underwent coronary angiography by Judkin’s technique. The severity of CVD was measured by GS through angiographic data. The serum levels of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% were considered diabetic.

Results:

Significant difference was observed in serum HbA1c, and random blood sugar levels between group I and group II were also observed (P ≤ 0.001). Serum HbA1c shows a significant positive association with GS (r = 0.36, P = 0.007).

Conclusions:

The study shows a significant level of stenosis in coronary arteries of CAD diabetic patients. However, further prospective analysis of a larger population size will be needed to strengthen the findings and the significant association.

[Names] => Dharmsheel Shrivastav ... Vimal Mehta [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00145 [Published] => June 28, 2023 [Viewed] => 466 [Downloaded] => 14 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00145 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 38 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:336–342 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Coronary artery disease, coronary artery stenosis, coronary angiography, type 2 diabetes mellitus, glycated haemoglobin [DetailTitle] => Exploring Aortic Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/38 [Id] => 1001145 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001145/31a98d5b420eeed6cfa24445f1239cdc.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001145/2cff99c2317ca455d01d75529140ab2e.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Shrivastav D, Dabla PK, Singh DD, Mehta V. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery stenosis: a risk pattern association study. Explor Med. 2023;4:336–42. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00145 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-06-27 06:10:23 [Bib_Time] => 2023-06-27 06:10:23 [KeysWordContens] => Type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery stenosis: a risk pattern association study, Coronary artery disease, coronary artery stenosis, coronary angiography, type 2 diabetes mellitus, glycated haemoglobin, Aim: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death globally. In the condition of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the prevalence of CVD increase parallel with the rise of metabolic complication and higher incidence of coronary artery stenosis. The aim of this study was to compare the level of percent stenosis in coronary arteries in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) with and without T2DM, and to measure the severity of CVD using Gensini score (GS) through angiographic data. Methods: The current study was conducted in tertiary care specialized hospital in Delhi, India. The level of percent stenosis in coronary arteries was compared in patients with CAD with and without T2DM. The patients were divided into two groups: group I included 100 patients with T2DM, and group II included 100 non-diabetic CAD patients who underwent coronary angiography by Judkin’s technique. The severity of CVD was measured by GS through angiographic data. The serum levels of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% were considered diabetic. Results: Significant difference was observed in serum HbA1c, and random blood sugar levels between group I and group II were also observed (P ≤ 0.001). Serum HbA1c shows a significant positive association with GS (r = 0.36, P = 0.007). Conclusions: The study shows a significant level of stenosis in coronary arteries of CAD diabetic patients. However, further prospective analysis of a larger population size will be needed to strengthen the findings and the significant association. ,Dharmsheel Shrivastav ... Vimal Mehta [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 55 ) [146] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 616 [Create_Time] => 2023-06-28 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202306/20230628095930.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001147/1001147.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001147/1001147.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001147/1001147_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal cancers [Abstract] => Gastrointestinal (GI) cancer is one of the leading causes of death that affect many patients around the world. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic significantly impacted our healthcare [AbstractComplete] =>

Gastrointestinal (GI) cancer is one of the leading causes of death that affect many patients around the world. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic significantly impacted our healthcare system in large that diagnosis and management of GI cancer have suffered with a reduction in cancer screening. This review will describe the current practices of cancer screening during COVID-19 pandemic and summarize how each GI cancer (esophageal, gastric, colorectal, and hepatocellular cancers) has been affected by COVID-19. World widely there has been a decreasing trend in screening, diagnosis, and management of GI cancers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many healthcare institutions are now observing the effect of this change and implementing practice variations to adapt to the pandemic.

[Names] => Byung Soo Yoo ... David A. Johnson [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00147 [Published] => June 28, 2023 [Viewed] => 584 [Downloaded] => 9 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00147 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 62 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:356–362 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => COVID-19 pandemic, gastrointestinal cancer, gastric cancer, cancer screening, mortality, prognosis [DetailTitle] => The Role of Gut Microbiota and its Metabolites in Gastrointestinal Diseases [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/62 [Id] => 1001147 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001147/5278105ac5a78ea97a2ab7486b6c9541.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001147/d8b65bba655273ce9539d3d1fc87de92.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Yoo BS, Patel A, Houston KV, Vargas A, Vilela Sangay AR, D’Souza SM, et al. The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal cancers. Explor Med. 2023;4:356–62. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00147 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-06-28 09:15:53 [Bib_Time] => 2023-06-28 09:15:53 [KeysWordContens] => The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal cancers, COVID-19 pandemic, gastrointestinal cancer, gastric cancer, cancer screening, mortality, prognosis, Gastrointestinal (GI) cancer is one of the leading causes of death that affect many patients around the world. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic significantly impacted our healthcare system in large that diagnosis and management of GI cancer have suffered with a reduction in cancer screening. This review will describe the current practices of cancer screening during COVID-19 pandemic and summarize how each GI cancer (esophageal, gastric, colorectal, and hepatocellular cancers) has been affected by COVID-19. World widely there has been a decreasing trend in screening, diagnosis, and management of GI cancers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many healthcare institutions are now observing the effect of this change and implementing practice variations to adapt to the pandemic. ,Byung Soo Yoo ... David A. Johnson [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 24 ) [147] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 617 [Create_Time] => 2023-06-30 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202306/20230630100933.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001148/1001148.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001148/1001148.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001148/em-04-1001148_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Cannabinoid-based medicines in clinical care of chronic non-cancer pain: an analysis of pain mechanism and cannabinoid profile [Abstract] => Aim: Among treatments for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP), cannabinoid-based medicines (CBMs) have become extremely popular. Evidence remains modest and limited primarily to delta-9-tetrahydrocann [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Among treatments for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP), cannabinoid-based medicines (CBMs) have become extremely popular. Evidence remains modest and limited primarily to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for neuropathic pain; nevertheless, the use of various CBMs, including cannabidiol (CBD) to treat neuropathic, nociceptive, and mixed pain has increased globally. This observational case-series assessed the impact of CBMs as a complementary treatment by pain mechanism and cannabinoid profile over three months.

Methods:

An analysis of patients with CNCP and treated with CBMs who consented to an ongoing registry was performed. Outcomes were patient-reported such as the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-Revised, Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Data from patients with complete outcomes for baseline and 3-month follow-up was extracted. Characteristics of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), including a description of the suspected product were also assessed.

Results:

A total of 495 patients were part of this analysis (mean age = 56 years old; 67% women). At 3-month, the proportional use of THC:CBD balanced and THC-dominant products increased. Patients with neuropathic pain had higher pain-severity scores vs. nociceptive pain. In addition to patients with neuropathic pain, patients with nociceptive and mixed pain also reported improvements in pain severity and secondary symptoms such as anxiety, depression, drowsiness, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and overall, health-related quality of life. THC-dominant treatment is more likely to be recommended when pain is severe, whereas CBD-dominant is favored for less severe cases. ADRs were more frequent among cannabis-naive patients and included dizziness, headache, and somnolence among others.

Conclusions:

Findings suggest that CBMs can be effective for neuropathic as well as nociceptive and mixed pain. THC is more frequently recommended for neuropathic and severe pain. Future research on CBMs in pain management must include details of CBM composition, and pain mechanism and must consider potential ADRs.

[Names] => Lucile Rapin ... Michael Dworkind [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00148 [Published] => June 30, 2023 [Viewed] => 888 [Downloaded] => 26 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00148 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 84 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:363–379 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Chronic non-cancer pain, medical cannabis, cannabinoid-based medicines, safety, effectiveness, cannabinoid profile, pain management [DetailTitle] => Beyond Weed: Clinical Applications of Cannabis and Cannabinoids [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/84 [Id] => 1001148 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001148/720c2962cf37316aa4f2485e680052b8.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001148/acbf709ece143960bd4a01474cbaf327.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Rapin L, Arboleda MF, Prosk E, Sun C, Watier A, Dworkind M. Cannabinoid-based medicines in clinical care of chronic non-cancer pain: an analysis of pain mechanism and cannabinoid profile. Explor Med. 2023;4:363–79. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00148 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-06-28 11:44:55 [Bib_Time] => 2023-06-28 11:44:55 [KeysWordContens] => Cannabinoid-based medicines in clinical care of chronic non-cancer pain: an analysis of pain mechanism and cannabinoid profile, Chronic non-cancer pain, medical cannabis, cannabinoid-based medicines, safety, effectiveness, cannabinoid profile, pain management, Aim: Among treatments for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP), cannabinoid-based medicines (CBMs) have become extremely popular. Evidence remains modest and limited primarily to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for neuropathic pain; nevertheless, the use of various CBMs, including cannabidiol (CBD) to treat neuropathic, nociceptive, and mixed pain has increased globally. This observational case-series assessed the impact of CBMs as a complementary treatment by pain mechanism and cannabinoid profile over three months. Methods: An analysis of patients with CNCP and treated with CBMs who consented to an ongoing registry was performed. Outcomes were patient-reported such as the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-Revised, Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Data from patients with complete outcomes for baseline and 3-month follow-up was extracted. Characteristics of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), including a description of the suspected product were also assessed. Results: A total of 495 patients were part of this analysis (mean age = 56 years old; 67% women). At 3-month, the proportional use of THC:CBD balanced and THC-dominant products increased. Patients with neuropathic pain had higher pain-severity scores vs. nociceptive pain. In addition to patients with neuropathic pain, patients with nociceptive and mixed pain also reported improvements in pain severity and secondary symptoms such as anxiety, depression, drowsiness, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and overall, health-related quality of life. THC-dominant treatment is more likely to be recommended when pain is severe, whereas CBD-dominant is favored for less severe cases. ADRs were more frequent among cannabis-naive patients and included dizziness, headache, and somnolence among others. Conclusions: Findings suggest that CBMs can be effective for neuropathic as well as nociceptive and mixed pain. THC is more frequently recommended for neuropathic and severe pain. Future research on CBMs in pain management must include details of CBM composition, and pain mechanism and must consider potential ADRs. ,Lucile Rapin ... Michael Dworkind [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 24 ) [148] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 618 [Create_Time] => 2023-06-30 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202306/20230630071257.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001149/1001149.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001149/1001149.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001149/em-04-1001148_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Molecular mechanism of electroacupuncture for improving perioperative complications with the guidance of enhanced recovery after surgery [Abstract] => Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is a recommended surgical strategy at present, the core content is to reduce perioperative stress response and postoperative complications through perioperativ [AbstractComplete] =>

Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is a recommended surgical strategy at present, the core content is to reduce perioperative stress response and postoperative complications through perioperative multi-mode analgesia and intensive surgery. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been widely used in various clinical applications, and its efficacy and safety have been fully proven. The application of acupuncture in ERAS will have an important impact on rehabilitation research and development. In this review, the molecular mechanism of EA in ERAS are summed up from promoting perioperative efficacy to improving postoperative immune status. The combination of EA and ERAS may better promote the recovery of patients and the development of rehabilitation.

[Names] => Yu Mao, Lifang Yang [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00149 [Published] => June 30, 2023 [Viewed] => 450 [Downloaded] => 25 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00149 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:380–392 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Electroacupuncture, enhanced recovery after surgery, perioperative period, molecular mechanism [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001149 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001149/f4c4f764492f93d5ee14e05d37ca43c9.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001149/46fc941a228690c8ffc36cd75866c5e2.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Mao Y, Yang L. Molecular mechanism of electroacupuncture for improving perioperative complications with the guidance of enhanced recovery after surgery. Explor Med. 2023;4:380–92. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00149 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-06-30 02:55:17 [Bib_Time] => 2023-06-30 02:55:17 [KeysWordContens] => Molecular mechanism of electroacupuncture for improving perioperative complications with the guidance of enhanced recovery after surgery, Electroacupuncture, enhanced recovery after surgery, perioperative period, molecular mechanism, Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is a recommended surgical strategy at present, the core content is to reduce perioperative stress response and postoperative complications through perioperative multi-mode analgesia and intensive surgery. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been widely used in various clinical applications, and its efficacy and safety have been fully proven. The application of acupuncture in ERAS will have an important impact on rehabilitation research and development. In this review, the molecular mechanism of EA in ERAS are summed up from promoting perioperative efficacy to improving postoperative immune status. The combination of EA and ERAS may better promote the recovery of patients and the development of rehabilitation. ,Yu Mao, Lifang Yang [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 24 ) [149] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 619 [Create_Time] => 2023-06-30 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202306/20230630060700.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001150/1001150.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001150/1001150.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001150/1001150_Cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Exploring medical cannabis use in individuals with a traumatic brain injury [Abstract] => Aim: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common neurological condition, which can present with a wide range of neuropsychological symptoms. Treating this broad spectrum of symptoms represents a sig [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common neurological condition, which can present with a wide range of neuropsychological symptoms. Treating this broad spectrum of symptoms represents a significant medical challenge. In part because of this, there is growing interest in the use of medical cannabis to treat the sequelae of TBI, as medical cannabis has been used to treat multiple associated conditions, such as pain. However, medical cannabis represents a heterogeneous collection of therapies, and relatively little is known about their effectiveness in treating TBI symptoms. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess medical cannabis use in patients with TBI.

Methods:

In the present study, a retrospective chart review was conducted of patterns of cannabis use and TBI symptoms in individuals who used medical cannabis to treat TBI-related symptoms. All subjects were recruited from a medical cannabis clinic, where cannabis was authorized by physicians, using licensed cannabis products. A total of 53 subjects provided written consent to have their charts reviewed.

Results:

Neuropsychiatric conditions, including depression, pain, and anxiety were frequent in this group. The most common forms of medical cannabis consumption at intake included smoking, vaping, and oral ingestion. Patients used a combination of high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/low cannabidiol (CBD) and low THC/high CBD products, typically 1–3 times per day. Medical cannabis appeared to be relatively well-tolerated in subjects, with few serious side effects. At follow-up, subjects self-reported improvements in TBI symptoms, although these were not statistically significant when assessed using validated questionnaires.

Conclusions:

Overall findings indicate modest potential benefits of medical cannabis for TBI, but further research will be required to validate these results.

[Names] => Elizabeth N. R. Schjelderup ... Alasdair M. Barr [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00150 [Published] => June 30, 2023 [Viewed] => 842 [Downloaded] => 38 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00150 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 84 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:393–408 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Cannabis, chart review, traumatic brain injury, symptoms, neuropsychiatric [DetailTitle] => Beyond Weed: Clinical Applications of Cannabis and Cannabinoids [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/84 [Id] => 1001150 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001150/e700fc5150c459d3c93c96135abf69e4.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001150/d27f24896d3bdb17fa02b67e12dddd2b.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Schjelderup ENR, MacCallum CA, Lo LA, Dhillon J, Christiansen A, Pistawka C, et al. Exploring medical cannabis use in individuals with a traumatic brain injury. Explor Med. 2023;4:393–408. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00150 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-06-28 01:48:51 [Bib_Time] => 2023-06-28 01:48:51 [KeysWordContens] => Exploring medical cannabis use in individuals with a traumatic brain injury, Cannabis, chart review, traumatic brain injury, symptoms, neuropsychiatric, Aim: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common neurological condition, which can present with a wide range of neuropsychological symptoms. Treating this broad spectrum of symptoms represents a significant medical challenge. In part because of this, there is growing interest in the use of medical cannabis to treat the sequelae of TBI, as medical cannabis has been used to treat multiple associated conditions, such as pain. However, medical cannabis represents a heterogeneous collection of therapies, and relatively little is known about their effectiveness in treating TBI symptoms. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess medical cannabis use in patients with TBI. Methods: In the present study, a retrospective chart review was conducted of patterns of cannabis use and TBI symptoms in individuals who used medical cannabis to treat TBI-related symptoms. All subjects were recruited from a medical cannabis clinic, where cannabis was authorized by physicians, using licensed cannabis products. A total of 53 subjects provided written consent to have their charts reviewed. Results: Neuropsychiatric conditions, including depression, pain, and anxiety were frequent in this group. The most common forms of medical cannabis consumption at intake included smoking, vaping, and oral ingestion. Patients used a combination of high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/low cannabidiol (CBD) and low THC/high CBD products, typically 1–3 times per day. Medical cannabis appeared to be relatively well-tolerated in subjects, with few serious side effects. At follow-up, subjects self-reported improvements in TBI symptoms, although these were not statistically significant when assessed using validated questionnaires. Conclusions: Overall findings indicate modest potential benefits of medical cannabis for TBI, but further research will be required to validate these results. ,Elizabeth N. R. Schjelderup ... Alasdair M. Barr [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 55 ) [150] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 622 [Create_Time] => 2023-06-30 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202307/20230710060121.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001151/1001151.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001151/1001151.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001151/1001151_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Associations between methamphetamine and alcohol use disorder, suicidal ideation, and lowered quality of life in methamphetamine users [Abstract] => Aim: There is a strong comorbidity between methamphetamine (MA) and alcohol use whereby MA use may contribute to increased alcohol consumption. This study aims to determine the associations betwe [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

There is a strong comorbidity between methamphetamine (MA) and alcohol use whereby MA use may contribute to increased alcohol consumption. This study aims to determine the associations between alcohol drinking and MA-associated behaviors among MA users in relation to mood disorders, suicidal ideation, and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL).

Methods:

Substance use characteristics were obtained in 106 participants with MA use at a substance abuse treatment center by using the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) and the Thai version of the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA). Current alcohol drinking behaviors were estimated using the Substance Outcomes Profile (SOP), which was developed and translated from the Treatment Outcomes Profile, by computing the number of alcohol units x days per month of alcohol use. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) was used to estimate lifetime histories of mood disorders and substance abuse and current suicidal ideation.

Results:

Current suicidal ideation in MA users is to a large extent predicted by the severity of current alcohol and MA use, female gender, and a lifetime history of mood disorders (major depression, dysthymia, and hypo-mania). Moreover, a lifetime history of mood disorders is positively associated with the severity of MA, but not with alcohol use. Partial least squares (PLS) path modeling shows that lowered HR-QoL in MA users is predicted by the SDS score and alcohol dosing (both inversely) and that lifetime diagnoses of mood disorders and MA use (both inversely) and alcohol dependence (positively) have significant effects on HR-QoL which are completely mediated via the SDS score.

Conclusions:

In MA users, the severity of dependence, and MA and/or alcohol use exert adverse effects on current suicidal ideation and HR-QoL. Mechanistic explanations are given which may explain the inverse associations between the severity of MA and alcohol use in MA abusers.

[Names] => Ketsupar Jirakran ... Rasmon Kalayasiri [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00151 [Published] => June 30, 2023 [Viewed] => 511 [Downloaded] => 32 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00151 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 3 [Topic] => 24 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:409–420 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Methamphetamine, alcohol, suicidal ideation, mood disorder, quality of life [DetailTitle] => The Biological Basis of Substance Use Disorders [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/24 [Id] => 1001151 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001151/c00b0f0f1dd9e0792f5fb6afede90698.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001151/e5d25f1c10d959b1a27ab0382debdc5a.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Jirakran K, Maes M, Buathong N, Kalayasiri R. Associations between methamphetamine and alcohol use disorder, suicidal ideation, and lowered quality of life in methamphetamine users. Explor Med. 2023;4:409–20. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00151 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => RasmonKalayasiri, [CEmail] => rasmon.k@chula.ac.th, [Ris_Time] => 2023-06-28 02:43:13 [Bib_Time] => 2023-06-28 02:43:13 [KeysWordContens] => Associations between methamphetamine and alcohol use disorder, suicidal ideation, and lowered quality of life in methamphetamine users, Methamphetamine, alcohol, suicidal ideation, mood disorder, quality of life, Aim: There is a strong comorbidity between methamphetamine (MA) and alcohol use whereby MA use may contribute to increased alcohol consumption. This study aims to determine the associations between alcohol drinking and MA-associated behaviors among MA users in relation to mood disorders, suicidal ideation, and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). Methods: Substance use characteristics were obtained in 106 participants with MA use at a substance abuse treatment center by using the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) and the Thai version of the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA). Current alcohol drinking behaviors were estimated using the Substance Outcomes Profile (SOP), which was developed and translated from the Treatment Outcomes Profile, by computing the number of alcohol units x days per month of alcohol use. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) was used to estimate lifetime histories of mood disorders and substance abuse and current suicidal ideation. Results: Current suicidal ideation in MA users is to a large extent predicted by the severity of current alcohol and MA use, female gender, and a lifetime history of mood disorders (major depression, dysthymia, and hypo-mania). Moreover, a lifetime history of mood disorders is positively associated with the severity of MA, but not with alcohol use. Partial least squares (PLS) path modeling shows that lowered HR-QoL in MA users is predicted by the SDS score and alcohol dosing (both inversely) and that lifetime diagnoses of mood disorders and MA use (both inversely) and alcohol dependence (positively) have significant effects on HR-QoL which are completely mediated via the SDS score. Conclusions: In MA users, the severity of dependence, and MA and/or alcohol use exert adverse effects on current suicidal ideation and HR-QoL. Mechanistic explanations are given which may explain the inverse associations between the severity of MA and alcohol use in MA abusers. ,Ketsupar Jirakran ... Rasmon Kalayasiri [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 57 ) [151] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 653 [Create_Time] => 2023-07-13 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202307/20230726045943.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001152/1001152.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001152/1001152.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001152/1001152_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Conservative approach in adult right-sided Bochdalek hernia with an intrathoracic ectopic kidney [Abstract] => Bochdalek hernia (BH) is a congenital diaphragmatic defect primarily diagnosed in neonates and is usually left-sided. Adult diagnosis, especially of right-sided BH is exceedingly rare and usually pr [AbstractComplete] =>

Bochdalek hernia (BH) is a congenital diaphragmatic defect primarily diagnosed in neonates and is usually left-sided. Adult diagnosis, especially of right-sided BH is exceedingly rare and usually presents with symptoms. Till now, only 31 cases have been diagnosed to be right-sided BH along with intrathoracic kidney. This report presents a 26-year-old asymptomatic male who was incidentally diagnosed with a massive right congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Imaging revealed severe abdominal herniation, a right intrathoracic ectopic kidney, and a right liver lobe hypoplasty along with hypertrophied left liver lobe extending down to the pelvic cavity. Several surgeons were consulted, with controversial opinions on whether elective surgery should be performed or withheld. Due to the high risk associated with surgery and the patient’s choice, the surgery was deferred. For almost 18 months, the patient did not report any symptoms or complications. This case highlights the rarity of asymptomatic right-sided BH in adults and the challenges in determining a management approach. Also, it proposes a conservative approach for such patients as a management modality. Most extensive diagrammatic defect reported is estimated to have a neck defect of 10 cm. Most BH cases have been treated surgically and reports on the outcome of a conservative approach are exceedingly rare. In such cases, patient preferences and a thorough risk assessment play vital roles in decision-making regarding conservative versus surgical approaches.

[Names] => Husam El Sharu ... Ahmed Hebishy [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00152 [Published] => July 12, 2023 [Viewed] => 625 [Downloaded] => 33 [Subject] => Case Report [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00152 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:421–427 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Bochdalek hernia, right-sided Bochdalek hernia, congenital hernia, intrathoracic kidney, ectopic kidney [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001152 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001152/a8ca3029296516515aee68678e39e762.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001152/1c9a5f35fe121b5d33526e8820765dff.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => El Sharu H, Alwarawrah Z, Alqaisieh M, Hebishy A. Conservative approach in adult right-sided Bochdalek hernia with an intrathoracic ectopic kidney. Explor Med. 2023;4:421–7. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00152 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-07-11 02:34:07 [Bib_Time] => 2023-07-11 02:34:07 [KeysWordContens] => Conservative approach in adult right-sided Bochdalek hernia with an intrathoracic ectopic kidney, Bochdalek hernia, right-sided Bochdalek hernia, congenital hernia, intrathoracic kidney, ectopic kidney, Bochdalek hernia (BH) is a congenital diaphragmatic defect primarily diagnosed in neonates and is usually left-sided. Adult diagnosis, especially of right-sided BH is exceedingly rare and usually presents with symptoms. Till now, only 31 cases have been diagnosed to be right-sided BH along with intrathoracic kidney. This report presents a 26-year-old asymptomatic male who was incidentally diagnosed with a massive right congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Imaging revealed severe abdominal herniation, a right intrathoracic ectopic kidney, and a right liver lobe hypoplasty along with hypertrophied left liver lobe extending down to the pelvic cavity. Several surgeons were consulted, with controversial opinions on whether elective surgery should be performed or withheld. Due to the high risk associated with surgery and the patient’s choice, the surgery was deferred. For almost 18 months, the patient did not report any symptoms or complications. This case highlights the rarity of asymptomatic right-sided BH in adults and the challenges in determining a management approach. Also, it proposes a conservative approach for such patients as a management modality. Most extensive diagrammatic defect reported is estimated to have a neck defect of 10 cm. Most BH cases have been treated surgically and reports on the outcome of a conservative approach are exceedingly rare. In such cases, patient preferences and a thorough risk assessment play vital roles in decision-making regarding conservative versus surgical approaches. ,Husam El Sharu ... Ahmed Hebishy [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 78 ) [152] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 662 [Create_Time] => 2023-07-26 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202309/20230911021744.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001153/1001153.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001153/1001153.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001153/1001153_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Small patient datasets reveal genetic drivers of non-small cell lung cancer subtypes using machine learning for hypothesis generation [Abstract] => Aim: Many small datasets of significant value exist in the medical space that are being underutilized. Due to the heterogeneity of complex disorders found in oncology, systems capable of discover [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Many small datasets of significant value exist in the medical space that are being underutilized. Due to the heterogeneity of complex disorders found in oncology, systems capable of discovering patient subpopulations while elucidating etiologies are of great value as they can indicate leads for innovative drug discovery and development.

Methods:

Two small non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) datasets (GSE18842 and GSE10245) consisting of 58 samples of adenocarcinoma (ADC) and 45 samples of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were used in a machine intelligence framework to identify genetic biomarkers differentiating these two subtypes. Utilizing a set of standard machine learning (ML) methods, subpopulations of ADC and SCC were uncovered while simultaneously extracting which genes, in combination, were significantly involved in defining the subpopulations. A previously described interactive hypothesis-generating method designed to work with ML methods was employed to provide an alternative way of extracting the most important combination of variables to construct a new data set.

Results:

Several genes were uncovered that were previously implicated by other methods. This framework accurately discovered known subpopulations, such as genetic drivers associated with differing levels of aggressiveness within the SCC and ADC subtypes. Furthermore, phyosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class X (PIGX) was a novel gene implicated in this study that warrants further investigation due to its role in breast cancer proliferation.

Conclusions:

The ability to learn from small datasets was highlighted and revealed well-established properties of NSCLC. This showcases the utility of ML techniques to reveal potential genes of interest, even from small datasets, shedding light on novel driving factors behind subpopulations of patients.

[Names] => Moses Cook ... Joseph Geraci [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00153 [Published] => July 26, 2023 [Viewed] => 1185 [Downloaded] => 53 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00153 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:428–440 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Artificial intelligence, small datasets, genetic subtypes, disease heterogeneity, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001153 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001153/4d699d57a0f91328d42c82e34c213271.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001153/78999bbfe391b5401991ddd2567251ee.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Cook M, Qorri B, Baskar A, Ziauddin J, Pani L, Yenkanchi S, et al. Small patient datasets reveal genetic drivers of non-small cell lung cancer subtypes using machine learning for hypothesis generation. Explor Med. 2023;4:428–40. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00153 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => JosephGeraci, [CEmail] => joseph.geraci@netramark.com, [Ris_Time] => 2023-09-11 02:17:44 [Bib_Time] => 2023-09-11 02:17:44 [KeysWordContens] => Small patient datasets reveal genetic drivers of non-small cell lung cancer subtypes using machine learning for hypothesis generation, Artificial intelligence, small datasets, genetic subtypes, disease heterogeneity, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, Aim: Many small datasets of significant value exist in the medical space that are being underutilized. Due to the heterogeneity of complex disorders found in oncology, systems capable of discovering patient subpopulations while elucidating etiologies are of great value as they can indicate leads for innovative drug discovery and development. Methods: Two small non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) datasets (GSE18842 and GSE10245) consisting of 58 samples of adenocarcinoma (ADC) and 45 samples of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were used in a machine intelligence framework to identify genetic biomarkers differentiating these two subtypes. Utilizing a set of standard machine learning (ML) methods, subpopulations of ADC and SCC were uncovered while simultaneously extracting which genes, in combination, were significantly involved in defining the subpopulations. A previously described interactive hypothesis-generating method designed to work with ML methods was employed to provide an alternative way of extracting the most important combination of variables to construct a new data set. Results: Several genes were uncovered that were previously implicated by other methods. This framework accurately discovered known subpopulations, such as genetic drivers associated with differing levels of aggressiveness within the SCC and ADC subtypes. Furthermore, phyosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class X (PIGX) was a novel gene implicated in this study that warrants further investigation due to its role in breast cancer proliferation. Conclusions: The ability to learn from small datasets was highlighted and revealed well-established properties of NSCLC. This showcases the utility of ML techniques to reveal potential genes of interest, even from small datasets, shedding light on novel driving factors behind subpopulations of patients. ,Moses Cook ... Joseph Geraci [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 79 ) [153] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 752 [Create_Time] => 2023-08-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202308/20230831043039.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001154/1001154.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001154/1001154.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001154/1001154_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => The brain activities of individuals with or without motivation to change: a preliminary study among cigarette smokers [Abstract] => Aim: Cigarette smoking is an addictive behavior that requires high motivation to change, a phenotype related to the functional activity of the brain. The study aims to examine motiv [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Cigarette smoking is an addictive behavior that requires high motivation to change, a phenotype related to the functional activity of the brain. The study aims to examine motivation to change among cigarette smokers and to study the association between functional brain activity and motivation to change smoking behaviors.

Methods:

Motivation to change smoking behaviors of 107 current smokers receiving services in a university hospital was obtained using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES). Brain activities related to motivation to change were also explored in a subgroup using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

Results:

The results showed that most of the current smokers (n = 68, 63.6%) were low motivated to change despite receiving health-related services. Brain activities in the left of the temporal, frontal gyrus, and superior medial gyrus of smokers with motivation were greater activated than those without. In contrast, the brain activities in the left precentral gyrus and bilateral paracentral lobules of smokers without motivation were greater activated.

Conclusions:

These preliminary results show the differences in brain activities between smokers with and without motivation to change and warrant further research to see if motivated smokers can quit smoking using a series of strategies based on their functional activities of the brain.

[Names] => Rasmon Kalayasiri ... Witaya Sungkarat [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00154 [Published] => August 30, 2023 [Viewed] => 343 [Downloaded] => 8 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00154 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 24 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:441–452 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Cigarette, smoking, motivation to change, brain activity, functional magnetic resonance imaging [DetailTitle] => The Biological Basis of Substance Use Disorders [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/24 [Id] => 1001154 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001154/5ad22f7097f1309e65300a74cb932a8c.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001154/cc99712c4ecf373957491c7b2d84e4a4.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Kalayasiri R, Srisuklorm S, Chatdon A, Sungkarat W. The brain activities of individuals with or without motivation to change: a preliminary study among cigarette smokers. Explor Med. 2023;4:441–52. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00154 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-08-31 02:33:57 [Bib_Time] => 2023-08-31 02:33:57 [KeysWordContens] => The brain activities of individuals with or without motivation to change: a preliminary study among cigarette smokers, Cigarette, smoking, motivation to change, brain activity, functional magnetic resonance imaging, Aim: Cigarette smoking is an addictive behavior that requires high motivation to change, a phenotype related to the functional activity of the brain. The study aims to examine motivation to change among cigarette smokers and to study the association between functional brain activity and motivation to change smoking behaviors. Methods: Motivation to change smoking behaviors of 107 current smokers receiving services in a university hospital was obtained using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES). Brain activities related to motivation to change were also explored in a subgroup using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results: The results showed that most of the current smokers (n = 68, 63.6%) were low motivated to change despite receiving health-related services. Brain activities in the left of the temporal, frontal gyrus, and superior medial gyrus of smokers with motivation were greater activated than those without. In contrast, the brain activities in the left precentral gyrus and bilateral paracentral lobules of smokers without motivation were greater activated. Conclusions: These preliminary results show the differences in brain activities between smokers with and without motivation to change and warrant further research to see if motivated smokers can quit smoking using a series of strategies based on their functional activities of the brain. ,Rasmon Kalayasiri ... Witaya Sungkarat [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 78 ) [154] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 788 [Create_Time] => 2023-08-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202309/20230904053645.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001159/1001159.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001159/1001159.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001159/1001159-cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => RNA-RNA competitive interactions: a molecular civil war ruling cell physiology and diseases [Abstract] => The idea that proteins are the main determining factors in the functioning of cells and organisms, and their dysfunctions are the first cause of pathologies, has been predominant in biology and biom [AbstractComplete] =>

The idea that proteins are the main determining factors in the functioning of cells and organisms, and their dysfunctions are the first cause of pathologies, has been predominant in biology and biomedicine until recently. This protein-centered view was too simplistic and failed to explain the physiological and pathological complexity of the cell. About 80% of the human genome is dynamically and pervasively transcribed, mostly as non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which competitively interact with each other and with coding RNAs generating a complex RNA network regulating RNA processing, stability, and translation and, accordingly, fine-tuning the gene expression of the cells. Qualitative and quantitative dysregulations of RNA-RNA interaction networks are strongly involved in the onset and progression of many pathologies, including cancers and degenerative diseases. This review will summarize the RNA species involved in the competitive endogenous RNA network, their mechanisms of action, and involvement in pathological phenotypes. Moreover, it will give an overview of the most advanced experimental and computational methods to dissect and rebuild RNA networks.

[Names] => Cristina Barbagallo ... Marco Ragusa [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00159 [Published] => August 31, 2023 [Viewed] => 424 [Downloaded] => 19 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00159 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 104 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:504–540 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Competing endogenous RNAs, microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs, pseudogenes, cancer, methods to study RNA-RNA interactions, RNA-RNA interaction databases [DetailTitle] => RNA World in Health and Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/104 [Id] => 1001159 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001159/4a6bbddfc4fb3f24f7dc076e8dc65680.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001159/88ec2381b99351d3032a7799c5fd3320.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Barbagallo C, Stella M, Ferrara C, Caponnetto A, Battaglia R, Barbagallo D, et al. RNA-RNA competitive interactions: a molecular civil war ruling cell physiology and diseases. Explor Med. 2023;4:504–40. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00159 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => MarcoRagusa, [CEmail] => mragusa@unict.it, [Ris_Time] => 2023-08-31 11:46:28 [Bib_Time] => 2023-09-01 01:02:13 [KeysWordContens] => RNA-RNA competitive interactions: a molecular civil war ruling cell physiology and diseases, Competing endogenous RNAs, microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs, pseudogenes, cancer, methods to study RNA-RNA interactions, RNA-RNA interaction databases, The idea that proteins are the main determining factors in the functioning of cells and organisms, and their dysfunctions are the first cause of pathologies, has been predominant in biology and biomedicine until recently. This protein-centered view was too simplistic and failed to explain the physiological and pathological complexity of the cell. About 80% of the human genome is dynamically and pervasively transcribed, mostly as non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which competitively interact with each other and with coding RNAs generating a complex RNA network regulating RNA processing, stability, and translation and, accordingly, fine-tuning the gene expression of the cells. Qualitative and quantitative dysregulations of RNA-RNA interaction networks are strongly involved in the onset and progression of many pathologies, including cancers and degenerative diseases. This review will summarize the RNA species involved in the competitive endogenous RNA network, their mechanisms of action, and involvement in pathological phenotypes. Moreover, it will give an overview of the most advanced experimental and computational methods to dissect and rebuild RNA networks. ,Cristina Barbagallo ... Marco Ragusa [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 69 ) [155] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 789 [Create_Time] => 2023-08-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202309/20230901084728.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001160/1001160.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001160/1001160.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001160/em-04-1001160_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Lactate metabolic pathway regulates tumor cell metastasis and its use as a new therapeutic target [Abstract] => Abnormal energy metabolism is one of the ten hallmarks of tumors, and tumor cell metabolism provides energy and a suitable microenvironment for tumorigenesis and metastasis. Tumor cells can consume [AbstractComplete] =>

Abnormal energy metabolism is one of the ten hallmarks of tumors, and tumor cell metabolism provides energy and a suitable microenvironment for tumorigenesis and metastasis. Tumor cells can consume large amounts of glucose and produce large amounts of lactate through glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen, a process called aerobic glycolysis, also known as the Warburg effect. Lactate is the end product of the aerobic glycolysis. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), which is highly expressed in cancer cells, promotes lactate production and transports lactate to the tumor microenvironment and is taken up by surrounding stromal cells under the action of monocarboxylate transporter 1/4 (MCT1/4), which in turn influences the immune response and enhances the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Therapeutic strategies targeting lactate metabolism have been intensively investigated, focusing on its metastasis-promoting properties and various target inhibitors; AZD3965, an MCT1 inhibitor, has entered phase I clinical trials, and the LDHA inhibitor N-hydroxyindole (NHI) has shown cancer therapeutic activity in pre-clinical studies. Interventions targeting lactate metabolism are emerging as a promising option for cancer therapy, with chemotherapy or radiotherapy combined with lactate-metabolism-targeted drugs adding to the effectiveness of cancer treatment. Based on current research, this article outlines the role of lactate metabolism in tumor metastasis and the potential value of inhibitors targeting lactate metabolism in cancer therapy.

[Names] => Weimei Xing ... Mingyue Zhu [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00160 [Published] => August 31, 2023 [Viewed] => 405 [Downloaded] => 23 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00160 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:541–559 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Lactate metabolism, metastasis, lactate dehydrogenase A, monocarboxylate transporters [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001160 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001160/610e7b5776a8ecc8afa7decd0df766b0.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001160/308a2fe2aef9bbdfa3e9aaec024f49d8.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Xing W, Li X, Zhou Y, Li M, Zhu M. Lactate metabolic pathway regulates tumor cell metastasis and its use as a new therapeutic target. Explor Med. 2023;4:541–559. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00160 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => MengsenLi,MingyueZhu, [CEmail] => mengsenli@163.com,mingyuezhu2002@163.com, [Ris_Time] => 2023-08-31 03:19:59 [Bib_Time] => 2023-08-31 03:19:59 [KeysWordContens] => Lactate metabolic pathway regulates tumor cell metastasis and its use as a new therapeutic target, Lactate metabolism, metastasis, lactate dehydrogenase A, monocarboxylate transporters, Abnormal energy metabolism is one of the ten hallmarks of tumors, and tumor cell metabolism provides energy and a suitable microenvironment for tumorigenesis and metastasis. Tumor cells can consume large amounts of glucose and produce large amounts of lactate through glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen, a process called aerobic glycolysis, also known as the Warburg effect. Lactate is the end product of the aerobic glycolysis. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), which is highly expressed in cancer cells, promotes lactate production and transports lactate to the tumor microenvironment and is taken up by surrounding stromal cells under the action of monocarboxylate transporter 1/4 (MCT1/4), which in turn influences the immune response and enhances the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Therapeutic strategies targeting lactate metabolism have been intensively investigated, focusing on its metastasis-promoting properties and various target inhibitors; AZD3965, an MCT1 inhibitor, has entered phase I clinical trials, and the LDHA inhibitor N-hydroxyindole (NHI) has shown cancer therapeutic activity in pre-clinical studies. Interventions targeting lactate metabolism are emerging as a promising option for cancer therapy, with chemotherapy or radiotherapy combined with lactate-metabolism-targeted drugs adding to the effectiveness of cancer treatment. Based on current research, this article outlines the role of lactate metabolism in tumor metastasis and the potential value of inhibitors targeting lactate metabolism in cancer therapy. ,Weimei Xing ... Mingyue Zhu [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 24 ) [156] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 773 [Create_Time] => 2023-08-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202308/20230831043116.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001155/1001155.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001155/1001155.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001155/1001155_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => An easy and safe method of subconjunctival injection of antimetabolites in glaucoma surgery [Abstract] => Aim: The use of 5-fluorouracil in glaucoma surgery is associated with a high risk of corneal complications, as even minimal doses of the drug at the ocular surface inhibit corneal epithelial cell [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

The use of 5-fluorouracil in glaucoma surgery is associated with a high risk of corneal complications, as even minimal doses of the drug at the ocular surface inhibit corneal epithelial cell division and lead to corneal epitheliopathy and erosion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and functional results of the proposed method of postoperative adjuvant subconjunctival injection of 5-fluorouracil after non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS) in comparison with the control group.

Methods:

Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma who underwent NPDS and received at least 1 subconjunctival injection of 5-fluorouracil in the postoperative period were included in a two-group retrospective comparative study. Patients who received a subconjunctival injection of 5-fluorouracil after surgery using the standard technique were included in Group 1; Group 2 included patients who received an injection using the proposed method. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), rate of corneal complications, and number of office visits during the first 4 weeks after surgery were analysed.

Results:

The compared groups did not differ in demographic characteristics, preoperative BCVA, and IOP parameters. Fluorescein-stained corneal epithelial defects were statistically significantly more frequent in Group 1 compared to Group 2, P < 0.001. Four weeks post NPDS IOP reduction was greater in Group 2, P = 0.042. Mean BCVA loss was 1.9 lines in Group 1 and 1.3 lines in Group 2, P < 0.001. The number of follow-up visits during the first month after surgery was lower in Group 2 than in Group 1, P = 0.002.

Conclusions:

The proposed method was simple and effective in reducing the risk of corneal epithelial defects after subconjunctival injection of 5-fluorouracil, significantly improving clinical and functional outcomes of NPDS and reducing the need for outpatient visits.

[Names] => Sergey N. Svetozarskiy ... Anna N. Sporysheva [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00155 [Published] => August 30, 2023 [Viewed] => 414 [Downloaded] => 12 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00155 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:453–460 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => 5-Fluorouracil, glaucoma, corneal erosion, toxicity, prevention of complications, injection [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001155 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001155/8deb5d177b88ff7f154a6e26d3cf3ea5.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001155/fedc211a44d7371cf24ff645a60c1886.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Svetozarskiy SN, Andreev AN, Shvaikin AV, Scherbakova SV, Sporysheva AN. An easy and safe method of subconjunctival injection of antimetabolites in glaucoma surgery. Explor Med. 2023;4:453–60. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00155 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-08-31 02:52:26 [Bib_Time] => 2023-08-31 02:52:26 [KeysWordContens] => An easy and safe method of subconjunctival injection of antimetabolites in glaucoma surgery, 5-Fluorouracil, glaucoma, corneal erosion, toxicity, prevention of complications, injection, Aim: The use of 5-fluorouracil in glaucoma surgery is associated with a high risk of corneal complications, as even minimal doses of the drug at the ocular surface inhibit corneal epithelial cell division and lead to corneal epitheliopathy and erosion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and functional results of the proposed method of postoperative adjuvant subconjunctival injection of 5-fluorouracil after non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS) in comparison with the control group. Methods: Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma who underwent NPDS and received at least 1 subconjunctival injection of 5-fluorouracil in the postoperative period were included in a two-group retrospective comparative study. Patients who received a subconjunctival injection of 5-fluorouracil after surgery using the standard technique were included in Group 1; Group 2 included patients who received an injection using the proposed method. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), rate of corneal complications, and number of office visits during the first 4 weeks after surgery were analysed. Results: The compared groups did not differ in demographic characteristics, preoperative BCVA, and IOP parameters. Fluorescein-stained corneal epithelial defects were statistically significantly more frequent in Group 1 compared to Group 2, P < 0.001. Four weeks post NPDS IOP reduction was greater in Group 2, P = 0.042. Mean BCVA loss was 1.9 lines in Group 1 and 1.3 lines in Group 2, P < 0.001. The number of follow-up visits during the first month after surgery was lower in Group 2 than in Group 1, P = 0.002. Conclusions: The proposed method was simple and effective in reducing the risk of corneal epithelial defects after subconjunctival injection of 5-fluorouracil, significantly improving clinical and functional outcomes of NPDS and reducing the need for outpatient visits. ,Sergey N. Svetozarskiy ... Anna N. Sporysheva [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 78 ) [157] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 786 [Create_Time] => 2023-08-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202308/20230831062322.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001157/1001157.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001157/1001157.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001157/1001157_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Autophagy in ischemic stroke: role of circular RNAs [Abstract] => Stroke, a central nervous system (CNS) injury, is responsible for the second leading cause of death in the world, bringing a great burden on the world. Stroke is normally divided into ischemic and h [AbstractComplete] =>

Stroke, a central nervous system (CNS) injury, is responsible for the second leading cause of death in the world, bringing a great burden on the world. Stroke is normally divided into ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, among which ischemic stroke takes up 87% proportion. Accumulating evidence has denoted a rather pivotal role for autophagy in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke, which is activated in neuronal cells, glial cells, and endothelial cells. Besides, circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel type of epigenetic regulation, are highly expressed in the CNS and are involved in the process of CNS diseases, which is regarded as an important molecular mechanism in ischemic stroke. Meanwhile, circRNA and autophagy have a significant correlation. The intracellular signaling pathways regulating autophagy can either restrain or activate autophagy. However, under the circumstances of ischemic stroke, the precise communication between circRNA and stroke is largely unknown. This review aims to provide a summary of the relationship between circRNA, autophagy, and ischemic stroke, as well as the current research advancements in understanding how circRNA regulates autophagy in the context of stroke.

[Names] => Yiting Hong ... Honghong Yao [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00157 [Published] => August 31, 2023 [Viewed] => 451 [Downloaded] => 12 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00157 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 102 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:471–486 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Autophagy, ischemic stroke, circular RNA [DetailTitle] => Genetic and Epigenetic Control of Autophagy in Human Diseases [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/102 [Id] => 1001157 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001157/d0013c7c7e89aa5650d2ccfd3ba8f918.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001157/20f3553b2b8a852c172ab74b3443c695.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Hong Y, Gu L, Han B, Yao H. Autophagy in ischemic stroke: role of circular RNAs. Explor Med. 2023;4:471–86. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00157 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-09-01 01:57:13 [Bib_Time] => 2023-09-01 01:57:13 [KeysWordContens] => Autophagy in ischemic stroke: role of circular RNAs, Autophagy, ischemic stroke, circular RNA, Stroke, a central nervous system (CNS) injury, is responsible for the second leading cause of death in the world, bringing a great burden on the world. Stroke is normally divided into ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, among which ischemic stroke takes up 87% proportion. Accumulating evidence has denoted a rather pivotal role for autophagy in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke, which is activated in neuronal cells, glial cells, and endothelial cells. Besides, circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel type of epigenetic regulation, are highly expressed in the CNS and are involved in the process of CNS diseases, which is regarded as an important molecular mechanism in ischemic stroke. Meanwhile, circRNA and autophagy have a significant correlation. The intracellular signaling pathways regulating autophagy can either restrain or activate autophagy. However, under the circumstances of ischemic stroke, the precise communication between circRNA and stroke is largely unknown. This review aims to provide a summary of the relationship between circRNA, autophagy, and ischemic stroke, as well as the current research advancements in understanding how circRNA regulates autophagy in the context of stroke. ,Yiting Hong ... Honghong Yao [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 79 ) [158] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 785 [Create_Time] => 2023-08-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202308/20230831030402.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001156/1001156.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001156/1001156.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001156/em-04-1001156_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Utility of fibroblasts derived from broncho-alveolar lavage of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or related disorders to develop in vitro models [Abstract] => Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) represents a safe tool for the differential diagnosis of various pulmonary fibrotic diseases. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) belongs to a heterogeneous group of di [AbstractComplete] =>

Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) represents a safe tool for the differential diagnosis of various pulmonary fibrotic diseases. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) belongs to a heterogeneous group of diseases, interstitial lung disease (ILD), presenting a progressive impairment of pulmonary functions. IPF is characterized by the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the alveolar parenchyma that may lead to irreversible pulmonary remodeling. Although the exact pathogenetic mechanisms leading to IPF development are still unclear it has been demonstrated that fibroblasts differentiating toward myofibroblasts are the major actors involved in this process. The possibility of obtaining and expanding fibroblasts from the BAL of ILD patients for research purposes has been recently explored. This approach is discussed here as a reliable chance, helpful to advance the scientific community knowledge and to devise two- and three-dimensional (2D/3D) pre-clinical in vitro models of these diseases, further overcoming technical and ethical concerns related to the use of fibroblasts derived from tissue biopsy.

[Names] => Paolo Giannoni ... Daniela de Totero [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00156 [Published] => August 31, 2023 [Viewed] => 348 [Downloaded] => 10 [Subject] => Perspective [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00156 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 134 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:461–470 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Interstitial lung fibrosis, mesenchymal cells, fibroblast cells, pre-clinical models [DetailTitle] => Lung Fibrosis—Models and Mechanisms [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/134 [Id] => 1001156 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001156/b71eee249e294f0e658dfa8d39bae7c7.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001156/66494c0d6488534c295d4194b3a403b3.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Giannoni P, Barisione E, Grosso M, de Totero D. Utility of fibroblasts derived from broncho-alveolar lavage of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or related disorders to develop in vitro models. Explor Med. 2023;4:461–70. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00156 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-08-31 03:01:20 [Bib_Time] => 2023-09-01 01:01:55 [KeysWordContens] => Utility of fibroblasts derived from broncho-alveolar lavage of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or related disorders to develop in vitro models, Interstitial lung fibrosis, mesenchymal cells, fibroblast cells, pre-clinical models, Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) represents a safe tool for the differential diagnosis of various pulmonary fibrotic diseases. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) belongs to a heterogeneous group of diseases, interstitial lung disease (ILD), presenting a progressive impairment of pulmonary functions. IPF is characterized by the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the alveolar parenchyma that may lead to irreversible pulmonary remodeling. Although the exact pathogenetic mechanisms leading to IPF development are still unclear it has been demonstrated that fibroblasts differentiating toward myofibroblasts are the major actors involved in this process. The possibility of obtaining and expanding fibroblasts from the BAL of ILD patients for research purposes has been recently explored. This approach is discussed here as a reliable chance, helpful to advance the scientific community knowledge and to devise two- and three-dimensional (2D/3D) pre-clinical in vitro models of these diseases, further overcoming technical and ethical concerns related to the use of fibroblasts derived from tissue biopsy. ,Paolo Giannoni ... Daniela de Totero [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 69 ) [159] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 787 [Create_Time] => 2023-08-31 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202308/20230831070926.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001158/1001158.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001158/1001158.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001158/em-04-1001158_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs) for the treatment of Long COVID symptoms: current and potential applications [Abstract] => Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can result in a range of persistent symptoms impacting everyday functioning for a considerable proportion of patients, a condit [AbstractComplete] =>

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can result in a range of persistent symptoms impacting everyday functioning for a considerable proportion of patients, a condition termed Long coronavirus disease (COVID) or post COVID-19 syndrome. The severity and set of symptoms vary between patients, and include fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleep disturbances, palpitations, tachycardia, pain, depression, and anxiety. The high prevalence of Long COVID combined with the lack of treatment approaches has resulted in considerable unmet clinical needs. There is a growing body of evidence that cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs) can be used to treat symptoms including pain, anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep, headaches, and cognitive dysfunction, which are commonly reported in Long COVID. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology of Long COVID and discusses preliminary pre-clinical, clinical trials, and real-world evidence (RWE) for CBMPs in the context of Long COVID. This review summarises current clinical trials and studies exploring CBMPs in Long COVID. The current evidence provides a rationale to further explore CBMPs as a treatment for Long COVID symptoms. In addition to further randomised controlled trials (RCTs), the increasing availability of CBMPs globally, coupled with the continued prevalence of Long COVID in the population, also highlights the value of real-world data in the research of CBMPs in Long COVID. Critically, there is an evident need for multidisciplinary approaches of CBMPs and Long COVID in real-world clinical practice settings.

[Names] => Hannah Thurgur ... David J. Nutt [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00158 [Published] => August 31, 2023 [Viewed] => 3315 [Downloaded] => 49 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00158 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 84 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:487–503 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Cannabis-based medicinal products, cannabidiol, cannabinoids, coronavirus disease-19, Long coronavirus disease, post coronavirus disease-19 syndrome, medical cannabis [DetailTitle] => Beyond Weed: Clinical Applications of Cannabis and Cannabinoids [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/84 [Id] => 1001158 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001158/81f8cf1972623cac8c0c7a234bd71b38.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001158/0709e85686b26d4b5cb56925fd9e8225.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 1 [Cited_Time] => 2024-03-01 [CitethisArticle] => Thurgur H, Schlag AK, Iveson E, Hosseini A, Lynskey M, Nutt DJ. Cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs) for the treatment of Long COVID symptoms: current and potential applications. Explor Med. 2023;4:487–503. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00158 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-08-31 07:09:26 [Bib_Time] => 2023-08-31 07:09:26 [KeysWordContens] => Cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs) for the treatment of Long COVID symptoms: current and potential applications, Cannabis-based medicinal products, cannabidiol, cannabinoids, coronavirus disease-19, Long coronavirus disease, post coronavirus disease-19 syndrome, medical cannabis, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can result in a range of persistent symptoms impacting everyday functioning for a considerable proportion of patients, a condition termed Long coronavirus disease (COVID) or post COVID-19 syndrome. The severity and set of symptoms vary between patients, and include fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleep disturbances, palpitations, tachycardia, pain, depression, and anxiety. The high prevalence of Long COVID combined with the lack of treatment approaches has resulted in considerable unmet clinical needs. There is a growing body of evidence that cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs) can be used to treat symptoms including pain, anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep, headaches, and cognitive dysfunction, which are commonly reported in Long COVID. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology of Long COVID and discusses preliminary pre-clinical, clinical trials, and real-world evidence (RWE) for CBMPs in the context of Long COVID. This review summarises current clinical trials and studies exploring CBMPs in Long COVID. The current evidence provides a rationale to further explore CBMPs as a treatment for Long COVID symptoms. In addition to further randomised controlled trials (RCTs), the increasing availability of CBMPs globally, coupled with the continued prevalence of Long COVID in the population, also highlights the value of real-world data in the research of CBMPs in Long COVID. Critically, there is an evident need for multidisciplinary approaches of CBMPs and Long COVID in real-world clinical practice settings. ,Hannah Thurgur ... David J. Nutt [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 24 ) [160] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 799 [Create_Time] => 2023-09-04 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202311/20231101030828.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001164/1001164.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001164/1001164.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001164/em-04-1001164_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Comparison of eating habits and gut microbiota of preschool children with obesity [Abstract] => Aim: Childhood obesity is a global health concern that affects the daily life of children. It has a complex pathogenesis that involves genetic and nutritional factors among others. Moreover, the [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Childhood obesity is a global health concern that affects the daily life of children. It has a complex pathogenesis that involves genetic and nutritional factors among others. Moreover, the dysbiosis of gut microbiota has been recently associated with the development and progression of obesity.

Methods:

A total of 43 faecal samples were collected from Saudi children; among them, 26 were normal and 17 were obese. Whole genomic DNA was extracted from their faecal samples and sequenced using an Illumina Sequencing platform.

Results:

The gut microbiota was dominated by Phyla Firmicutes (69.00%) and Bacteroidetes (20.00%), followed by Actinobacteria (8.50%). In children with obesity, the abundance of Firmicutes was decreased, while Bacteroidetes was relatively enriched. Verrucomicrobia and Proteobacteria were not detected in the obese group, but they were found in low abundance in the control group. Phylum Firmicutes was dominated by the families Ruminococcaceae (17.86%) and Lachnospiraceae (41.20%). Less Ruminococcaceae was found in the obese group. Phylum Bacteroidetes was dominated by families Bacteroidaceae (12.98%) and Prevotellaceae (4.10%), which were enriched in the obese group. Genus Blautia (14.29%) was highly abundant, followed by Bacteroides (12.98%), Faecalibacterium (10.08%), Bifidobacterium (7.96%), and Prevotella (5.04%). Ruminococcus_g2 and _g4, Subdoligranulum, Roseburia, Fusicatenibacter, Anaerostipes, and Faecalibacterium were decreased (P > 0.05) in the obese group, while Streptococcus, Agathobacter, Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Bifidobacterium were increased (P > 0.05).

Conclusions:

In conclusion, a diverse bacterial community was profiled in Saudi preschool children, and changes in bacterial community composition were observed between obese- and normal-weight children.

[Names] => Shymaa M. Al-Jabri ... Awatif A. Al-Judaibi [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00164 [Published] => September 04, 2023 [Viewed] => 460 [Downloaded] => 31 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00164 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 62 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:612–624 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Eating habits, gut microbiota, obesity, preschool children [DetailTitle] => The Role of Gut Microbiota and its Metabolites in Gastrointestinal Diseases [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/62 [Id] => 1001164 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001164/a9524a6c8bbbb9dce2d5c242d21cf6fb.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001164/58205a49bd6926a95b2ebe31c6b00d60.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Al-Jabri SM, Al-Judaibi EA, Al-Gamdee YA, Al-Judaibi AA. Comparison of eating habits and gut microbiota of preschool children with obesity. Explor Med. 2023;4:612–24. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00164 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-09-01 08:09:47 [Bib_Time] => 2023-09-01 08:09:47 [KeysWordContens] => Comparison of eating habits and gut microbiota of preschool children with obesity, Eating habits, gut microbiota, obesity, preschool children, Aim: Childhood obesity is a global health concern that affects the daily life of children. It has a complex pathogenesis that involves genetic and nutritional factors among others. Moreover, the dysbiosis of gut microbiota has been recently associated with the development and progression of obesity. Methods: A total of 43 faecal samples were collected from Saudi children; among them, 26 were normal and 17 were obese. Whole genomic DNA was extracted from their faecal samples and sequenced using an Illumina Sequencing platform. Results: The gut microbiota was dominated by Phyla Firmicutes (69.00%) and Bacteroidetes (20.00%), followed by Actinobacteria (8.50%). In children with obesity, the abundance of Firmicutes was decreased, while Bacteroidetes was relatively enriched. Verrucomicrobia and Proteobacteria were not detected in the obese group, but they were found in low abundance in the control group. Phylum Firmicutes was dominated by the families Ruminococcaceae (17.86%) and Lachnospiraceae (41.20%). Less Ruminococcaceae was found in the obese group. Phylum Bacteroidetes was dominated by families Bacteroidaceae (12.98%) and Prevotellaceae (4.10%), which were enriched in the obese group. Genus Blautia (14.29%) was highly abundant, followed by Bacteroides (12.98%), Faecalibacterium (10.08%), Bifidobacterium (7.96%), and Prevotella (5.04%). Ruminococcus_g2 and _g4, Subdoligranulum, Roseburia, Fusicatenibacter, Anaerostipes, and Faecalibacterium were decreased (P > 0.05) in the obese group, while Streptococcus, Agathobacter, Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Bifidobacterium were increased (P > 0.05). Conclusions: In conclusion, a diverse bacterial community was profiled in Saudi preschool children, and changes in bacterial community composition were observed between obese- and normal-weight children. ,Shymaa M. Al-Jabri ... Awatif A. Al-Judaibi [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 21 ) [161] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 792 [Create_Time] => 2023-09-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202309/20230901012406.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001161/1001161.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001161/1001161.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001161/1001161_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => An overview of current advances and pharmaceutical uses of 3D and 4D printing [Abstract] => The development of patient-specific prosthetics, medication administration, the manufacture of tissues and organs, and surgical planning have all benefited significantly from the use of three-dimens [AbstractComplete] =>

The development of patient-specific prosthetics, medication administration, the manufacture of tissues and organs, and surgical planning have all benefited significantly from the use of three-dimensional (3D) printing during the past few decades. The enthusiasm for customized healthcare has increased because the United States of America launched its Precision Medicine Initiative in 2015. In a nutshell, the phrase “personalized medicine” refers to medical care that is tailored to the patient. Nevertheless, the biomedical materials utilized in 3D printing are often stable and can’t react or be adaptive and intelligent in the body’s interior environment. Ex-situ fabrication of these substances, which includes printing on a flat substrate before releasing it onto the target surface, may cause a discrepancy between the printed portion and the target areas. The 3D printing is one method that might be used to provide customized treatment. The four-dimensional (4D) printing is developed while employing components that can be tweaked with stimulation. Several researchers have been looking at a new area recently that blends medicines with 3D and 4D printing. The development of 4D printing overcomes a number of these issues and creates a promising future for the biomedical industry. Smart materials that have been pre-programmed can be used in 4D printing to create structures that react interactively to outside stimuli. Despite these benefits, dynamic materials created using 4D technology remain in their development. As a result, several ideas for pharmaceutical products and formulas that may be customized and printed have emerged. Furthermore, Spritam®, the first medicine produced by 3D printing, has indeed reached a medical facility. This paper offers a summary of several 3D and 4D printing technologies and how they are used in the pharmaceutical industry for customized medicine and drug delivery systems.

[Names] => Pankaj Sharma, Vinay Jain [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00161 [Published] => August 31, 2023 [Viewed] => 491 [Downloaded] => 18 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00161 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 96 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:560–575 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => 3D printing, 4D printing, smart material, stereolithography, pharmaceutical, biomedical [DetailTitle] => Exploration of 3D and 4D Printing in the Biomedical and Personalized Medicine Fields: Merits and Challenges [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/96 [Id] => 1001161 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001161/c0c828e68b814a26d366c55a66caeb53.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001161/4d17f6974960081db720a1a915eb4d2c.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Sharma P, Jain V. An overview of current advances and pharmaceutical uses of 3D and 4D printing. Explor Med. 2023;4:560–75. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00161 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-09-01 00:55:58 [Bib_Time] => 2023-09-01 00:55:58 [KeysWordContens] => An overview of current advances and pharmaceutical uses of 3D and 4D printing, 3D printing, 4D printing, smart material, stereolithography, pharmaceutical, biomedical, The development of patient-specific prosthetics, medication administration, the manufacture of tissues and organs, and surgical planning have all benefited significantly from the use of three-dimensional (3D) printing during the past few decades. The enthusiasm for customized healthcare has increased because the United States of America launched its Precision Medicine Initiative in 2015. In a nutshell, the phrase “personalized medicine” refers to medical care that is tailored to the patient. Nevertheless, the biomedical materials utilized in 3D printing are often stable and can’t react or be adaptive and intelligent in the body’s interior environment. Ex-situ fabrication of these substances, which includes printing on a flat substrate before releasing it onto the target surface, may cause a discrepancy between the printed portion and the target areas. The 3D printing is one method that might be used to provide customized treatment. The four-dimensional (4D) printing is developed while employing components that can be tweaked with stimulation. Several researchers have been looking at a new area recently that blends medicines with 3D and 4D printing. The development of 4D printing overcomes a number of these issues and creates a promising future for the biomedical industry. Smart materials that have been pre-programmed can be used in 4D printing to create structures that react interactively to outside stimuli. Despite these benefits, dynamic materials created using 4D technology remain in their development. As a result, several ideas for pharmaceutical products and formulas that may be customized and printed have emerged. Furthermore, Spritam®, the first medicine produced by 3D printing, has indeed reached a medical facility. This paper offers a summary of several 3D and 4D printing technologies and how they are used in the pharmaceutical industry for customized medicine and drug delivery systems. ,Pankaj Sharma, Vinay Jain [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 69 ) [162] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 794 [Create_Time] => 2023-09-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202309/20230901023735.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001162/1001162.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001162/1001162.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001162/1001162_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Autophagy and diabetes [Abstract] => The current literature findings on autophagy’s beneficial and detrimental roles in diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetes-related comorbidities were reviewed. The effects of oral hypoglycaemic medici [AbstractComplete] =>

The current literature findings on autophagy’s beneficial and detrimental roles in diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetes-related comorbidities were reviewed. The effects of oral hypoglycaemic medicines and autophagy in DM. Autophagy plays an important function in cellular homeostasis by promoting cell survival or initiating cell death in physiological settings was also assessed. Although autophagy protects insulin-target tissues, organelle failure caused by autophagy malfunction influences DM and other metabolic diseases. Endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress enhance autophagy levels, making it easier to regulate stress-induced intracellular changes. Evidence suggests that autophagy-caused cell death can occur when autophagy is overstimulated and constitutively activated, which might prevent or develop DM. Even though the precise role of autophagy in DM complications is uncertain, deregulation of the autophagic machinery is strongly linked to beta cell destruction and the aetiology of DM. Thus, improving autophagy dysfunction is a possible therapeutic objective in treating DM and other metabolic disorders.

[Names] => Milan Obradovic ... Esma R. Isenovic [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00162 [Published] => August 31, 2023 [Viewed] => 459 [Downloaded] => 12 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00162 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 102 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:576–588 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Diabetes, autophagy, anti-hyperglycemic, oxidative stress [DetailTitle] => Genetic and Epigenetic Control of Autophagy in Human Diseases [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/102 [Id] => 1001162 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001162/a8b5e658c77a1d1a32721ac552e881fb.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001162/56cf54a9cdcb8321b95384d59b6ee4ab.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Obradovic M, Zafirovic S, Gluvic Z, Radovanovic J, Isenovic ER. Autophagy and diabetes. Explor Med. 2023;4:576–88. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00162 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-09-01 02:37:35 [Bib_Time] => 2023-09-01 02:37:35 [KeysWordContens] => Autophagy and diabetes, Diabetes, autophagy, anti-hyperglycemic, oxidative stress, The current literature findings on autophagy’s beneficial and detrimental roles in diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetes-related comorbidities were reviewed. The effects of oral hypoglycaemic medicines and autophagy in DM. Autophagy plays an important function in cellular homeostasis by promoting cell survival or initiating cell death in physiological settings was also assessed. Although autophagy protects insulin-target tissues, organelle failure caused by autophagy malfunction influences DM and other metabolic diseases. Endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress enhance autophagy levels, making it easier to regulate stress-induced intracellular changes. Evidence suggests that autophagy-caused cell death can occur when autophagy is overstimulated and constitutively activated, which might prevent or develop DM. Even though the precise role of autophagy in DM complications is uncertain, deregulation of the autophagic machinery is strongly linked to beta cell destruction and the aetiology of DM. Thus, improving autophagy dysfunction is a possible therapeutic objective in treating DM and other metabolic disorders. ,Milan Obradovic ... Esma R. Isenovic [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 79 ) [163] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 798 [Create_Time] => 2023-09-01 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202309/20230901072919.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001163/1001163.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001163/1001163.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001163/1001163_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Unveiling the role of artificial intelligence for wound assessment and wound healing prediction [Abstract] => Wound healing is a very dynamic and complex process as it involves the patient, wound-level parameters, as well as biological, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. Its process includes hemostas [AbstractComplete] =>

Wound healing is a very dynamic and complex process as it involves the patient, wound-level parameters, as well as biological, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. Its process includes hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Evaluation of wound components such as angiogenesis, inflammation, restoration of connective tissue matrix, wound contraction, remodeling, and re-epithelization would detail the healing process. Understanding key mechanisms in the healing process is critical to wound research. Elucidating its healing complexity would enable control and optimize the processes for achieving faster healing, preventing wound complications, and undesired outcomes such as infection, periwound dermatitis and edema, hematomas, dehiscence, maceration, or scarring. Wound assessment is an essential step for selecting an appropriate treatment and evaluating the wound healing process. The use of artificial intelligence (AI) as advanced computer-assisted methods is promising for gaining insights into wound assessment and healing. As AI-based approaches have been explored for various applications in wound care and research, this paper provides an overview of recent studies exploring the application of AI and its technical developments and suitability for accurate wound assessment and prediction of wound healing. Several studies have been done across the globe, especially in North America, Europe, Oceania, and Asia. The results of these studies have shown that AI-based approaches are promising for wound assessment and prediction of wound healing. However, there are still some limitations and challenges that need to be addressed. This paper also discusses the challenges and limitations of AI-based approaches for wound assessment and prediction of wound healing. The paper concludes with a discussion of future research directions and recommendations for the use of AI-based approaches for wound assessment and prediction of wound healing.

[Names] => Dinh T. P. Le, Tuan D. Pham [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00163 [Published] => August 31, 2023 [Viewed] => 573 [Downloaded] => 19 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00163 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 4 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:589–611 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Wound assessment, wound healing, precision medicine, artificial intelligence, machine learning [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001163 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001163/410d5d776626ef76fd259197b6276112.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001163/69c5cf4d74a996a7e7b56a9b86e6525c.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Le DTP, Pham TD. Unveiling the role of artificial intelligence for wound assessment and wound healing prediction. Explor Med. 2023;4:589–611. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00163 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => Tuan D.Pham, [CEmail] => tuan.pham@qmul.ac.uk, [Ris_Time] => 2023-09-01 03:12:12 [Bib_Time] => 2023-09-01 03:12:12 [KeysWordContens] => Unveiling the role of artificial intelligence for wound assessment and wound healing prediction, Wound assessment, wound healing, precision medicine, artificial intelligence, machine learning, Wound healing is a very dynamic and complex process as it involves the patient, wound-level parameters, as well as biological, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. Its process includes hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Evaluation of wound components such as angiogenesis, inflammation, restoration of connective tissue matrix, wound contraction, remodeling, and re-epithelization would detail the healing process. Understanding key mechanisms in the healing process is critical to wound research. Elucidating its healing complexity would enable control and optimize the processes for achieving faster healing, preventing wound complications, and undesired outcomes such as infection, periwound dermatitis and edema, hematomas, dehiscence, maceration, or scarring. Wound assessment is an essential step for selecting an appropriate treatment and evaluating the wound healing process. The use of artificial intelligence (AI) as advanced computer-assisted methods is promising for gaining insights into wound assessment and healing. As AI-based approaches have been explored for various applications in wound care and research, this paper provides an overview of recent studies exploring the application of AI and its technical developments and suitability for accurate wound assessment and prediction of wound healing. Several studies have been done across the globe, especially in North America, Europe, Oceania, and Asia. The results of these studies have shown that AI-based approaches are promising for wound assessment and prediction of wound healing. However, there are still some limitations and challenges that need to be addressed. This paper also discusses the challenges and limitations of AI-based approaches for wound assessment and prediction of wound healing. The paper concludes with a discussion of future research directions and recommendations for the use of AI-based approaches for wound assessment and prediction of wound healing. ,Dinh T. P. Le, Tuan D. Pham [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 78 ) [164] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 804 [Create_Time] => 2023-09-15 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202309/20230915082625.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001165/1001165.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001165/1001165.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001165/em-04-1001165_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Body mass, blood pressure, and cognitive functioning among octogenarians and centenarians [Abstract] => Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the association among body mass, blood pressure (BP), and cognitive functioning for octogenarians and centenarians. Methods: A total of 300 par [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

The purpose of this study was to examine the association among body mass, blood pressure (BP), and cognitive functioning for octogenarians and centenarians.

Methods:

A total of 300 participants (221 centenarians and 79 octogenarians) from the Georgia Centenarian Study were included in this study. Demographic variables included age, gender, and ethnicity. Body mass was measured with the body mass index (BMI), and systolic and diastolic BP, as well as mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) were assessed.

Results:

Results showed age differences indicating that centenarians had lower BMI and MMSE scores when compared to octogenarians. Women had lower cognitive functioning scores compared to men. Black Americans had higher BMI and BP as well as lower MMSE scores. Participants with low BMI values (< 18.5 kg/m2) and normal BP had a significantly lower MMSE score when compared to those with elevated BMI values (≥ 25 kg/m2 to < 30 kg/m2) and high BP. Multiple regression analyses determined that age, gender, ethnicity, and BMI were significantly associated with cognitive function in very late life.

Conclusions:

The results suggest that extreme values of body mass (low and high) in combination with normal BP (< 130 mmHg) are potential risk factors for compromised cognition.

[Names] => Peter Martin ... Leonard W. Poon [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00165 [Published] => September 15, 2023 [Viewed] => 547 [Downloaded] => 26 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00165 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 93 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:625–636 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Body mass index, hypertension, cognitive function, centenarians [DetailTitle] => Determinants of Exceptional Longevity [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/93 [Id] => 1001165 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001165/966b0a0d4754061ad76e9257288cf41d.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001165/0a43313d9504d4dcedfaa0fa9ef8da35.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Martin P, Arieli R, Kabayama M, Godai K, Gondo Y, Johnson MA, et al. Body mass, blood pressure, and cognitive functioning among octogenarians and centenarians. Explor Med. 2023;4:625–36. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00165 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-09-15 08:26:25 [Bib_Time] => 2023-09-14 06:17:12 [KeysWordContens] => Body mass, blood pressure, and cognitive functioning among octogenarians and centenarians, Body mass index, hypertension, cognitive function, centenarians, Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the association among body mass, blood pressure (BP), and cognitive functioning for octogenarians and centenarians. Methods: A total of 300 participants (221 centenarians and 79 octogenarians) from the Georgia Centenarian Study were included in this study. Demographic variables included age, gender, and ethnicity. Body mass was measured with the body mass index (BMI), and systolic and diastolic BP, as well as mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) were assessed. Results: Results showed age differences indicating that centenarians had lower BMI and MMSE scores when compared to octogenarians. Women had lower cognitive functioning scores compared to men. Black Americans had higher BMI and BP as well as lower MMSE scores. Participants with low BMI values (< 18.5 kg/m2) and normal BP had a significantly lower MMSE score when compared to those with elevated BMI values (≥ 25 kg/m2 to < 30 kg/m2) and high BP. Multiple regression analyses determined that age, gender, ethnicity, and BMI were significantly associated with cognitive function in very late life. Conclusions: The results suggest that extreme values of body mass (low and high) in combination with normal BP (< 130 mmHg) are potential risk factors for compromised cognition. ,Peter Martin ... Leonard W. Poon [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 24 ) [165] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 805 [Create_Time] => 2023-09-15 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202309/20230915060031.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001166/1001166.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001166/1001166.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001166/1001166_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Mechanistic insights on anticancer drugs with specific biological targets and signalling pathways [Abstract] => Complex enzyme interactions play a role in the spread of cancer, a process fueled by unregulated cell proliferation. DNA topoisomerases, which are important for fixing DNA topological problems, have [AbstractComplete] =>

Complex enzyme interactions play a role in the spread of cancer, a process fueled by unregulated cell proliferation. DNA topoisomerases, which are important for fixing DNA topological problems, have drawn a lot of interest as potential targets for anti-cancer medications. Cancer treatment, which includes radiation, surgery, and chemotherapy, tries to control cell survival, demise, and mobility, which are mediated by ion transportation across cell membranes via channels and carriers. The malignant transition is characterised by altered channels and carriers. Chemoresistance, which commonly develops after chemotherapy, denotes decreased therapeutic effectiveness against cancer progression. Chemosensitizers are used in combination with anti-cancer medications to overcome this resistance, particularly against adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters including P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Effective targets for treatment are transcription factors, which play a key role in the development of cancer. With the use of interactions with receptors, enzymes, ion channels, transporters, and TFs, nanotechnology improves the safety of tumour localization, treatment, and diagnostics. As a result of mutations or altered signalling, rat sarcoma (RAS) proteins regulate signalling, which is essential for both healthy growth and the development of cancer. Rational treatments that target RAS pathways have the potential to inhibit the growth and spread of tumours. New treatments are still being developed, and they are showing promise in clinical settings. The roles of receptors on tumour cells, their significance for cancer therapy, and recent advancements in preclinical and clinical research are all included in this overview.

[Names] => Mohsina Patwekar ... Rohit Sharma [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00166 [Published] => September 15, 2023 [Viewed] => 648 [Downloaded] => 25 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00166 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:637–663 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Anticancer drugs, receptors, biological targets, enzymes, ion channels, biological transcription factors, nanoparticles [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001166 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001166/d5438e661515fb392b9fbafae6a731c7.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001166/f73f48446323ef6c61a2db0c5d5757ae.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Patwekar M, Patwekar F, Medikeri A, Daniyal S, Kamal MA, Rather GA, et al. Mechanistic insights on anticancer drugs with specific biological targets and signalling pathways. Explor Med. 2023;4:637–63. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00166 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-09-14 00:50:08 [Bib_Time] => 2023-10-08 05:57:22 [KeysWordContens] => Mechanistic insights on anticancer drugs with specific biological targets and signalling pathways, Anticancer drugs, receptors, biological targets, enzymes, ion channels, biological transcription factors, nanoparticles, Complex enzyme interactions play a role in the spread of cancer, a process fueled by unregulated cell proliferation. DNA topoisomerases, which are important for fixing DNA topological problems, have drawn a lot of interest as potential targets for anti-cancer medications. Cancer treatment, which includes radiation, surgery, and chemotherapy, tries to control cell survival, demise, and mobility, which are mediated by ion transportation across cell membranes via channels and carriers. The malignant transition is characterised by altered channels and carriers. Chemoresistance, which commonly develops after chemotherapy, denotes decreased therapeutic effectiveness against cancer progression. Chemosensitizers are used in combination with anti-cancer medications to overcome this resistance, particularly against adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters including P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Effective targets for treatment are transcription factors, which play a key role in the development of cancer. With the use of interactions with receptors, enzymes, ion channels, transporters, and TFs, nanotechnology improves the safety of tumour localization, treatment, and diagnostics. As a result of mutations or altered signalling, rat sarcoma (RAS) proteins regulate signalling, which is essential for both healthy growth and the development of cancer. Rational treatments that target RAS pathways have the potential to inhibit the growth and spread of tumours. New treatments are still being developed, and they are showing promise in clinical settings. The roles of receptors on tumour cells, their significance for cancer therapy, and recent advancements in preclinical and clinical research are all included in this overview. ,Mohsina Patwekar ... Rohit Sharma [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 69 ) [166] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 828 [Create_Time] => 2023-10-08 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202310/20231008071432.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001167/1001167.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001167/1001167.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001167/1001167_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Diabetes and substance use: a perspective within drug rehabilitation [Abstract] => Diabetes mellitus has become increasingly more common and diagnosed within the global population. Coupled with the continued prevalence of substance use, there are some distinct considerations for u [AbstractComplete] =>

Diabetes mellitus has become increasingly more common and diagnosed within the global population. Coupled with the continued prevalence of substance use, there are some distinct considerations for users suffering (knowingly or unknowingly) from type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The various different types of drugs of abuse including central nervous system stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens present varying direct and indirect complications for diabetes based on their physiological and psychological effects ranging from non-compliance with medication to an increased risk of hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemia, and/or ketoacidosis. This perspective highlights these issues supported by the drug history and toxicological findings in patients undergoing drug rehabilitation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) demonstrating the use of alcohol, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, opiates/opioids (especially tramadol), pregabalin, and synthetic cannabinoids. Physicians and drug clinic professionals should be aware of the contraindications of substance use and diabetes with a view to educating patients and healthcare professionals within such clinical settings.

[Names] => Abuelgasim Elrasheed A. Alhassan ... Simon Elliott [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00167 [Published] => October 08, 2023 [Viewed] => 313 [Downloaded] => 10 [Subject] => Perspective [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00167 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 24 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:664–669 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Substance use, diabetes, alcohol [DetailTitle] => The Biological Basis of Substance Use Disorders [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/24 [Id] => 1001167 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001167/78aa04b64320edf45d50866787c95d97.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001167/29e1d406a7fbf7e21862e60b7ab7f745.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Alhassan AEA, Elrashid W, Alshehhi A, Al Mamari S, Abu Raddaha M, Assaf M, et al. Diabetes and substance use: a perspective within drug rehabilitation. Explor Med. 2023;4:664–9. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00167 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-10-07 08:20:40 [Bib_Time] => 2023-10-08 05:54:35 [KeysWordContens] => Diabetes and substance use: a perspective within drug rehabilitation, Substance use, diabetes, alcohol, Diabetes mellitus has become increasingly more common and diagnosed within the global population. Coupled with the continued prevalence of substance use, there are some distinct considerations for users suffering (knowingly or unknowingly) from type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The various different types of drugs of abuse including central nervous system stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens present varying direct and indirect complications for diabetes based on their physiological and psychological effects ranging from non-compliance with medication to an increased risk of hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemia, and/or ketoacidosis. This perspective highlights these issues supported by the drug history and toxicological findings in patients undergoing drug rehabilitation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) demonstrating the use of alcohol, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, opiates/opioids (especially tramadol), pregabalin, and synthetic cannabinoids. Physicians and drug clinic professionals should be aware of the contraindications of substance use and diabetes with a view to educating patients and healthcare professionals within such clinical settings. ,Abuelgasim Elrasheed A. Alhassan ... Simon Elliott [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 69 ) [167] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 829 [Create_Time] => 2023-10-10 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202311/20231103092927.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001168/1001168.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001168/1001168.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001168/1001168_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Self-replicating RNA viruses in vaccine development [Abstract] => Self-replicating RNA viruses such as alphaviruses, flaviviruses, paramyxoviruses, and rhabdoviruses have been engineered as expression vectors for vaccine development. The prominent feature of self- [AbstractComplete] =>

Self-replicating RNA viruses such as alphaviruses, flaviviruses, paramyxoviruses, and rhabdoviruses have been engineered as expression vectors for vaccine development. The prominent feature of self-replicating RNA viruses is their RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity, which generates massive self-amplification of RNA in the cytoplasm of infected host cells leading to extreme levels of transgene expression. Infectious diseases have been targeted by overexpression of surface proteins of pathogens as antigens for vaccine development. Moreover, overexpression of tumor-associated antigens and immunostimulatory genes has been the basis for cancer vaccines. Proof-of-concept of robust antigen-specific immune responses and protection against challenges with lethal doses of infectious agents have been demonstrated. Likewise, vaccine development against various cancers has elicited strong immune responses and resulted in tumor regression and eradication, cure, and prolonged survival in animal tumor models. Good safety and immune responses have been achieved in clinical trials. The ERVEBO® vaccine, based on the vesicular stomatitis virus, has been approved for immunization against the Ebola virus disease.

[Names] => Kenneth Lundstrom [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00168 [Published] => October 10, 2023 [Viewed] => 370 [Downloaded] => 19 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00168 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 104 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:670–687 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => RNA viruses, self-replication, infectious diseases, cancer [DetailTitle] => RNA World in Health and Disease [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/104 [Id] => 1001168 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001168/c42b12dfa5ec647f3d8ff95bf4d14f12.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001168/df36877777efb7ef83468f7f627af3db.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Lundstrom K. Self-replicating RNA viruses in vaccine development. Explor Med. 2023;4:670–87. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00168 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => KennethLundstrom, [CEmail] => lundstromkenneth@gmail.com, [Ris_Time] => 2023-10-07 06:01:11 [Bib_Time] => 2023-10-07 06:01:11 [KeysWordContens] => Self-replicating RNA viruses in vaccine development, RNA viruses, self-replication, infectious diseases, cancer, Self-replicating RNA viruses such as alphaviruses, flaviviruses, paramyxoviruses, and rhabdoviruses have been engineered as expression vectors for vaccine development. The prominent feature of self-replicating RNA viruses is their RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity, which generates massive self-amplification of RNA in the cytoplasm of infected host cells leading to extreme levels of transgene expression. Infectious diseases have been targeted by overexpression of surface proteins of pathogens as antigens for vaccine development. Moreover, overexpression of tumor-associated antigens and immunostimulatory genes has been the basis for cancer vaccines. Proof-of-concept of robust antigen-specific immune responses and protection against challenges with lethal doses of infectious agents have been demonstrated. Likewise, vaccine development against various cancers has elicited strong immune responses and resulted in tumor regression and eradication, cure, and prolonged survival in animal tumor models. Good safety and immune responses have been achieved in clinical trials. The ERVEBO® vaccine, based on the vesicular stomatitis virus, has been approved for immunization against the Ebola virus disease. ,Kenneth Lundstrom [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 78 ) [168] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 853 [Create_Time] => 2023-10-23 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202310/20231031052127.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001169/1001169.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001169/1001169.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001169/1001169_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Cranial nerve VII on gadolinium contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the case of Bell’s palsy [Abstract] => Bell’s palsy is a rapid unilateral peripheral paralysis of cranial nerve VII whose etiology is varied, most commonly associated with an acute infectious or inflammatory demyelinating process. Nerv [AbstractComplete] =>

Bell’s palsy is a rapid unilateral peripheral paralysis of cranial nerve VII whose etiology is varied, most commonly associated with an acute infectious or inflammatory demyelinating process. Nerve injury can result in edema because of increased permeability of vascular structures, which can sometimes be seen as a locus of enhancement of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Bell’s palsy is typically considered a clinical diagnosis and the specificity and sensitivity of imaging have been poorly studied. Herein is describe a case of a 73-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with left-sided facial droop and no other focal neurological abnormalities. With a history of a Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation and the new initial facial drooping, acute cerebrovascular insult was high on the differential. Initial labs and computerized tomography (CT) head were inconclusive, but MRI showed pronounced enhancement of the left distal internal carotid artery (ICA) with contiguous enhancement of the labyrinthine, geniculate, and tympanic segments of the left facial nerve. Diagnosing Bell’s palsy can be a challenge as there are numerous postulated etiologies stemming from trauma, infection, and neoplasm; with infection (particularly viral) postulated to be the most likely source. Though MRI is currently not validated as a tool in expediting Bell’s palsy diagnosis, findings such as the enhancement seen here provide some insight into the benefit of MRI as a diagnostic modality in some cases. This case is unique both for the diagnostic dilemma between stroke and Bell’s palsy and the potential for MRI imaging to help guide clinical decision-making into treatment.

[Names] => Alvaro Alvarez ... Avtar Singh [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00169 [Published] => October 23, 2023 [Viewed] => 356 [Downloaded] => 18 [Subject] => Case Report [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00169 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 205 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:688–694 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Magnetic resonance imaging, diagnostic imaging, Bell’s palsy, cranial nerve VII palsy, diagnostic dilemma [DetailTitle] => Applications of Radiomics in Precision Medicine [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/205 [Id] => 1001169 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001169/10137b2b560fc9eba53a159c1327bd1a.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001169/c3017a8c89a72fdd7ebb498b42b02da4.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Alvarez A, Becher A, Varkey TC, Singh A. Cranial nerve VII on gadolinium contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the case of Bell’s palsy. Explor Med. 2023;4:688–94. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00169 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-10-18 07:10:29 [Bib_Time] => 2023-10-18 07:10:29 [KeysWordContens] => Cranial nerve VII on gadolinium contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the case of Bell’s palsy, Magnetic resonance imaging, diagnostic imaging, Bell’s palsy, cranial nerve VII palsy, diagnostic dilemma, Bell’s palsy is a rapid unilateral peripheral paralysis of cranial nerve VII whose etiology is varied, most commonly associated with an acute infectious or inflammatory demyelinating process. Nerve injury can result in edema because of increased permeability of vascular structures, which can sometimes be seen as a locus of enhancement of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Bell’s palsy is typically considered a clinical diagnosis and the specificity and sensitivity of imaging have been poorly studied. Herein is describe a case of a 73-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with left-sided facial droop and no other focal neurological abnormalities. With a history of a Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation and the new initial facial drooping, acute cerebrovascular insult was high on the differential. Initial labs and computerized tomography (CT) head were inconclusive, but MRI showed pronounced enhancement of the left distal internal carotid artery (ICA) with contiguous enhancement of the labyrinthine, geniculate, and tympanic segments of the left facial nerve. Diagnosing Bell’s palsy can be a challenge as there are numerous postulated etiologies stemming from trauma, infection, and neoplasm; with infection (particularly viral) postulated to be the most likely source. Though MRI is currently not validated as a tool in expediting Bell’s palsy diagnosis, findings such as the enhancement seen here provide some insight into the benefit of MRI as a diagnostic modality in some cases. This case is unique both for the diagnostic dilemma between stroke and Bell’s palsy and the potential for MRI imaging to help guide clinical decision-making into treatment. ,Alvaro Alvarez ... Avtar Singh [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 78 ) [169] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 856 [Create_Time] => 2023-10-25 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202311/20231101010019.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001170/1001170.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001170/1001170.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001170/1001170_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Modelling α-synuclein processing in primary patient cells for pharmacological intervention [Abstract] => Aim: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex, chronic neurodegenerative disorder with predominately sporadic etiology. Intricate genetic-environmental interactions lead to the hallmarks of the di [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex, chronic neurodegenerative disorder with predominately sporadic etiology. Intricate genetic-environmental interactions lead to the hallmarks of the disease: degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and the deposition of α-synuclein aggregates. The aim of this study was to establish a novel primary patient cell model as an in vitro screen to study α-synuclein processing for drug screening.

Methods:

Primary patient olfactory neuroepithelial-derived cells (ONS) were exposed to α-synuclein and examined for cytotoxicity, processing, and solubility over 48 h. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which is known to destabilise α-synuclein fibrils, was used to investigate the solubilisation of α-synuclein in the model system.

Results:

Exposure to 0.1 μmol/L α-synuclein preformed fibrils was not toxic to ONS over 48 h. ONS processing of α-synuclein was observed to be different in PD cells by their increased accumulation in the cytoplasm. Processing deficits in the PD ONS were confirmed by immunoblotting with an increase in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-insoluble α-synuclein after 48 h.

Conclusions:

The data has illustrated the utility of primary patient ONS as a model system to understand the processing of α-synuclein. Considerable differences in α-synuclein processing were identified in PD ONS. Furthermore, the data suggests that primary patient ONS are a viable in vitro drug screening platform for α-synuclein pathology in PD.

[Names] => Jessica K. Smith ... Alex M. Sykes [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00170 [Published] => October 25, 2023 [Viewed] => 415 [Downloaded] => 16 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00170 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:695–708 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => α-synuclein, Parkinson’s disease, protein trafficking, cell model, drug screen [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001170 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001170/8a8fccdc511fc9955fd2c0a8a6a9d13b.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001170/9f6509300f6380da06ab2b0848075e7b.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Smith JK, Mellick GD, Sykes AM. Modelling α-synuclein processing in primary patient cells for pharmacological intervention. Explor Med. 2023;4:695–708. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00170 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-11-01 01:00:19 [Bib_Time] => 2023-11-01 01:00:19 [KeysWordContens] => Modelling α-synuclein processing in primary patient cells for pharmacological intervention, α-synuclein, Parkinson’s disease, protein trafficking, cell model, drug screen, Aim: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex, chronic neurodegenerative disorder with predominately sporadic etiology. Intricate genetic-environmental interactions lead to the hallmarks of the disease: degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and the deposition of α-synuclein aggregates. The aim of this study was to establish a novel primary patient cell model as an in vitro screen to study α-synuclein processing for drug screening. Methods: Primary patient olfactory neuroepithelial-derived cells (ONS) were exposed to α-synuclein and examined for cytotoxicity, processing, and solubility over 48 h. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which is known to destabilise α-synuclein fibrils, was used to investigate the solubilisation of α-synuclein in the model system. Results: Exposure to 0.1 μmol/L α-synuclein preformed fibrils was not toxic to ONS over 48 h. ONS processing of α-synuclein was observed to be different in PD cells by their increased accumulation in the cytoplasm. Processing deficits in the PD ONS were confirmed by immunoblotting with an increase in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-insoluble α-synuclein after 48 h. Conclusions: The data has illustrated the utility of primary patient ONS as a model system to understand the processing of α-synuclein. Considerable differences in α-synuclein processing were identified in PD ONS. Furthermore, the data suggests that primary patient ONS are a viable in vitro drug screening platform for α-synuclein pathology in PD. ,Jessica K. Smith ... Alex M. Sykes [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 79 ) [170] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 863 [Create_Time] => 2023-10-25 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202310/20231025073908.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001171/1001171.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001171/1001171.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001171/1001171_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => A large-scale survey of cannabis use for sleep: preferred products and perceived effects in comparison to over-the-counter and prescription sleep aids [Abstract] => Aim: Cannabis use for sleep-related problems is on the rise; however, little is known about the cannabis products people are using for sleep or the perceived effects of cannabis in comparison to [AbstractComplete] =>

Aim:

Cannabis use for sleep-related problems is on the rise; however, little is known about the cannabis products people are using for sleep or the perceived effects of cannabis in comparison to more conventional sleep aids. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the products cannabis users prefer to use for sleep as well as their experiences with cannabis relative to more conventional sleep aids.

Methods:

De-identified archival data from a Strainprint® survey of 1,216 individuals who use cannabis for sleep were analyzed.

Results:

Participants predominantly reported smoking joints or vaping flower as their methods of administration, and seeking tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and the terpene myrcene in the cannabis they use for sleep. Only a small minority reported using cannabis in conjunction with conventional sleep aids. Comparisons of the self-reported effects of cannabis to conventional sleep aids revealed that participants reported feeling more refreshed, focused, better able to function, fewer headaches, and less nausea the morning after using cannabis for sleep than after using more conventional sleep aids or no sleep aids. However, they indicated they were more sleepy, anxious, and irritable in the mornings following the use of cannabis relative to other sleep aids. Participants were more likely to report red eyes and thirst and less likely to report nausea, anxiety, paranoia, and racing heart as side effects of cannabis relative to other sleep aids.

Conclusions:

Knowledge gained from this survey will provide health professionals with a better understanding of why people are using cannabis for sleep and may help guide future more controlled research.

[Names] => Amanda Stueber, Carrie Cuttler [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00171 [Published] => October 25, 2023 [Viewed] => 5956 [Downloaded] => 110 [Subject] => Original Article [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00171 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 84 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:709–719 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Cannabis, prescription sleep aids, over-the-counter sleep aids, survey, side effects [DetailTitle] => Beyond Weed: Clinical Applications of Cannabis and Cannabinoids [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/84 [Id] => 1001171 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001171/74d4fc87c13f61d90d70a998245b4d44.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001171/74ece9d77ae0e5e5f49f5409ee891036.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Stueber A, Cuttler C. A large-scale survey of cannabis use for sleep: preferred products and perceived effects in comparison to over-the-counter and prescription sleep aids. Explor Med. 2023;4:709–19. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00171 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-10-24 05:35:56 [Bib_Time] => 2023-10-24 05:35:56 [KeysWordContens] => A large-scale survey of cannabis use for sleep: preferred products and perceived effects in comparison to over-the-counter and prescription sleep aids, Cannabis, prescription sleep aids, over-the-counter sleep aids, survey, side effects, Aim: Cannabis use for sleep-related problems is on the rise; however, little is known about the cannabis products people are using for sleep or the perceived effects of cannabis in comparison to more conventional sleep aids. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the products cannabis users prefer to use for sleep as well as their experiences with cannabis relative to more conventional sleep aids. Methods: De-identified archival data from a Strainprint® survey of 1,216 individuals who use cannabis for sleep were analyzed. Results: Participants predominantly reported smoking joints or vaping flower as their methods of administration, and seeking tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and the terpene myrcene in the cannabis they use for sleep. Only a small minority reported using cannabis in conjunction with conventional sleep aids. Comparisons of the self-reported effects of cannabis to conventional sleep aids revealed that participants reported feeling more refreshed, focused, better able to function, fewer headaches, and less nausea the morning after using cannabis for sleep than after using more conventional sleep aids or no sleep aids. However, they indicated they were more sleepy, anxious, and irritable in the mornings following the use of cannabis relative to other sleep aids. Participants were more likely to report red eyes and thirst and less likely to report nausea, anxiety, paranoia, and racing heart as side effects of cannabis relative to other sleep aids. Conclusions: Knowledge gained from this survey will provide health professionals with a better understanding of why people are using cannabis for sleep and may help guide future more controlled research. ,Amanda Stueber, Carrie Cuttler [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 69 ) [171] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 877 [Create_Time] => 2023-10-27 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202311/20231106064815.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001172/1001172.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001172/1001172.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001172/cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Association of oral bacteriome and oral squamous cell carcinoma [Abstract] => Oral cancer is the most common carcinoma of head and neck cancers. The majority of oral cancers are oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Among the various etiological factors, oral microbes—bacter [AbstractComplete] =>

Oral cancer is the most common carcinoma of head and neck cancers. The majority of oral cancers are oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Among the various etiological factors, oral microbes—bacteria are also associated with pathogenesis of OSCC. But only few studies have been done associating the presence of oral bacteriome with OSCC. The main aim of this review is to focus on association of microbes with OSCC, the pathogenesis, variation in bacteriome profiling in different geographic conditions, their role in pathogenesis of OSCC, and different samples and methods that are used to study their association with habits and tumour node metastasis (TNM) staging. To conclude, the imbalance in the oral bacteriome could be considered an etiological factor for OSCC. Since the bacteriome profiling varies greatly with geographic location and even in an individual in different locations of the oral cavity, it advocates more research. The study on identifying bacteria associated with OSCC will also enable their use as diagnostic markers and preventive management of OSCC.

[Names] => Karthika Panneerselvam ... Mathan Mohan [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00172 [Published] => October 27, 2023 [Viewed] => 354 [Downloaded] => 12 [Subject] => Review [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00172 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 0 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:720–732 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Oral bacteriome, oral squamous cell carcinoma, variation [DetailTitle] => [DetailUrl] => [Id] => 1001172 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001172/602e624b787c83e131f0156ee7029a67.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001172/24df83c7b952e73a29c9349f215f4807.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Panneerselvam K, Mahadevan SK, Ramadoss R, Krishnan R, Mohan M. Association of oral bacteriome and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Explor Med. 2023;4:720–32. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00172 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => KarthikaPanneerselvam, [CEmail] => karthikaomfp@gmail.com, [Ris_Time] => 2023-11-06 06:48:15 [Bib_Time] => 2023-11-06 06:48:15 [KeysWordContens] => Association of oral bacteriome and oral squamous cell carcinoma, Oral bacteriome, oral squamous cell carcinoma, variation, Oral cancer is the most common carcinoma of head and neck cancers. The majority of oral cancers are oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Among the various etiological factors, oral microbes—bacteria are also associated with pathogenesis of OSCC. But only few studies have been done associating the presence of oral bacteriome with OSCC. The main aim of this review is to focus on association of microbes with OSCC, the pathogenesis, variation in bacteriome profiling in different geographic conditions, their role in pathogenesis of OSCC, and different samples and methods that are used to study their association with habits and tumour node metastasis (TNM) staging. To conclude, the imbalance in the oral bacteriome could be considered an etiological factor for OSCC. Since the bacteriome profiling varies greatly with geographic location and even in an individual in different locations of the oral cavity, it advocates more research. The study on identifying bacteria associated with OSCC will also enable their use as diagnostic markers and preventive management of OSCC. ,Karthika Panneerselvam ... Mathan Mohan [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 79 ) [172] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 879 [Create_Time] => 2023-10-27 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202310/20231027055216.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001173/1001173.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001173/1001173.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001173/1001173_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => A successful case of maturogenesis by stepwise excavation using calcium-enriched mixture cement [Abstract] => This case report demonstrates the successful induction of apexogenesis in an extensively carious lower right first molar with immature roots through the use of stepwise excavation and calcium-enrich [AbstractComplete] =>

This case report demonstrates the successful induction of apexogenesis in an extensively carious lower right first molar with immature roots through the use of stepwise excavation and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement as an indirect pulp capping material. The patient, an 8-year-old boy, presented with pain and carious pulp exposure. The initial treatment involved removing soft dentin and applying CEM cement as an indirect pulp cap. The patient experienced pain relief after 24 h, and subsequent follow-up appointments showed complete healing and maturation of the tooth. The case highlights the potential of indirect pulp treatment with CEM cement and emphasizes the importance of regenerative biomaterials in promoting healing and dentin bridge formation. Further clinical work and research are recommended to explore the efficacy of this treatment approach.

[Names] => Saeed Asgary, Laleh Alim Marvasti [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00173 [Published] => October 27, 2023 [Viewed] => 448 [Downloaded] => 15 [Subject] => Case Report [Year] => 2023 [CiteUrl] => https://api.crossref.org/works/10.37349/emed.2023.00173 [Inline] => 1 [Type] => 1 [Issue] => 5 [Topic] => 170 [TitleAbbr] => Explor Med. [Pages] => 2023;4:733–738 [Recommend] => 0 [Keywords] => Apexogenesis, immature molar tooth, stepwise treatment, calcium-enriched mixture cement, pulp capping [DetailTitle] => Biomaterials and Biomarkers in Dentistry: Up to Date [DetailUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/Journals/em/Special_Issues/170 [Id] => 1001173 [ris] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001173/68fc488c4516a78179aed1c69a3dcbb8.ris [bib] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001173/326ee829a3d8eb69cad332b4952f0e3c.bib [ens] => [Cited] => 0 [Cited_Time] => [CitethisArticle] => Asgary S, Alim Marvasti L. A successful case of maturogenesis by stepwise excavation using calcium-enriched mixture cement. Explor Med. 2023;4:733–8. https://doi.org/10.37349/emed.2023.00173 [Jindex] => 0 [CName] => [CEmail] => [Ris_Time] => 2023-10-26 02:02:55 [Bib_Time] => 2023-10-26 02:02:55 [KeysWordContens] => A successful case of maturogenesis by stepwise excavation using calcium-enriched mixture cement, Apexogenesis, immature molar tooth, stepwise treatment, calcium-enriched mixture cement, pulp capping, This case report demonstrates the successful induction of apexogenesis in an extensively carious lower right first molar with immature roots through the use of stepwise excavation and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement as an indirect pulp capping material. The patient, an 8-year-old boy, presented with pain and carious pulp exposure. The initial treatment involved removing soft dentin and applying CEM cement as an indirect pulp cap. The patient experienced pain relief after 24 h, and subsequent follow-up appointments showed complete healing and maturation of the tooth. The case highlights the potential of indirect pulp treatment with CEM cement and emphasizes the importance of regenerative biomaterials in promoting healing and dentin bridge formation. Further clinical work and research are recommended to explore the efficacy of this treatment approach. ,Saeed Asgary, Laleh Alim Marvasti [PublishedText] => Published [IsEdit] => 0 [AccountId] => 69 ) [173] => Array ( [ArticleId] => 883 [Create_Time] => 2023-10-27 [zipUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/zip/202310/20231027070800.zip [xmlUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001174/1001174.xml [pdfUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001174/1001174.pdf [coverUrl] => https://www.explorationpub.com/uploads/Article/A1001174/1001174_cover.png [JournalsId] => 3 [Title] => Cheiro-oral-pedal syndrome of the pons and the role of imaging in diagnosis and management [Abstract] => The patient is a 58-year-old male who presented with chief complaints of right-sided numbness, tingling, and loss of temperature sensation in the upper and lower extremities. The patient’s symptom [AbstractComplete] =>

The patient is a 58-year-old male who presented with chief complaints of right-sided numbness, tingling, and loss of temperature sensation in the upper and lower extremities. The patient’s symptoms began around the face and right corner of the mouth [maxillary/mandibular (V2/V3) distribution] before descending to the arm, trunk, and followed by the lower leg and foot. His home medication regimen included lisinopril, atorvastatin, long and short-acting insulin, and amlodipine. During the interview, the patient admitted to abstinence from his medications. Upon examination, the patient was found to have a loss of hot and cold touch on the right side and expressed 2+ reflexes (brisk response; normal) on both upper and lower extremities. In the initial work-up of the patient, he received a computed tomography (CT) scan which demonstrated an area of potential ischemic infarct of one of the left sided pontine perforator arteries. Immediately at that time he was given a loading dose of 325 mg aspirin and started on 81 mg daily. Because of the patient’s symptoms and risk factors, he was hospitalized for further additional work-up and eventually discharged on dual antiplatelet therapy. This case is intriguing as both neuroradiological reading and neurological examination helped with localization of the lesion and changing the treatment strategy of the patient. With a pontine perforator ischemic event, the harms of treatment with thrombolytics would have outweighed the benefits. This interprofessional work between neuroradiology, internal medicine, and neurology ensured that the patient received the best care for his specific ailments.

[Names] => Zachary I. Merhavy ... Thomas C. Varkey [Doi] => 10.37349/emed.2023.00174 [Published] => October 27, 2023 [Viewed] => 537 [Downloaded]